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Edited by 

A Compact Version of the International!] 
Recognized Fourth Edition 


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(Arabic - English) 

Edited by 


Fourth Edition 
Considerably enlarged and amended by the author 


madda occurs; thus one should read, for example: W, 'ram, 'irdd, 'addb instead of amr, 
umm, Irad, addb, since the glottal stop is a separate phoneme, also in initial position. — The 
"Introduction" remains essentially unchanged. The user is urged to become familiar with 
the principles on which the presentation of the contents is based and to study the explanations 
for use of the Dictionary at the end of the "Introduction" (pp. XII — XV) before attempting 
to use it. 

My special thanks are due to the Editor, J Milton Cowan, who converted the new material 
from German into English. I am greatly indebted to Dr. Lorenz Kropfitsch, who worked 
a year with me in Miinster and helped me prepare printer's copy. He also contributed some 
600 entries, mainly from the newspapers of the Maghreb, and undertook the time-consuming 
revision of the cut-and-pasted page proof. I should like to express my gratitude to Dr. Karl 
Stowasser, who read galley proofs of the new composition and provided excellent contribu- 
tions to the English translation as well as numerous valuable notes and suggestions. Some 
hundreds of additions came from the late Dr. Fahmi Abul-Fadl, whose premature death I 
deeply regret. Also, I am grateful for contributions of entries from Mr. Alex Sheffy of Jerusalem 
and from Dr. Mokhtar Ahmed, who came from Egypt and was my main informant. Further- 
more, Dr. Omar Al Sasi of Saudi Arabia and students at our University from several Arab 
countries served as informants from time to time. Several colleagues submitted smaller num- 
bers of entries and supplied information. To all those who contributed to the revision, and, 
last but not least, to the publisher who supported the work in various ways, I express my 
heartfelt thanks. 

Miinster Hans Wehr 

July 1979 

Preface to the First Edition 

Shortly after the publication of Professor Hans Wehr's Arabische* Worterbuch fiir die 
Schriftsprache der Gegenwart in 1952, the Committee on Language Programs of the American 
Council of Learned Societies recognized its excellence and began to explore means of providing 
an up-to-date English edition. Professor Wehr and I readily reached agreement on a plan 
to translate, edit, and enlarge the dictionary. This task was considerably lightened and 
hastened by generous financial support from the American Council of Learned Societies, the 
Arabian American Oil Company, and Cornell University. 

This dictionary will be welcome not only to English and American users, but to orientalists 
throughout the world who are more at home with English than with German. It is more 
accurate and much more comprehensive than the original version, which was produced under 
extremely unfavorable conditions in Germany during the late war years and the early postwar 

Ithaca, New York j Milton Cowan 

November I960 

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Introduction VIII 

A number of special problems confront the lexicographer dealing with present-day Arabic. 
Since for many fields of knowledge, especially those which have developed outside the Arab 
world, no generally accepted terminology has yet emerged, it is evident that a practical 
dictionary can only approximate the degree of completeness found in comparable dictionaries 
of Western languages. Local terminology, especially for many public institutions, offices, 
titles, and administrative affairs, has developed in the several Arab countries. Although the 
dictionary is based mainly on usage in the countries bordering on the eastern Mediterranean, 
local official and administrative terms have been included for all Arab countries, but not with 
equal thoroughness. Colloquialisms and dialect expressions that have gained currency in 
written form also vary from country to country. Certainly no attempt at completeness can 
be made here, and the user working with materials having a marked regional flavor will be well 
advised to refer to an appropriate dialect dictionary or glossary. As a rule, items derived from 
local dialects or limited to local use have been so designated with appropriate abbreviations. 

A normalized journalistic style has evolved for factual reporting of news or discussion of 
matters of political and topical interest over the radio and in the press. This style, which 
often betrays Western influences, is remarkably uniform throughout the Arab world. It 
reaches large sections of the population daily and constitutes to them almost the only stylistic 
norm. Its vocabulary is relatively small and fairly standardized, hence easily covered in a 

The vocabulary of scientific and technological writings, on the other hand, is by no means 
standardized. The impact of Western civilization has confronted the Arab world with the 
serious linguistic problem of expressing a vast and ever-increasing number of new concepts 
for which no words in Arabic exist. The creation of a scientific and technological terminology 
is still a major intellectual challenge. Reluctance to borrow wholesale from European languages 
has spurred efforts to coin terms according to productive Arabic patterns. In recent decades 
innumerable such words have been suggested in various periodicals and in special publications. 
Relatively few of these have gained acceptance in common usage. Specialists in all fields 
keep coining new terms that are either not understood by other specialists in the same field 
or are rejected in favor of other, equally short-lived, private fabrications. 

The Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo especially, the Damascus Academy, and, 
to a lesser extent, the Iraqi Academy have produced and continue to publish vast numbers 
of technical terms for almost all fields of knowledge. The academies have, however, greatly 
underestimated the difficulties of artificial regulation of a language. The problem lies not so 
much in inventing terms as it does in assuring that they gain acceptance. In some instances 
neologisms have quickly become part of the stock of the language; among these, fortunately, 
are a large number of the terms proposed by academies or by professional specialists. However, 
in many fields, such as modern linguistics, existential philosophy, or nuclear physics, it is 
still not possible for professional people from the different Arab states to discuss details of 
their discipline in Arabic. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the purists 
and the academies demand the translation into Arabic even of those Greek and Latin tech- 
nical terms which make possible international understanding among specialists. Thus while 
considerable progress has been made in recent decades toward the standardization of Arabic 
terminology, several technical terms which all fit one definition may still be current, or a 
given scientific term may have different meanings for different experts. 

Those technical terms which appear with considerable frequency in published works, or 
which are familiar to specialists in various fields and are considered by them to be stand- 

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IX Introduction 

ardized terminology, presented no particular problem. Nevertheless it has not always been 
possible to ascertain the terms in general acceptance with the experts of merely one country, 
let alone those of all. Doubtful cases are entered and marked with a special symbol. A descrip- 
tive dictionary such as this has no room for the innumerable academic coinages which experi- 
ence has shown are by no means assured of adoption. Only those that are attested in the 
literature have been included. 

Classicisms are a further special problem. Arab authors, steeped in classical tradition, 
can and do frequently draw upon words which were already archaic in the Middle Ages. The 
use of classical patterns is by no means limited to belles-lettres. Archaisms may crop up in 
the middle of a spirited newspaper article. Wherever an aesthetic or rhetorical effect is intend- 
ed, wherever the language aims more at expressiveness than at imparting information, 
authors tend to weave in ancient Arabic and classical idioms. They are artistic and stylistic 
devices of the first order. They awaken in the reader images from memorized passages of 
ancient literature and contribute to his aesthetic enjoyment. Quotations from the Koran or 
from classical literature, whose origins and connotations may well elude the Western reader, are 
readily recognized by Arabs who have had a traditional education and who have memorized a 
wealth of ancient sources. In former years many writers strove to display their erudition by 
citing lexical rarities culled from ancient dictionaries and collections of synonyms. As often as 
not the author had to explain such nawadir in footnotes, since nobody else would understand 
them. This pedantic mannerism is going out of fashion and there is a trend in more recent 
literature toward smoothness and readability in style. Nevertheless it is clear from the 
foregoing that it is not possible to make a sharp distinction between living and obsolete usage. 
All archaic words found in the source material have, therefore, been included in this dictionary, 
even though it is sometimes evident that they no longer form a part of the living lexicon and 
aro used only by a small group of well-read literary connoisseurs. Such included forms are 
but a small sample of what the user is likely to encounter in the writings of a few modern 
authors; the impossibility of including the entire ancient vocabulary is obvious. The user who 
encounters an old Arabio word which he does not understand will have to consult a lexicon 
of the "arabiya. Finally, some modern authors will occasionally take great liberties with older 
words, so that even highly educated Arabs are unable to understand the sense of certain pas- 
sages. Items of this kind have not been entered. They would contribute nothing to a dic- 
tionary whose scope did not permit inclusion of source references. 

The vocabulary of modern Arabic, then, is by no means standardized, its scope at times 
difficult to delimit. These results emerge from the very character of modern Arabic — a 
written language, powerfully influenced by traditional norms, which nevertheless is required 
to express a multitude of new foreign concepts, not for one country only, but for many distrib- 
uted over a vast geographical area. Arabic phonology, morphology, and syntax have re- 
mained relatively unchanged from earliest times, as has much of the vocabulary. Here tradi- 
tional adherence to ancient linguistic norms and to the models of classical literature, especially 
the Koran, has had the effect of preserving the language intact over the centuries. But 
as vocabulary and phraseology must adapt to the new and ever-changing requirements 
of external circumstances, these are more prone to change. Strictly speaking, every 
epoch of Arab history has had its own peculiar vocabulary, which should be set forth 
in a separate dictionary. But as we have seen, the vocabulary of modern Arabic con- 
fronts the lexicographer who aims at completeness with more than a fair share of prob- 
lems and difficulties. 

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Introduction X 

In the presentation of the entries in the dictionary, homonymous roots are given separate- 
ly in only a few especially clear instances. The arrangement of word entries under a given 
root does not necessarily imply etymological relationship. Consistent separation of such roots 
was dispensed with because the user of a practical dictionary of modern Arabic will not 
generally be concerned with Semitic etymology. In conformity with the practice customary 
in bilingual dictionaries of modern European languages, where the material is treated in 
purely synchronic fashion, the origin of older loanwords and foreign terms is not indicated. 
For recent loans, however, the source and the foreign word are usually given. Personal names 
are generally omitted, but large numbers of geographical names are included; the nisba 
adjectives of these can be formed at will, hence are not entered unless some peculiarity such 
as a broken plural is involved. In transliteration, while the ending of nisba adjectives regu- 
larly appears as % (e.g., janubi, dirdsi, makki), the same ending is shown as -iy for nominal 
forms of roots with a weak third radical, i.e., where the third radical is contained in the 
ending (e.g., qa$iy f ?abiy, mahmiy, mabnly). This distinction, not present in Arabic script, 
may prove valuable to the user of the dictionary. Because of a distinction which retains 
importance in quantitative metrics, the third person singular masculine sufBx is transcribed 
with a long vowel (-hu, -hi) following short syllables and with a short vowel {-hit, -hi) after 
long syllables. In any bilingual dictionary, the listing of isolated words with one or more 
isolated translations is, strictly speaking, an inadmissible abstraction. In order to provide 
the syntactical information to be expected in a dictionary of this size, a liberal selection 
of idiomatic phrases and sentences illustrating usage has been added. Symbols showing the 
accusative and prepositional government of verbs are also supplied. Synonyms and trans- 
lations have been included in large numbers in order to delineate as accurately as possible 
the semantic ranges within which a given entry can be used. 

The material for the dictionary was gathered in several stages. The major portion was 
collected between 1940 and 1944 with the co-operation of several German orientalists. The 
entire work was set in type, but only one set of galleys survived the war. The author resumed 
the collection of material in the years 1946 through 1948 and added a considerable number 
of entries. The German edition of the dictionary, Arabisches Worterbuch fur die Schriftsprache 
der Gegenwart, which appeared in 1952, was based on a corpus of approximately 45,000 slips 
containing citations from Arabic sources. The primary source materials consisted of selected 
works by Taha Husain, Muhammad Husain Haikal, Tauflq al-Haklm, Mahmud Taimur, 
al-Manfahitl, Jibran Kalil Jibran, and Amln ar-Raihani. Further, numerous Egyptian 
newspapers and periodicals, the Egyptian state almanac, taqwlm mi§r, for 1935 and its 
Iraqi counterpart, dalil aWiraq, for 1937, as well as a number of specialized Egyptian 
handbooks were thoroughly sifted. The secondary sources used in preparation of the German 
edition were the first edition of Leon Bercher's Lexique arabe-francais (1938), which 
provides material from the Tunisian press in the form of a supplement to J. B. Belot's 
VocabtUaire arabe-francais t G. S. Colin' s Pour lire la presse arabe (1937), the third edition of 
E. A. Elias* comprehensive Modern Dictionary Arabic- English (1929), and the glossary of the 
modern Arabic chrestomathy by C. V. Ode-Vassilieva (1929). Items in the secondary sources 
for which there were attestations in the primary sources were, of course, included. All other 
items in the secondary sources were carefully worked over, in part with the help of Dr. Tahir 
Khemiri, Words known to him, or already included in older dictionaries, were incorporated. 
Apart from the primary and secondary sources, the author had, of course, to consult a number 
of reference works in European languages, encyclopedias, lexicons, glossaries, technical 

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XI Introduction 

dictionaries, and specialized literature on the most diverse subjects in order to ascertain the 
correct translation of many technical terms. For older Arabic forms, the available indices and 
collections of Arabic terminology in the fields of religion (both Islam and Eastern Church), 
jurisprudence, philosophy, Arabic grammar, botany, and others were very helpful. These 
collections were, however, not simply accepted and incorporated en bloc into the dictionary, 
but used only to sharpen the definition of terms in the modern meanings actually attested 
in the primary source materials. 

After publication of the German edition the author continued collecting and presented 
new material, together with corrections of the main work, in Supplement zum arabischen 
Worterbuch fiir die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, which appeared in 1959. The Supplement 
contains the results of extensive collection from the writings of 'Abdassalam al-'Ujaili, 
Mika'il Nu'aima, and Karam Malham Karam, from newspapers and periodicals of all Arab 
countries, as well as from Syrian and Lebanese textbooks and specialized literature. In the 
postwar years several lexicographical works dealing with modern Arabio became available 
to the author: the second edition of Bereher (1944), the fourth edition of Elias (1947), 
D. Neustadt and P. Schusser's Arabic-Hebrew dictionary, Millon 'Arabi-'Ibri (1947), Charles 
Pellat's Varabe vivant (1952), and C. K. Baranov's comprehensive Arabic -Russian dictionary, 
Arabsko-Ru&skiy Slovar (1957). In preparing the Supplement, the author compared these with 
his own work but was reluctant to incorporate items which he could not find attested in 
context, and which would merely increase the number of entries derived from secondary 

The author is indebted to Br. Andreas Jacobi and Mr. Heinrich Becker who, until they 
were called up for military service in 1943, rendered valuable assistance in collecting and 
collating the vast materials of the German edition and in preparing the manuscript. A con- 
siderable amount of material was contributed by a number of Arabists. The author wishes 
to express his gratitude for such contributions to Prof. Werner Caskel, Dr. Hans Kinder - 
mann, Br. Hedwig Klein, Br. Kurt Munzel, Prof. Annemarie Schimmel, Dr. Richard Schmidt, 
and especially to Prof. Wolfram von Soden, who contributed a large amount of excellent 
material. I am deeply grateful to Br. Munzel, who contributed many entries from news- 
papers of the postwar period and likewise to his colleague Br. Muhammad Saftl. 1 
appreciate having been able to discuss many difficult items with them. The assistance 
of Br. Tahir Khemiri was especially useful. He contributed 1,500 very valuable items and, 
until 1944, his advice to the author during the collection and sifting of material shed light 
upon many dubious cases. Prof. Anton Spitaler likewise provided valuable observations and 
greatly appreciated advice. Contributions to the Supplement were supplied by Br. Eberhard 
Kuhnt, Br. Gotz Schregle, and Mr. Karl Stowasser. Moreover, in the course of two visits to 
a number of Arab countries, many Arab contributors, students, scholars, writers, and pro- 
fessional people too numerous to mention generously provided useful information and counsel. 
Here, as in the prefaces to the German edition of the dictionary and the Supplement , the 
author wishes to express his sincere thanks to all those who have contributed to the 
success of this undertaking. 

This English edition includes all the material contained in the German edition of the 
dictionary and in the Supplement, as well as a number of additions and corrections the need 
for which became obvious only after the publication of the Supplement. Additions have been 
inserted in the proof almost up to the present time. It was therefore possible to include a 
number of contributions made by Br. Walter Jesser in Alexandria. The number of cross- 

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Introduction XII 

references has been considerably increased. A new type font was introduced for the Arabic. 
The second edition of Webster's New International Dictionary was used as a standard refer- 
ence for spelling and for certain definitions. On the suggestion of the editor, three changes 
were made in the system of transliteration used in the German edition, namely, j for ^, 
k for *-, and § for 9. Also, following his preference, proper names were transliterated without 
capital letters, since there is no capitalization in Arabic script. The author followed a sugges- 
tion made by Prof. Charles A. Ferguson in his review of the dictionary (Language 30 : 174, 
1954) to transcribe feminine endings of roots having a weak third radical (Si-) with the pausal 
form -ah instead of -at. Also following Dr. Ferguson's advice, the author has transcribed many 
more foreign words than in the German edition. The letters e, e, a, o, 5, 6, £, g, v, and p, which 
have no counterpart in classical Arabic, have been added. The system of transcription for 
Arabic words throughout the dictionary is simply a transliteration of the Arabic script. For 
foreign words and Arabic dialect words, however, the usual transliteration of the Arabic is 
inadequate to indicate the pronunciation. In order to avoid discrepancy between spelling and 
pronunciation, the author, in his German edition, would often refrain from giving any tran- 
scription at all, but merely enter the foreign word as a rough guide to pronunciation. In the 
present edition practically all foreign words have been transcribed (e.g., diblomast, helikoptar, 
viza, veto) with the help of the added letters. Arab students at the University of Miinster were 
consulted for the approximately correct pronunciation. Nevertheless, in many instances the 
foreign source word is also entered because pronunciation varies considerably from speaker to 
speaker, depending on the dialect and the degree of assimilation. One other deviation from 
a strict transliteration of the Arabic was made for certain foreign words in order to provide 
a closer approximation to the usual pronunciation. In writing European words with Arabic 
letters, I, j, ^ are, contrary to regular practice in Arabic, frequently used to indicate short 
vowels. Where this is the case, we have transcribed accordingly (e.g., ^J^jl otomatiki, 
iSjLcUl ad-danmark). 

Finally, the author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to the editor, Prof. J Milton 
Cowan, thanks to whose initiative and energy this English edition can now be presented to 
the public. His generous expenditure of time and effort on this project has been greatly 
appreciated by all involved. To Theodora Ronayne, who performed the exacting task of 
preparing a meticulously accurate typescript, thereby considerably lightening our labors, 
we are indeed grateful. Professor Cowan joins me in recording our special thanks to Mr. Karl 
Stowasser, whose quite remarkable command of the three languages involved and whose 
unusual abilities as a lexicographer proved indispensable. He has devoted his untiring efforts 
to this enterprise for the past four years, co-ordinating the work of editor and author across 
the Atlantic. The bulk of the translation was completed in 1957-1958, while he was in 
Ithaca. During the past two years in Miinster he has completed the incorporation of the 
Supplement into the body of the dictionary and assisted the author in seeing the work through 
the press. 

The following paragraphs describe the arrangement of entries and explain the use of 
symbols and abbreviations : 

Arabic words are arranged according to Arabic roots. Foreign words are listed in straight 
alphabetical order by the letters of the word (cf. ^jjIj bans Paris, jjif kadir cadre). Arabi- 

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XIII Introduction 

cized loanwords, if they clearly fit under the roots, are entered both ways, often with the root 
entry giving a reference to the alphabetical listing (cf. djj\i qdnun law, ii>j naizak spear). 

Two or more homonymous roots may be entered as separate items, including foreign 
words treated as Arabic forms (e.g., rjf karim under the Arabio root 1 { J ? and Vj5~, the 
French word crime; cf. also the consonant combination k-r-k). In order to indicate to the 
reader that the same order of letters occurs more than once and that he should not confine 
his search to the first listing, each entry is preceded by a small raised numeral (cf. jj-_ , j*). 

Under a given root the sequence of entries is as follows. The verb in the perfect of the base 
stem, if it exists, comes first with the transliteration indicating the voweling. It is followed 
by the vowel of the imperfect and, in parentheses, the verbal nouns or mafddir. Then come 
the derived stems, indicated by boldface Roman numerals II through X. For Arab users 
unaccustomed to this designation generally used by Western orientalists, the corresponding 
stem forms are: II J*i jcC'ala, III J*li fd'ala> IV J*il af'ala, V JjUj tafa"ala, VI J*Uj 
tafd'ala, VII J*i!! infa'ala, VIII JjoI ifta'ala, IX J*il if'alla, X Jjuc-I istaf'ala. Wherever 
there is any irregularity, for the rare stems XI through XV, and for the derived stems of 
quadriliteral verbs the Arabic form is entered and transliterated (cf. j£ VII, <b-j VIII, v-U- XII, 
«laLi III), Then come nominal forms arranged according to their length. Verbal nouns of the 
stems II through X and all active and passive participles follow at the end. The latter are 
listed as separate items only when their meaning is not immediately obvious from the verb, 
particularly where a substantival or adjectival translation is possible (cf. i-^U- hajib under 
i^Jt, J*-U sahil under J^). The sequence under a given root is not determined by historical 
considerations. Thus, a verb derived from a foreign word is placed at the head of the entire 
section (cf. 1*1 aqlama, *i\J II). 

Essentially synonymous definitions are separated by commas. A semicolon marks the 
beginning of a definition in a different semantic range. 

The syntactic markings accompanying the definitions of a verb are • for the accusative 
of a person, a for the accusative of a thing, U for the feminine of animate beings, a for a 
group of persons. It should be noted that the Arabic included in parentheses is to be read 
from right to left even if separated by the word "or" (cf. ^ X). Verb objects in English 
are expressed by s.o. (someone) and (something), the reflexive by o.s. (oneself). 

A dash occurring within a section indicates that the following form of a plural or of a 
verbal noun, or in some instances the introduction of a new voweling of the main entry, 
holds for all following meanings in the section even if these are not synonymous and are 
separated by semicolons. This dash invalidates all previously given verbal nouns, imperfect 
vowels, plurals, and other data qualifying the main entry. It indicates that all following defini- 
tions apply only to this latest sub-entry (cf. Ji>- kajaqa, J-*-* sabll). 

In the transcription, which indicates the voweling of the unpointed Arabic, nouns are 
given in pausal form without tanwln. Only nouns derived from verbs with a weak third 
radical are transcribed with nunnation (e.g., ^l* qadin, iS *ia* muqtadan, JL ma* tan in 
contrast with ^^ bu$rd). 

A raised 2 following the transcription of a noun indicates that it is a diptote. This indication 
is often omitted from Western geographical terms and other recent non-Arabic proper names 
because the inflected ending is practically never pronounced and the marking would have 
only theoretical value (cf. \j^Sj^\ istokholm, Jj j\ abrll). 

The symbol O precedes newly coined technical terms, chiefly in the fields of technology, 
which were repeatedly found in context but wliose general acceptance among specialists could 

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Introduction XIV 

not be established with certainty (cf. jUlJ tilfdz television set, ^4*- hods intuition, j£ mikarr 
heating installation). 

The symbol □ precedes those dialect words for which the Arabic spelling suggests a 
colloquial pronunciation (cf. «J»'«i>- haddaf, 2 (3Jb- II). 

Dialect words are marked with abbreviations in lower-case letters (e.g., syr., leb. t saud.-ar., 
etc.). These are also used to indicate words which were found only in the sources of a particular 
area. This does not necessarily mean that a word or meaning is confined to that area (cf. j jjU- 
jdrur, »>jji* tarabeza). 

The same abbreviations, but with capital letters, mark entries as the generally accepted 
technical terms or the official designations for public offices, institutions, administrative 
departments, and the like, of the country in question (cf. -l>-jjff\ utruha, tj\* ddHra, 
X> 'amid). 

The abbreviation Id. Law marks the traditional terminology of Islamic fiqh (cf. ii>JU- 
hadat, oU IV an, i*x* mut'a), as distinguished from the technical terms of modern juris- 
prudence which are characterized by the abbreviation jur. (cf. ^JJ- *amdi, ^^Sj talabbus). 
For other abbreviated labels see List of Abbreviations below. 

Elatives of the form af'alu are translated throughout with the English comparative 
because this most often fits the meaning. The reader should bear in mind, however, that in 
certain contexts they will best be rendered either with the positive or the superlative. 

The heavy vertical stroke | terminates the definitions under an entry. It is followed by 
phrases, idioms, and sentences which illustrate the phraseological and syntactic use of that 
entry. These did not have to be transcribed in full because it has been necessary to assume 
an elementary knowledge of Arabic morphology and syntax on the part of the user, without 
which it is not possible to use a dictionary arranged according to roots. Consequently, no 
transcription is given after the vertical stroke for: 

1 the entry itself, but it is abbreviated wherever it is part of a genitive compound (e.g., 
p. alma* all under §ahib f hum al~u. under uhdHia); 

2 nouns whose Arabic spelling is relatively unambiguous (e.g., «JlJU, UU, jtfT, jb); 

3 words known from elementary grammar, such as pronouns, negations, and prepositions 
the third person perfect of the verb type fa'ala, occasionally also the definite article; 

4 frequent nominal types, such as: 

a) the verbal nouns {masddir) of the derived stems II and VII — X : 
JjajIj taf r il, (JUajI infi'dl, JU^il ifti'al, cbUil if'ildl, JluixJ istifal; 

b) the active and passive participles of the basic verb stem: 
Jpli faHl, 4JUU fdHla, and J^i. maful, i)^i. maf'&la; 

c) the nominal types J^** fa r il> *L*i fa r ila, jUi^'oZ, and J^*i fu'ul (also as a plural); 
ilLJ fi'ala and *}j*s fu'ula as well as Ja*I af'al; 

d) the plural forms jUil af'dl, oUil af*ild\ JJUi fa'dlil, J*li! afa'il, J*U* mafd'il, 
JjUi /a'a'tZ, J*Ui fa'd'il, JJL* fa'dlil, J^Ul afd'U, J**UI tafd'il, Jt^** mafd'il, 
iUU* fa'dlila. 

All other possible vowelings are transcribed (e.g., if'dl, fa"dl, ftfatt, fa*ul t aful, jd'al). Words 
with weak radicals belonging in the form types listed above are also transcribed wherever 
any uncertainty about the form might arise (cf. f\j rdgin under y.j t 9 jj^\ j-j ; under iioj zait, 
t5 -a*VI -W-i! under JL^~~. masjid). 

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List of Abbreviations 

In transcription, two nouns forming a genitive compound are treated as a unit. They are 
transcribed as noun — definite article — noun, with the entry word abbreviated (cf. under l-*- L» 
sahib, 4-i Ubh). In a noun compound where the second noun is in apposition or attributive, 
it alone is transcribed (cf. under aU- pld>£*~ hukm). In this manner the difference between 
the two constructions is brought out clearly without resorting to transliteration of the i r rab 
endings. A feminine noun ending in -a, as first member of a genitive compound, is also abbre- 
viated, and the construct ending -t is to be read even though it is not expressed in the 

In view of the great variety and intricacy of the material presented, it is inevitable that 
inconsistencies will appear and that similar examples will be treated here and there in a different 
manner. For such incongruities and for certain redundancies, we must ask the user's indulgence. 

November I960 

Hans Wehb 

List of Abbreviations 




circa, about 






anno Domini 
















year of the Hegira 












ante meridiem 


construction engineering 






apocopate form 




























attribute, attributively 










east, eastern 





ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $jAXa$ P.5^° < (IHJ- cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° < J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 

I a particle introducing direct and indirect 
questions; pi — U — am (also ^1 * I — I 
a — am anna) whether — or (alternative 
questions); pi — i *)y* sawvkun a — am 
no matter whether — or; j\ a-wa particle 
indicating or implying doubt: or? per- 
haps? dili j diiSjl (taSukku) you 
wouldn't doubt it, would you? do you 
perhaps doubt it? or do you doubt it? 
VI ct-la and LI a-ma intensifying inter- 
jections introducing sentences: verily, 
truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., Ij^kili VI 
{fa-nzuru) oh, do look! why, look! -ul Ul 
(innahu) why, he is ... ! 

X «JT db 2 August (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.) 

! J^I aUdb {Chr.) the Father (God) 

*^\ ; 


4 u>l abba u to long, yearn («d»j J I ild tvataniki 
for one's homeland) 

5 «_-jjI look up alphabetically 

jj*-b1 abd£ur, Sj^-W (Fr.) pi. -at lampshade 

C-jI \j and «bl see^jl 

Jb*l abjad alphabet 

t5^l abjadl alphabetio(al) ; oLo^i 
elementary facts, simple truths j <Jsj^l 
*i-b£Vl the letters of the alphabet, the 

Jjl ahada i {sy\ ubud) to stay (^ at), abide 
(v-j in a place) ; to last, persist ; — i u to 
be wild, untamed, be shy, shy away, run 
away (animal, game) II to make lasting 
or permanent, perpetuate, eternize {* V to be perpetuated, become 
lasting or permanent, be eternized; to 
return to a state of wildness 

Jbl abad pi. -sbT dbdd endless, eternal 
duration, eternity; I Jul abadan always, 
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the 
future), not at all, on no account; (alone, 
without negation) never! not at all! by 
no means! | JbVI Jl, JbVl Jp and j*jJI AjI 
abada d-da hri forever ; Jb*i/I Jbl abada l-a., 
^Jb^l -ui a. l-dbidin, HjJbV' *bj a- l-aba- 
diya, ^»Jb^l -bl abada l-abadln and Jl 
^aA'I Jbl ild abadi l-a. forever and ever 

^Jbl abadi everlasting, eternal, endless 

iiJbl abadlya infinite duration, endless 
time, eternity 

JbT dbid resident, nonmigratory (bird) ; 
wild, untamed 

oJbT dbida pi. Jbljl awabid? unusual 
thing, prodigious event; resident bird; 
wild animal; monster | LJjJI Jbljl o. ad- 
dunyd the Wonders of the World 

JbJ* muabbad eternal, endless, ever- 
lasting; lifelong, lifetime (e.g., sentence) | 
Ajja ^ (sijn) life imprisonment 

x j 1 abara i u {abr) to prick, sting II to pollinate 
(a a palm tree) 

lj\ ibra pi. j I ibar needle, pin; indicator 
(of an instrument) ; pointer (of a balance 
or scales); shot, injection (med.); sting, 
prick | iS^U^Ji *j\ i. al-hiyaka knitting 
needle; iULiJl 2/1 i. al-kiydta sewing 
needle; <J^j^i\ S^l i. al-kruseh crochet 
needle; lj\ <cJi*- haqanahu ibratan to 
give s.o. an injection; ^\J\ »j\ *". ar-rd f % 
geranium (boL); SL-jjUbJw lj\ (magndfisiya) 
magnetic needle; Zj^\ Jjbt sugl al-L 

j&* mi bar pi. j U ma'dbir 2 large packing 
needle; needlecase; O anther (bot.) 

ss*C&*a jj^ jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPV^ ^Svpwo 


^IjT dbdr see J.j 

-*l_z I ibrdhim? Abraham 

<Lij-l abrasiya and abarslya pi. -at (Gr. 
eTiaQxia.) eparchy, diocese, bishopric 
{Ghr,); parish (C&r.) 

(j-i^yl abramis, I-r x«iyi bream (zool.) 

j j \ ibrlz pure gold 

< j>j'l ibrlzl golden, of pure gold 

p»>j\ ibrisam, ibrisim silk 

Jjj-I i&rt</ pi. Jjjbl abdriq 2 , {tun.) JSjLl a&a- 
rigrc pitcher; jug 

Jj j- i aftriZ April 

0_>l ahzan pi. jjLI abdzin? washbowl 

/•>( t&zim pi. fjbi o&mw 2 buckle, clasp 

L^^JL-jl ebistemolojiyd epistemology 

^j^jl ttftrf pi. ^IjT a&ad and ^L ma bid pi. 
^^L mcCdbid? hollow of the knee, popliteal 

L^sb/yi al-ibddiya (usually al-abddiya) 
the Ibadites, a Moslem, sect {in Oman, 
E Africa, Tripolitania and Algeria) 

Jajl V to take or carry under one's arm (a ; 
to put one's arm (a, * around s.o., around, hold in one's arm (a, * s.o., 

Jul ibt pi. J^L>T dbdt m. and f. armpit | 
4lajl c~£- ready at hand, pat (e.g., answer), 
at one's finger tips (e.g., knowledge) 

Jjl abaqa i (3M ibdq) to escape, run away 
(a slave from his master) 
JjI abaq a kind of hemp 

JjT dbiq pi. JsM ttfc&og' runaway, escaped; 
a fugitive 

1 { ^i\ ibil (coll.) camels 

z *Jbl ibala, ibbala bundle, bale 

3 dLi abla (eg.) aunt, auntie (children's form 
of address); Z^ aL\ aunt So-and-so 

yb\ ibliz alluvial deposits (of the Nile) 

^j-jJjI iblis 2 pi. 3-Jl>l ahdlisa devil, Satan 
^^wJLI ibllsl devilish, satanic, diabolic 

^1 II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (* a de- 
ceased person), deliver a funeral oration 
(a in praise of s.o.) 

ol ubwi passive pederasty 

jLI ibbdn time; jLjl ibbdna during, 
jbl j at the time of, during 

{juU tabin commemoration (of a de- 
ceased person) [ <j\jLJI *JU>- kaflat at-t. 
commemorative celebration (in honor of 
a deceased person) 

j^ju tabini: <LjjuIj i*li (kcdima) eulogy 
for a deceased person, obituary speech 

Ojty ma bun catamite; weakling, molly- 
coddle, sissy; scoundrel 

2 j>\ and *iil see 1 ) j- 

^J^) abnuSy abanus, ^->jT dbinus ebony 

ajI afoaAa and abiha a (abh) to pay attention 
(J, also *-> to), heed (J, also «-j, take 
notice (J, also <_j of ) | <*J -ojj V _^! (yu'bahu) 
an insignificant, unimportant matter V to 
display proud, haughty manners; to turn 
away, keep one's distance, remain aloof 
(jp from), look down {^ upon), think 
o.s. far above (jp s.o or 

if. I ubbaha splendor, pomp, ostentation, 
pageantry; pride 

(^jl) i-j1 ab pi. »L)T a&a' father (also eccl.); 
ancestor, forefather; i^jl U yd abati, alzj! 
abatahy »Uj1 L my father! o^Vl al- 
ahawdn the parents, father and mother; 
pi. fb/yi fathers and mothers; U^l abund 
reverend father, form of address and title 
of a priest (Ghr.); (with genit.) possessor 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 


of, provided with, having 

e.g-> ji 

i— >j|_jJ- mustached, sporting a mustache [ 
-U- ^ bt o&aft f an jaddin handed down 
from father to son, as inherited from 
forefathers; b\y»- ^jI abu ji'ran scara- 
baeus ; dung beetle ; Jj j jy\ abu zuraiq jay 
(zool.); j*-- ji\ abu su'n marabou; ^ j>) 
abu zaby Abu Dhabi, name of an emir- 
ate on the Persian Gulf; j& ji\ abu qlr 
Aboukir (Egyptian seaside resort on 
the Mediterranean); *yjl y\ abu n-naum 
P°ppy» 4>^lj^l a ^ l-haul the Sphinx; 
jlLLJl jjl abu l-yaqzan rooster, cock; in 
compounds also look up the second word 
Ijj\ ubuwa fatherhood, paternity 
£ji\ abawi paternal, fatherly; patriar- 
chal, patriarchioal 

4Ui\ abawiya patriarchate, patriarchy 

l^jl abwa (Fr. hautbois) oboe (mus.) 

C*uji\ ebonite 

*Jjt\ (Fr. abonni) abunek pi. -at subscription; 
subscription card (e.g., for public convey- 
ances, a concert season, etc.) 

<_}t aba a (#LI iba\ S»bl ibaa) to refuse, 
decline; to turn down, reject, scorn, dis- 
dain (a; to deny (a Jp s.o. | 
aLJu jl VI j\ (Hid an yafaiahu) he in- 
sisted on doing it; jl VI -*3a 1 til Ood willed 
that ... V to refuse, decline; to behave 
in a proud manner, be proud 

►LI ibd*, «»bl ibaa rejection; dislike, 
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride 

jl ably disdainful, scornful; proud, lofty, 

uJT abtn pi. Sb I ubdh reserved, standoffish ; 
unwilling, reluctant, grudging 

^1 abib the eleventh month of the Coptic 

j^ljl abiqur 2 Epicurus 

<$jjji~i\ abiquri Epicurean 

<Ujaj\ abiquriya Epicureanism 

rj\ utrujj, 4j\ utrunj (n. un. S) citron 
(Citrus medica; bot.) 

^Jt^ (Turk. ate$Qi) dteSgl fireman, stoker 

f L ma'tam pi. ft. ma'dtim 2 obsequies, funeral 
ceremony ; (female) mourners (at a funer- 
al; treated as f. pi.) 

1 jUl atdn pi. ^T aiun, $\ uiun, utn female 
donkey, she-ass 

2 j^l aiun, attun pi. J\ uiun, ^jtfl atatin 2 
kiln, furnace, oven 

L>-jJj^I etnolojiyd, etnologiyd ethnology 
^j*-Jjj\ etnoloji, etndogl ethnological 

ij\j\ itawa pi. -at, ^j\j\ atawa duty, tax, due, 
toll; extorted payment; tribute 

,j-wjjI (Fr.) otobis pi. -at autobus, bus 

^LjUyl (Fr.) otomdtiH automatic 

J-^i and J^>»jj1 (Fr.) otomobil pi. -at 

Jl aid i (OlJl itydn, Ji aty, SIjL ma'tah 
to come (« or Jl to; Jp over s.o.), arrive 
(a or J! at); ^j Jl to bring, bring forward, 
produce, advance, accomplish or achieve; »-> * Jl to bring, give or offer s.o.; to do, perform (a a deed), carry out, 
execute (a e.g., movements); to commit, 
perpetrate (a a sin, a crime); to mention 
(Jp; to finish off (Jp, also s.o.); 
to finish, complete, carry through, dispose, 
settle, wind up, conclude, terminate, bring 
to a close ( Jp ; to destroy, annihilate, 
eradicate, wipe out ( Jp ; to eliminate, 
carry away, sweep away (Jp, do 
away (Jp with); to use up, exhaust (also 
a subject), present exhaustively, in great 
detail (Jp, elaborate (Jp on | 
JL lT as follows; JUJ^ J I to come out 
with new; Jl <u J I to bring or lead 
s.o. to a place, to s.o., into a situation; 
aj>J Jp Jl (dkirihl) to complete, finish; to spend or use up the last of; 

^wSvo jjV jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



^LJIj j**+^\ Jp jl to destroy every- 
thing, wreak havoc; Ifjjjl ^ Oj^Jl jl 
(buyuta) to tackle in the right way, 
knock on the right door; JJ j* jjj ytt'^a 
mtii qibali is undermined, weakened, 
ruined by III to offer, furnish, give, 
afford (i-j * to s.o., provide, supply 
(<-> » s.o. with); to be propitious, be 
favorable (« for s.o.), favor (o s.o.); to 
turn out well (* for s.o.), be in favor 
(* of); to suit, befit, become (& s.o.), be 
appropriate (* for s.o.); to agree (« with 
s.o. ; food) [ # c? i JS* &\jl (kullu Sai'in) every- 
thing was in his favor, turned out well 
for him, came his way IV to bring (a » s.o.; to give (a e s.o.; to grant (a « 
to s.o., bestow (a # upon s.o. | 
•Sjll jT (zakdta) to give alms; ij^iJI OJj i 
l$iS"l (tamaratu ukulaha) it was a failure, 
nothing came of it V to originate, stem, 
derive, spring, arise, result (^f- and £* 
from); to end (j* with), result (jc- in); 
to get (Jl to), arrive (Jl at); to be easy 
to do, be feasible without difficulty, be 
possible or attainable, go well, progress; 
to come off; to go about (j) gently, 
cautiously X to ask to come, induce to 
come (* s.o.) 

oLjI ityan performance (<_j of 

jU ma'tan pi. oL ma'dtin place where comes from ; place at which one arrives; 
access; pi. C-»U place of origin; origin, 
source, provenance; place where one has 
been or to which one has come; place where starts, where ends 

c/T alin coming, next; following | p>r"^I 
JYi {usbu') the coming week, next week; 
j*^lT as follows 

Cj\j* mu'atin, muiv&tin favorable, pro- 
pitious, opportune, convenient, suitable 

->\ atta u i a (SjLJ! atdta) to be luxuriant, grow 
profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up, prepare 
(a; to furnish (a an apartment) 
V to be or become rich, wealthy, to prosper; 
to be furnished 

£>\ att, <Lm\ atlt abundant, luxuriant, 
profusely growing (hair, plants) 

t±jLjl atat pi. -at furniture, furnishings 
(of an apartment, of a room) ; equipment ; 
pi. C>\j\5\ furnishings, pieces of furniture 

ii-jo u ta'tlt furnishing 
doj* trmattpi furnished 

\y\ atara u i {air, SjLJI atara) to transmit, pass 
along, report, relate (a, ^ from, or 
based on the authority of, s.o.) n to 
affect, influence (j or Jp s.o.,, act 
( j or Jp upon), produce an effect, make 
an impression, have influence ( j or Jp on); 
to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (J* a to), 
like (a more (Jp than); to have a pre- 
dilection, a liking (a for), like (a, be 
fond (a of); to choose, deem wise or ad- 
visable (^1 to do; to honour, hold 
in high esteem (a, » s.o., | ^T 
i_j -uwaJ {nafsahu) to take exclusive pos- 
session of, appropriate, hold a mono- 
poly over; jj-b <u*ii Jl (nafsahu 
bi-l-kair) to think only of one's own 
welfare, demand good only for oneself, be 
egotistical V to be impressed, be influ- 
enced; to let o.s. be impressed, be impres- 
sible; to be moved, be touched (^ or J by, 
also j^); to be excited, be stimulated; to 
be affected (t-j by, said of materials, e.g., 
iron by acid); to be induced {phys.); to 
follow in s.o.'s (a) tracks, follow s.o.'s 
example, emulate (» s.o.); to pursue, follow 
up (a a question, a problem) ; to perceive, 
feel (a X to claim a monopoly; to 
possess alone, with the exclusion of others, 
monopolize (<_*; to appropriate («_->, take exclusive possession (t-» of); 
to preoccupy (a, engross (a the 
attention); to lay claim on, demand (^ 
e.g., s.o.'s interest) | <u *«l J\s**\ the Lord 
has taken him unto Himself 

j\ atar pi. jttT Star track, trace, vestige; 
sign, mark (from the past); clue; slight 
touch (of; relic or remnant (pre- 

^wSvo jjV jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


served from the past) ; ancient monument ; 
work of art, literary work (of former 
times); tradition, brief report (from early 
Islam); impression, effect, influence (J 
or Jc on) ; — pLjuT antiquities ; (religious ) 
relics; works, writings (esp. of deceased 
or ancient authors) | fUS j\ a, qadam 
footprint, trace, vestige ; (jU^y- j I (sina* 
ma'i) cinema classic, (art) film; jtt^l it 
Him al-a. archeology; *ijdS jU^I JU 
(misriya) Egyptology; jU^l jlj museum 
of antiquities; *J J\ V (atara) ineffective, 
ineffectual; ( jv*-j yL (rafl) with retro- 

active force (jur.); ^s- 


£~rf»l «£= 

baha ataran ba'da 'ainin to be destroyed, 
be wiped out, leave nothing but memory 
behind; ^ A*o \j\ oiUI (a'&fofew) to 
destroy or wipe out, leaving only a 
trace or memory; aj\ Jp, ay I j (also fl 
itrihi) on his (its) track, at his heels, 
after him; immediately afterwards, pre- 
sently, thereupon; J^\ Jp immediately 
afterwards, presently; J\ j* (withgenit.) 
as a consequence or result of . . , 

j\ itra (prep.) immediately after, right 

gjS atari archeologic(al) ; (pi. -un) 
archeologist (also ^jtfT atari) ; old, ancient, 
antique; antiquarian | ^j\ JU archeo- 
logist; hj\ Ul {luga) dead language; r^* 
&j\ (§arh) historic castle 

j I atir egoistic, selfish 

lj\ atara selfishness, egoism 

jy\ atir favored, preferred (Xs. by s.o.), 
in favor (Xs- with s.o.); favorite (in com- 
pounds); select, exquisite, noble; see also 

Sjljl atara remainder, remnant; faint 
trace, vestige 

Sj-L. ma'tara, maHura pi. JX* ma'dtir 2 
exploit, feat, glorious deed; pi. yL memo- 
rable events, achievements (handed down 
from the past) 

yjU tattir pi. -at action, effect, influence, 

impression (J, ^ on); effectiveness, ef- 
ficacy; induction (phys.) 

^yolj ta'tiri efficacious, highly effective ; 
produced by induction, inductive, in- 
ductional, induced (phys.) 

j\iA itdr preference; altruism; predilec- 
tion; love, affection 

aj jlijl itariya altruism 

j\j ta*attur being influenced; agitation, 
emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity; 
induction (phys.); (pi. -at) feeling, sensa- 
tion, perception | ytxJI *^ easily im- 
pressed, impressible, sensitive; <^J*lJwyb 
(magndtisi) magnetic induction (phys.) 

tfjb ta'atturi: ^ykJl <^*J1\ (madhab) 
the impressionistic movement 

4jyb ta'atturiya impressionism 

jliiL-1 isti'tdr arrogation of a monop- 
oly; monopolization; complete absorp- 
tion, demand, claim; Q captivation 
(psych . ) ; presumption , presumptuous - 
ness; exclusive power 

j^jL ma'tur transmitted, handed down [ 
jjL Jj5 (qaul) and %jJL "S (Icalima) 
proverb; iLj*-! oIjjjL (§a r biya) folklore 

j }* muattir affecting, acting upon; 
effective; impressive; moving, touching, 
pathetic; (pi. -at) influencing factor, in- 
fluence; effect j V>^ *^lrj* (sautiya) 
sound effects 

y la. muta'attir under the influence (»_j 
of); (following) as a result or effect (<_-> of) 

2 yul look up alphabetically 

4-ijl utfiya pi. J»\j\ atdfin trivet, tripod (in 
ancient times: any one of the three stones 
supporting a cooking pot near the fire) [ 
jIjVI SiJlj that which rounds out a number, 
caps, puts the lid on, the crowning 

Jj! atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to 
become rich V to be consolidated, be 
strengthened; to become rich 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 

J* 1 

JjI atl pi. JjjI utul (coll.; n. un. S, pi. 
ataldt) tamarisk (bot.) 

JJ1 atil and JjJ* mu'attal deep-rooted; 
of noble origin, highborn 

f\ atima a (i(m, atam, A* ma' tarn) to sin, err, 
slip II to sin, transgress; to accuse {« s.o.) 
of sin, iniquity V to eschew sin, shun 
evil; to restrain o.s., hold back 

f I itm pi. aIjT atam sin, offense, misdeed, 

ft* ma' tarn pi. f L ma'dtim 2 sin, offense, 
misdeed, crime 

Jfo to'fim sin, offense, misdeed, crime 

f\ atim pi. <x\ atama and *ol o0m pi. 
►l/i utama' 2 sinful, criminal, wicked, evil; 

JLc I itmid antimony 

Ul^-yj i etnogrdfiyd (Eg. spelling) and Lsl^jwl 

U^j^jl einolojiya, etnologiyd ethnology 

^-jjyjl etnolojl, etnologl ethnological 

jo I atxr ether 

(_5jo1 a£m ethereal 

(jJLJl atilin ethylene (chem.) 

UajI aimo Athens 

LjJ 1 atyubiyd Ethiopia 

(Jj-jI atyubi Ethiopian; (pi. -un) an 
Ethiopian | ^jj^VI «U1 Ethiopia 

r-l ajja « * ( 57-»-l aj'ij) to burn, blaze, flame 
(fire) II to light, kindle, start (* a fire) 

p-U- 1 f U ma' ttjaj bitter, salty water 

p-U-l a^a; burning, blazing, hot 

«*-t^. muta'ajjij burning, blazing, flam- 

ILj>-I ajabiya horologium (Copt.-Chr.) 

x j^\ ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense, 
remunerate (o s.o.) II to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (a ; (with naf* 
sahit) to hire o.s. out IY to let for rent, let 
out, hire out, rent, lease (a ; to rent, 
hire, lease, hold under a lease (a, 
take a lease (a on); to hire, engage, take 
on (« s.o.), engage the services (» of s.o.) 
V to hire o.s. out (also with <~j£j) X to 
rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease 
(a, take a lease (* on); to charter (» 
a vessel) ; to hire, engage, take on (» s.o.), 
engage the services (» of s.o.) 

_^l ajr pi. jj^l ujur wages, pay, 
honorarium, recompense, emolument, re- 
muneration; price, rate, fee | <-ljjdl jyA 
(student) tuition, fees; JlJ\ jyA u. as- 
sajar fares 

Ij^S ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate, 
fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage | 
JUjJI ljs>~\ postage; JiJl S^l u. an-naql 
transport charges, freight(age), carriage, 
cartage; lj>-\ SjL*- sayyarat u. taxi 

j\>-\ ajir pi. >lj>-l ujard' 2 hireling; 
workman, laborer, day laborer; employee 

<>j\>-l ajira working woman, factory 
girl, female laborer; woman employee | 
oiJVvU Sj^-1 cleaning woman, charwoman 

jv-ll ta'jir letting, leasing, hiring out, 
letting on lease; lease | SjUV \j j^-uJl fjjZ* 
(i'ara) Lend-Lease Act 

jUI ijar pi. -at rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease | jU^J for 
rent, to let 

SjU-1 ijdra pi. -at rent; letting, leasing, 
hiring out, letting on lease 

jU£L-1 istijar rent, lease, tenure 

jj>-L ma'jur paid, salaried, on the 
payroll, gainfully employed; employee; 
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed; (pi. -un) 
a bribable, venal, corruptible person 

^ jj^u majurl pi. -un a bribable, venal, 
corruptible person 

^wSvo jjV j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 

j>-Ja mu'ajjir pi. -un landlord, lessor 

^-ti~u» musiajir leaseholder, lessee, 
tenant; employer 

2 yp\ ajurr (n. un. «) baked bricks 

3 j^-L see V^ 

j>-Ij^-1 see *j>- 

iJU-l_^»-i see #J^- 

^U-l ijjas (n. un. S) pear; (syr.) a variety of 

J*- 1 ajila a (ajal) to hesitate, tarry, linger 
II to delay, postpone, put off, defer, ad- 
journ (Jl a till) V to be postponed, 
be deferred, be adjourned (Jl till, to) 
X to request postponement (a of; 
to seek to delay (a 

J>-l ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all 
means ! 

J>- y li-ajli or J>-l ^ min ajli because 
of, on account of, for the sake of; for | 
q\ Jjj-V in order that, that, so that; 
IJU J>-l ,y* therefore, for that reason, on 
this account 

J*-l ajal pi. JU-T ajal appointed time, 
date, deadline; instant of death; respite, 
delay | J^-*^l» on credit (com.); »_-jy J>-V 
for a short time; J*-V A-*j long-term; 
long-lasting; of unforeseeable duration; 
,>U-Vl vy' the earlier of the two dates 
or deadlines, i.e., death or divorce (as due- 
date for deferred dowry payment; Isl. 

I Law); J^Vl jwJ short-term, short-time; 

i short-lived; ( _^—- > J>l Jl (gairi mu- 

samman) for an indefinite period, sine die, 
until further notice 

J^b tajll delay, postponement, ad- 
journment, deferment, respite; appoint- 
ment of a time or date | «i-dl J-^Ij t. ad- 
daf extension of payment, moratorium 

J>-T djU delayed, protracted; deferred; 

later, future (as opposed to J-r^) I *^r^ 

I ^U-T j\ r djilan au djilan, *L>-T j\ <d>-U j 

sooner or later, now or later on; J^-UJ! j 
J>-^/1j now and in the future 

UU^l al-djila the life to come, the 

J»-_£* mu'ajjal delayed, late, post- 
poned, deferred; due for later payment 
(portion of a dowry) ; fixed in time, dead- 

**-J ajama, coll. ^\ ajam pi. -at, ^-1 ujum, 
aU-T ajam thicket, jungle; canebrake, 
reedy place; swampy ground, fen 

<L*-J ajamiya malaria j V^.Vl ^y* 
ba'udat al-a. anopheles 

j^-T ajin brackish (water) 

lx^-\ ajanda notebook 

^-l ahha u (ahh) to cough 

.b-1 II to make into one, unite, unify (a 
VIII jJ^\ ittahada see JL^j 

As-1 ahad, f. ^-b-l ihdd one; somebody, 
someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in neg- 
ative sentences and questions); JU-Vl 
the One (God); (pi. jU-T) Sunday | ^jl^I 
ahaduhum every one of them; A*- VI rji 
yaum al-a., pi. .jU.'VI fW ayydm al-d. 
Sunday; <Ja*~JI J*-\ a. as-sa'af Palm 
Sunday; Ij^c^ Jb-1 a. al-ansara Whit- 
sunday; ^-JJl JbJ a. an-nisba Sunday 
before Christmas; J^J^i ^U-T dhdd al- 
uluf a few thousand (2 — 9000 ; as distin- 
guished from <Js>!VI ol^ip and oli. 

,^-la-l aAa^i dominical, Sunday (adj.) 
«j-b-l ahadiya unity, oneness 
^jU-1 uhddl single; mono-, uni- (in com- 
pounds) | juJI ^iU-i u. al-bu'd one-di- 
mensional; iiill ^Ls-1 w. al-luga mono- 
glot; SJU-^ii (^jU-I w, al-marhala single- 
phase, single-stage (attrib. ; techn.) 

iU-l aAarf (pi.) traditions attested only 
once (in Hadith and philology); ^U-^l the 
units (math.) 

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t$iUT ahadl of unique occurrence, dubi- 
ous, unauthentic (tradition) 

1 l y>-\ ahina a (ahan) to hate ( Jp s.o.) 

i^-1 ihna pi. l y>-\ ihan old feud, deep- 

2 ,>-T 

rooted hatred 





it I akada u (akd) to take (<> * from or 
out of); to take (a along; to get, 
receive, obtain (<y a from); to take 
up, seize (a; to grab (<-> s.o.,, 
take hold of (i_->); to perceive, notice 
(6 s.o,, said of the eye); to gather, under- 
stand, infer, deduce (j* a from), 
read (a between the lines (^ of); 
to grip, captivate, thrill, spellbind (uj 
s.o.); to take up, acquire, make one's 
own (t-j,, e.g., a method); to keep, 
adhere (<_j to), observe, take over, adopt, 
embrace, follow, copy, imitate (c-»; 
to accept (*_>; to take, lead (Jl «-» 
s.o. to); to admonish, urge, drive (<y o 
s.o. to do; to enjoin, impose (uj » 
on s.o.; to take away (a Jp from 
s.o., strip, deprive (a Jp s.o. of), 
cut off, bar (a Jp s.o. from); to reproach, 
blame (a Jp s.o. for); to hold against 
s.o. (Jp) that... (jl), fix the blame (Jp 
on s.o., ol for the fact that); to obligate 
(<_j Jp s.o. to) ; to gather (^p a from 
a source) ; to take over, borrow (^p from 
others, a e.g., literary subjects, etc.); to 
learn (Jp or ^ from s.o., a, acquire 
knowledge (Jp or ^p from s.o.), LJ1 iti 
4Xc Cilm) to study under s.o.; to begin, 
start ( J or ^ with or, with foil, 
imperf.: to do, prepare, set out, be 
about (J or *-> to do j <c-aI itl 
(uhbatahu) to make preparations, pre- 
pare o.s., get ready; 6*^5 itL JU-1 (ma- 
Jcada /.) to adopt the same course as s.o. 

else, follow s.o.'s example ; IJU-L4L. it! to 
seize s.o., take possession of s.o. (a 
sensation, or the like); JU-L J5" <u -it! 
(hulla rm'kadin) to completely over- 
come, overpower, seize s.o. (also, e.g., of 
fatigue, emotion, sensation); »^5JI it! 
jbJl JU-L (ma'kada l-jidd) to take 
seriously; 5^-UI it! to go by boat; it! 
jUaJ^/L; to catch everyone's eye; jWI itl 
and jUJLj it! to take revenge (^ on s.o.) ; 
o\j£ itl (majrahu) to take its course; 
<u*Ut itl (majlisahu) to take one's seat, 
sit down; ajJU- iti (hidrahu, hadarahu) 
and <cL^ itl (hitatahu) to be on one's 
guard, take precautions; J-i-lj «jLs^I 
(fatsnd) to be friendly, be nice to s.o.; 
-u*- itl (haqqdhu) to come into one's own, 
receive one's due, get what one deserves; 
<>^ij£ Jit I (bi-kdtirihl) to show o.s. com- 
plaisant toward s.o., try to please s.o.; 
SJLajJI ajA>-I (dahsa), t-*»**JI ait I ("ajab) he 
was overcome with astonishment; *itl 
oJju (bi-danhihi) to punish s.o. for his 
offense; 4j1j Jbt I (ra'yahu) to ask s.o.'s 
opinion, consult s.o.; <ulj< itl (bi-ra'yihi) 
take on s.o.'s opinion, agree with s.o. ; 
aJLp ^]j\ itl (ukida r-ra'yu) the matter 
was put to a vote; ^L— U it! (bi-asbabi) 
to embrace, adopt, e.g., v^r*^ ^ 
■Srfjj^l SjLaJ-1 (hadara) to adopt Euro- 
pean culture; SjUJIj sit I (Hdda) to deal 
with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough 
time; hj~* ^ (suratan) to take a pic- 
ture, make a photograph; <uj^ *J& itl 
to obstruct s.o.'s way, hinder s.o. from 
moving on; <uSU Jp oitl to shoulder, take upon o.s.; J Sa*JI itl 
( r udda) to prepare, set out, get ready to 
do; IJL|p <u1p JLtl (akdan) to put 
s.o. under an obligation, impose a com- 
mitment ons.o.; bUS" ^ oitl (akadat 
r aim) I caught sight of a book; ( >*j it I 
jLspI/I (bi- F aini l-i'tibar) to consider seri- 
ously, bear in mind, take into consider- 
ation, weigh (ul that, a; Jp it! 
Ijc- (>:-) ukida f ala (hini) girratin to be 

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taken by surprise, be caught unawares; 
iJbUllj JU! (muqabala) to repay like for 
like; <->j)ui)\ is-b •^ which cap- 
tivates the heart, a fascinating, thrilling 
thing; jkll UJU-l (mataru) we got caught 
in the rain; *^b X>-\ (bi-nd§irihi) to 
help s.o., stand by s.o., take care of s.o., 
look after s.o.; <i~ij JJ-\ (nafasahu) to 
draw breath; <u-li>l <uip JU-! to take s.o.'s 
breath away; pdl »JU-I (naum) sleep 
overwhelmed him; aXj JU-l (bi-yadihl) 
to help s.o., stand by s.o.; dl.'.tj* Jp JU- 
turn to the right! Jaclj i>-i (ttw-a r ia) to 
do business, deal with; to maintain rela- 
tions {^ with) II to lay under a spell, 
enchant, bewitch (* s.o.) Ill to censure, 
blame (<->, Jp » s.o. for; to punish 
(t->, Jp 6 s.o. for) ; to hold (Jp) against 
s.o, (a), resent (Jp * in s.o.) | ! JJU-ljj V 
Za tu'akidni pardon me! forgive me! no 
offense, I hope ! VIII J££l ittakada to take 
(a; to take on, assume (*; to 
take up, occupy (a; to pass, adopt 
(a e.g., a resolution); to take, single out, 
have in mind (**, «* s.o. or as) ; to 
make use (a of, use (a, a j* as); to imitate, affect (a e.g., s.o.'s 
manner of speaking) ; to make (j- a 
out of, a a s.o. | ^ASw Jj£\ (saklan) to 
take on a form or shape ; Ui>> Jbfi I (jmm* 
qifan) to take an attitude, assume a posi- 
tion; ly^JI jruljtJI Jbfil to take the neces- 
sary measures; i_*-Ui! JL<1 (mundsib) to 
act in a suitable or appropriate manner; 
\j\J j£\ (qardran) to pass or adopt a 
resolution; SjojlU **\jL\ JUfil to take up 
new positions (troops) 

X>~ I akd acceptance, reception ; seizure ; 
taking out, taking away, removal, etc. | 
J J I JU-I a. ar-ra'y voting, vote; .ajj is- 1 
(wa-radd) discussion, debate, dispute, 
argument; \*j Vj Ia>-I JJSj V •^S (yaqbalu) 
an indisputable matter; »ILpj JUl (wa- 
'atd') give-and-take; traffic, trade; deal- 
ings, relations (esp. business, commer- 

cial); discussion, debate; fight, battle; 
O C*Ja* •&> JT jp o^VI (taraf) eclec- 

SJU-I ^fctfa spell, charm 

-L^-l akid prisoner of war 

SJL^I akida booty, spoils 

JU-I akkdd captivating, fascinating, 

JU-L ma y kad pi. -U-U ina'tikid 2 place 
from which one takes, source; 
wall socket, outlet (el.); adoption, borrow- 
ing, loan; manner of acting, mode of 
procedure, approach; fault, defect, short- 
coming, reprehensible trait, reprehension ; 
pi. JU-U source references, bibliography 
(in books) | ^»J)i\ '«W-lll the simplest, 
easiest approach; -U-lil vi^ eas y *° 
handle or to use; <ui JU-L V (makada) 
flawless, faultless, irreproachable; see also 
akada (middle of paragraph) 

SJi>-lj^ mu* akada objection, exception; 
censure, blame | ! *JU-1j* V (mu'akadata) 
pardon me! no offense, I hope! 

Sj»-L ma'kud taken, seized; taken by 
surprise, caught, trapped; surprised; 
taken (<_» with), fascinated (t-> by); 
<; J^>-U in force, valid 

CjIjj>-u ma'kudat receipts, takings, 
returns (com.) 

j*-\Ja mu'dhzd responsible, held to ac- 
count, accountable 

-I II to delay, put off, defer, postpone, 
adjourn (a; to hinder, impede, 
obstruct, hold up (* s.o., a, slow 
down, retard (a; to draw out, 
delay (jp a beyond its appointed 
time); to put back (a, o s.o.,, shelve 
(a; to set back (a a watch, a clock); 
to suspend, discharge, dismiss, remove 
(a s.o. from an office) V to be late ; to stay 
late, remain overtime; to keep waiting 
(Jp s.o.); to be delayed, fall or lag behind 

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(o e )> tarry, linger, hesitate; to default (jp 
on), be behindhand, be in arrears (^ 
with), be behind (^ in); to hesitate (jp 
with); to be suspended (from service), be 
discharged, be dismissed | ±*j j>*hi I 
jl j* db after that, he did not hesitate 
long before he . . „ presently, he . . .; 
Jsjl\ jc- ^>-U (mau'id) to be late (i.e., 
arrive after the agreed time), miss a dead- 

lj>- 1 akaratan and lj>- L at a later time, 
ultimately, finally, in the end 

_^T akir pi. -un, -at, j±\j\ awdkir 2 last, 
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, 
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); 
>»^H and lj±>}\ the hereafter ' fJ ^~\j\ awa* 
kira and j>-\j\ J (with genit.) toward the 
end, at the end of | */^Vl j'^ the abode 
in the hereafter, the everlasting abode; 
•^■T J1 ila dkirihl and so forth, et cetera; 
j*^\ j^-T akira l-amri eventually, finally, 
in the end, after all ; y>-dl _^>-T akira d-dahri 
forever; oUjJ! j>-\ a. az-zamdn time at 
which the Day of Judgment is to be ex- 
pected, the end of the world; «^T ^ to 
the last, down to the grass roots, entirely, 
completely, e.g., o^-T tf- j+s (dummira) to 
be completely destroyed, be wiped off 
the map; »^T ,y> from behind, from the 
rear; j£\ «J U endless, infinite; _^T j 
j^>i\ after all, last of all; '^-j* j^ U-d. 
daraja exceedingly, in the highest degree; 
JjUJ.1 ^T j (d. al-matdf) in the long 
run, finally; CjUj^jJI ^Iji J (Hsrlndt) 
at the end of the twenties; j+t}\ j±-\j\ a. 
a§-sahr the end of the month, the last 
ten days of the month; I^T Lr J J \jj~\ 
last but not least 

lj>^i\ al-dkira the hereafter 

^T dkar z , f. (Sj>-\ ukrd, pi. comm. j^-\ 
ukar 2 (and Jj^T dkarun or oL^-l 
ukraydt respectively) another, one more, 
^>-V! the other | (jj>~\ Zj* (marratan) 
once more; jy^VI j*, yJ^\ _^ he also, 
she also, he in turn, she in turn, J^\ U! 

I also, Ojj^\ *J» they also, they in turn; 
t£^i 4*L- Ajo after still another hour; 
iS^VI £JS~ jl (in kdnat) otherwise; 
j>3 J I CjT ja from time to time; ^ 
,j^i J I *l* (sana) from year to year; 
i£j>-\j «L^» u?. (fatra) once in a while, 
from time to time ; i$jt-\ — SjjT (dwinatan) 
sometimes — sometimes, at times — at 

iSj^-)} I al-ukrd the hereafter 

i£jj±\ ukrawl of or relating to the life 
to come or the hereafter 

j^-\ akir last; latest; rearmost; the 
second of two; lj^-1 eventually, finally, 
in the end, after all, at last; recently, 
lately, the other day; jJ-H\ the latter | 
j^-VI — JjVl the former — the latter; 
|^>-T ^^Jj 1^1 last but not least 

jUjU mi* kdr palm which retains its 
fruit into the winter 

j^>-Ij tdkir pi. -at delay, deferment, 
postponement; obstruction, retardation; 
putting back, temporary shelving | j;i 
j^-h without delay 

j±k taakkur delay, lag, retardation; 
hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowness, 
tardiness; backwardness, underdevelop- 
ment (of a country) 

j^-jA miCakkar rear part, tail, end; 
stern (of a ship) ; remainder, balance (of 
a sum, to be paid later); \j>-y> mu'akka* 
ran recently, lately, the other day; at 
last, finally, eventually 

\rt~j* twiiakkara hind, rear part (of; background (also, e.g., of a pic- 
ture) ; rear, rear guard (of an army) ; rear 
positions or lines (mil.); stern (of a ship) 

^Lu mutcCakkir delayed, belated, late; 
occurring later (jp than); behind, behind- 
hand, in arrears; backward, underdevel- 
oped; lagging, staying behind; defaulter; 
late, advanced (hour, age); Oj^Ldl the 
later, or modern, authors, writers, or the 
like (as opposed to j^-iidl); oi^td! 

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arrears, balance of a sum remaining due 
after previous payment | 5^-ull oi-dJ 
(butddn) the underdeveloped countries 

-U^Ja^i uktubut octopus 

j>~\ III to fraternize, associate as brothers 
(« with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a 
brother or friend VI to fraternize, asso- 
ciate as brothers 

^1 ak pi. S^>-l ikwa, b\yi-\ ikwan 
brother; fellow man, neighbor; friend; 
pi. o\j>-\ specif., brethren or members of 
an order; Olj»-VI religious brotherhood 
of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, 
established by Ibn Sa f ud in 1910 [ ^l b 
my dear friend! Zju j>-\ aku tiqa trust- 
worthy, reliable; J^JLS £l brother through 
both father and mother, brother-german ; 
u^jji a!\j^-\ ('arab) his Arab brothers 

C^\ ukt pi. olj>-l akawat sister; 
{gram,) cognate; counterpart | L^l the 
other (of two), its mate, its counterpart 
(after a fern, noun) 

t£j>- kuwaiy little brother 
iS J*-' akawi brotherly, fraternal 
Sj^-I akawlya brotherhood (as a re- 
ligious association) 

>U-1 ika' f «j>-\ ukuwa brotherhood, 
brotherliness, fraternity 

SjU-l ikawa fraternization, fraternity, 

fb id akin fraternization; fraternity, 

jj+\ akur barn, stable 

il adda u i to befall, afflict (0 s.o.) 

i\ j*\ amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible 

<_o1 aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, well- 
mannered, cultured, urbane, have refined 
tastes; — adaba i (adb) to invite (to a 
party or banquet, » s.o.), entertain 
(* s.o.) I 4jjL «-ol (ma'dttba) to arrange a 

banquet, give a formal dinner II to 
refine, educate (* s.o.); to discipline, 
punish, chastise (» s.o.) IV to invite as a 
guest (6 s.o.) V to receive a fine education ; 
to be well-bred, well-educated, cultured, 
have refined tastes; to show o.s. polite, 
courteous, civil, urbane; to behave pro- 
perly or decently, maintain good man- 
ners; to educate o.s., refine one's tastes 
(<_j by, through) ; to let o.s. be guided (<_j 
by) I 4jiL <_Jitj (bi-adabihi) to follow s.o.'s 
moral example 

t-o! adab pi. *_J.sT adab culture, re- 
finement; good breeding, good manners, 
social graces, decorum, decency, pro- 
priety, seemliness; humanity, humane- 
ness; literature; — pi. ^bT morals, 
decency ; rules, rules of conduct ; morale ; 
the humanities; belles-lettres; literature 
(also on a subject) | <_-ol j politely; c-w 
1-0VI toilet, water closet; e-o'yl JJU and 
<_jiVI f-U ill-mannered, ill-bred, impolite, 
uncivil; ^^iJ I u-ol aphoristic literature; 
( _ 9 *iJI (_oV1 {$a e bi) folk literature; l-o^M 
^U! ^ammi) popular literature; JU-j 
e-oVI literati, men of letters; ^>1^l i-lS" 
kulllyat al~a. ( = faculte des lettres) col- 
lege of arts; iVjUl i-jIjjF rules of deco- 
rum, etiquette; S^UJI ^Ijl a. al-mu'a* 
§ara social etiquette; SajULI t-jljT table 
manners, etiquette; /»t>L-^l lyU morality, 
ethics of Islam; J*>JI i_jl.iT a. al- r amal 
work morale 

(jif adabl moral, ethic(al); literary | 
S-ol icU_i (Sajd'a) moral courage; <J^1 <_-*-|_j 
moral obligation; loly Lol adabiyan tva- 
maddiyan morally and physically; 3. & ...UII 
IjiVI (falsafa) ethics, moral science; *-*aJ1 
JiVI (qism) humanities division (higher 

oLoi adabiyat literature, belles-lettres; 
the humanities adabkdna pi, -at toilet, water 

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«_-jil adlb pi. »lol udaba 2 cultured, 
refined, educated ; well-bred, well-manner- 
ed, civil, urbane; a man of culture and 
refined tastes; man of letters, writer, 

i-jii adiba authoress, writer 

4jiU ma'duba pi. i^oL. ma'ddib 2 ban- 
quet, formal dinner 

t-j^b to' dife education; discipline; pun- 
ishment, chastisement; disciplinary pun- 
ishment | c^t^l <j~kf majlis at-t. dis- 
ciplinary board 

^jit ta'dibi disciplinary; punitive, re- 
taliatory | ^LajjIj \J* (qadiya) discipli- 
nary action 

i_-o!j ta'addub good breeding, good 
manners, civility, politeness, courteous- 
ness, tact 

u-ol adib host 

v-JiJ^ mu'addib pi. -«» educator; 
teacher in a Koranic school {Tun.); — 
mu'addab well-bred, well-mannered, civil, 

<_jjti. muta'addib polite, well-bred; 
u^jjt^il educated people 

iji\ udra scrotal hernia (med.); — adra hy- 
drocele (med.) 

iJjil adirna? Edirne, Adrianople (city in 
NW Turkey) 

tiiJljjiVI (Fr. adriatique) al-adriyatik and 
cIJLjIjjjVI j*~ bakr aha. the Adriatic Sea 

^jil idrisl belonging to the Idrisid dynasty; 
pi. "Lmj\^\ al-addrisa the Idrisids 

J /ol adama i (adm) to take some additional 
food (* with the bread), enrich (a the 
bread) with some extra food or condi- 
ment idam anything eaten with bread; 
shortening, fatty ingredient 

2 jol, 40 1 adam, adama skin 

<\al adlm pi. /ol udum skin; hide; tanned 
skin, leather; dyed piece of leather (made 
of goatskin; Yem.); surface | ^j^l f*\ 
a. al-ard the surface of the earth; f\sl 
Jii-l a. al-haql arable land, surface soil; 
Ajyjl f*\ a. al-gabra lithosphere, earth's 

M adddm tanner 

3 joT ddam 2 Adam | ^T j \ human being 

^jT adami human; humane; poor, 

inferior, meager; (pi. -un, joljl awddim*) 

human being 

^LoT adamlya humaneness, humanity; 


(jj>l) 5b! addh pi. c*\ji\ adawdt tool; instru- 
ment; utensil, implement, device, appli- 
ance; apparatus; (gram.) particle | «UI 
*£LU a. al-hukm machinery of govern- 
ment; O jX**d\ »bl prefix (gram.); Q Sbi 
^LfoVl suffix (g ram.); JJiJI Sljf 
a. an-naql means of transport; .Jaj^cJ! 
definite article (gram.); j&d\ SUI and Sbl 
S^ScJl a. an-nakira indefinite article (grram.) ; 
4jJuij Sbl (tanfidiya) executive agency; 
pl. CjIj^I materials, equipment, gear,oljjl 
Ajj^- (harbiya) war material; oljil 
4~kU*-l (ihtiyatiya) stand-by equipment 
(techn.); ojJl CjIjj! a. az-ztwi toiletries, 
cosmetics; J**JI a. al-amal tools, 
implements; S*lyiJI a. al-qird'a read- 
ing matter; 4jIs£H oljil a. al-kitaba writ- 
ing materials; ^SC oljil (maktablya) 
office requirements or supplies; 
*J>. (manzillya) household utensils, 
household effects; SaJUlI knife, fork 
and spoon; SilkJI clean- 
ing apparatus 

jj^Vi al-adon (Hebr.) Mr. . . . (Isr.) 

^ii II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer, 
channel (a, e or u> s.o.,, J( to), see 
that s.o. or (a, » or <_j) gets to (Ji); 
to bring about, cause, effect, produce 

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(Jf; to lead, contribute, be condu- 
cive (Jf to a result); to amount, come 
practically (Jl to); to tend (Jf to), aim 
(Jl at); to cany out, execute, discharge 
(a; to perform (a a ritual, etc.); 
to do («u»-ij wdjibahu one's duty); to 
fulfill (iai»j a function, SJLj a mission); 
to accomplish (ajj^L a task); to take 
{lux an oath; UU»i*l an examination); 
to render (l*A± kidmatan a service, J or 
Jf to s.o.; a e.g., a meaning, a musical 
composition, etc.) | £^JI &\ (saldm) 
to greet, salute; olfiJI ^\ (Sahdda) to 
testify, give evidence V to lead, be con- 
ducive, contribute (Jl to results); to be 
carried out, be performed, be accomplish- 
ed; to arrive (Jl at), be lead (Jl to) 
X to demand, claim (a » from s.o. 

»tal add 9 pi. -at (as verbal noun of II) 
rendering (of a service); pursuit, per- 
formance, execution, discharge (of a 
duty), realization, effectuation, accom- 
plishment (of a task) ; rendition, reading 
(e.g., of a musical composition); execu- 
tion (of a song, a piece of music) ; acting 
(of a player); performance, conduct (of 
a ceremony, ritual); fulfillment (of a 
function); power, performance (e.g., of a 
car, motor); rendering (of a meaning); 
payment | »bVI J~>- hum al-a. good 
rendition (of a work of art, of a musical 

jtal adWi functional 

4j^Ij iadiya rendering (of a service); 
pursuit, performance, execution, dis- 
charge (of a duty), realization, effectua- 
tion; accomplishment (of a task); ful- 
fillment; payment 

t^-sj* mu'addan assignment, task, func- 
tion; purport, significance, signification, 
import, underlying idea 

S! id 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and) 
then; il!S SI id ddka (also written iJISi) 
then, at that time, at the same time, in 

doing so; 2. (conj.; temp, and caus.) as, 
when; since, as, the more so as, because; 
^1 SI id inna, id anna for; since, as, in 
view of the fact that 

1 !il idd 1. (introducing a nominal clause 
the subject of which may be expressed 
by ^ with foil, genit.) and then, and 
all of a sudden; (with noun in nomina- 
tive case or with cj) there was . . . , 
and all of a sudden there was . . . ; 
2. (conj.) when; if, whenever; whether, if 
(introducing indirect questions); U (Si 
when, whenever; IS I VI (ilia) unless, if 
not; except when; IS I U whether, if; see L 

2 ISI and l)S1 idantihen, therefore, in that case, 
hence, consequently 

jlST addr 2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., 

1 <jSI adina a to listen (Jf to s.o.); to allow, 
permit (j J s.o.; to hear, learn 
(uj of, be informed (<_> about) II to 
call (<~> to), esp. to call to prayer (S:>LaIIj); 
to crow (rooster) IV to announce, make 
known (<_j, <_-> o to s.o., inform, 
notify (* s.o.); to call to prayer; to call 
upon s.o. (»), urge, admonish, exhort 
(6 s.o.) to do («_j); to herald (<_> or a; to foreshadow (»->; to be on 
the verge (jl of doing | Js^i-JL oST 
(JljjJL) (zawdl) to show signs of the 
imminent downfall (end); ^^^jUt cJST 
c-^iiU (magib) the sun was about to set; 
oUaiib JJUI uST (lailu bi-ntisaf) it was 
close to midnight V to herald, announce 
(<_j X to ask for permission (^ s.o., 
J to do, rarely <-->) ; to ask permission 
to enter (J* s.o.'s house), have o.s. an- 
nounced ( J^ to s.o.); to take leave (,y 
of s.o.), say good-by (j* to) 

OS I idn permission, authorization ; leave ; 
license; warrant; Zi\ jSb if God choose, 
God willing; (pi. UjSl udun, oUpl udundt) 
(postal) order; bond (fin.) \ ^JLiSLj or ^ 

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diiSl with your permission; oiVl <-JU» 
j»^SOb to ask the Chair for permission to 
speak, ask for the floor; jI>l-^I Oil im- 
port license; Jb^i oil pi. -b^JI C->Ujji 
postal money order; <o-jJI oil do.; oi! 
ojJ^i J^ treasury bond (/?n.); Js^^JI oil 
i. as-sarf order to pay; J^JI ^ *_^Lt oil 
(t. £i?/a&, f amal) leave of absence, fur- 

<jil idm: Jil jl> ($a?wK2) promissory 
note, bill payable to order of s.o. 

oil udun, udn f., pi. oliT o^an ear; 
handle (of a cup) | Ja**J\ oi^l vW"" 
(wustd) middle-ear infection, otitis media 

olil ocZan call to prayer 

^ol udatn auricle (ana£.) 

Sijil itdaina little ear; ear lobe 

SJiL ma'dana, 4J01. midaTia pi. oil* 
ma*ddin 2 minaret 

oIAjI i^em declaration, proclamation, 
announcement (l_» of; advance 
notice; imminence, threat, menace (cj of 
an event) | £j.U-I *lfi\* LjiJbl as a sign 
that the conversation is (was) ended 

o jT adin door-keeper, porter 

OjiL ma* dun authorized; licensed, 
legally allowed or recognized; holder of a 
diploma; slave with limited legal rights 
(I si. Law); — ^.^ OjiL (sar'i) official 
authorized by the cadi to perform civil 
marriages (Isl. Law) 

<JjiL ma'duniya leave, furlough (mil. 
Syr.); license, franchise {Syr.) 

6iJ* muaddin pi. -un muezzin, an- 
nouncer of the hour of prayer 

2 oil idan see 2 lil 

4pl adiya a to suffer damage, be harmed 
IV to harm, hurt, wrong (« s.o.); to mo- 
lest, annoy, irritate, trouble (» s.o.); to 
cause pain (o to s.o.), torture (» s.o.) | V 
tSJJj la yu'di innocuous, harmless, inoffen- 

sive V to suffer damage, be wronged; to 
feel offended, be hurt 

tpl adan, Slii adah, «jil adiya damage, 
harm; pain, suffering; injury; trouble, 
annoyance, grievance, wrong, offense, 

4jli! iddya damage, harm, harmful - 
ness, noxiousness 

*\\A Ida 3 harm, damage, prejudice; 
offense, hurt; grievance, nuisance 

i£» mu'din hurtful, harmful, injuri- 
ous, detrimental, prejudicial; annoying, 
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting, 
offensive, insulting 

V dr are (land measure) 

2 i£j$ art pi. -un Aryan 

4j jT drlya Aryanism 

jJlji ardtiql and Jljijl pi. SJijljl aratiqa 
a heretic (Chr.) 

□ Jjr'jl aragoz (eg., < Turk.; popular spel- 
ling of }j*- ij) Karagoz, chief character 
of the shadow play; Punch; buffoon, 
funny man 

tfljT drdml Aramaean; Aramaic 

Vjl ariba a (arab) to be skillful, proficient 
(<-» in; — araba i to tighten (* 
a knot) III to try to outwit ( 6 s. o.) 

*_jjI arab pi. t_jljl drab wish (j for), 
desire, need (j of; purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

ujjI ir& pi. <_j!jT ara6 limb | bjl \jj\ Jj* 
(mazzaqahu) to tear to pieces or to 

<>jl w-fca skill, resourcefulness, clever- 
ness, smartness 

2jjI wr-fca pi. <_jjl yrafc knot, bow 

<_^jj! an& skillful, resourceful, clever, 

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ujL ma'rab pi. ujL. ma* drib 21 wish, 
desire; object of desire, purpose, aim, 
goal, end 

J^jjI arbil 2 Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city 
in N Iraq) 

^jijjj! artuwdzl artesian (well) 

1 iji II to sow dissension (^o between, among) 

2 ijl irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of 

iJ S'}iyj^\ al-urtuduks the adherents of the 
Orthodox Church | Ly S\^j^\ *jj\ (rum) 
the Greek Orthodox Church 

^-S^jjj I urtuduksl orthodox ; <L-~SV^jjV I 
the Orthodox Church 

Vjl arija a (araj, £>l an;') to be fragrant 

j-jl ara? fragrance, sweet smell 

£jl an; fragrant, sweet-smelling 

£jl «n; fragrance, sweet smell 

Vj' wff pi. -»* («?•) erg (unit of energy or 
work; phys.) 

£>-jl II ta'arjaha to rock, swing 

ruj-jlj taarjuh oscillation (between two 
poles or states) 

^-jU. muta'arjih fluctuating 

jc^-jV' al-arjantin Argentina 

j^JL^-jl arjantini Argentinian 

ulj>-jl urjuwan purple 

J^jl urjuwdni purple(-colored) 

jj>-j\ aragoz see j_y?\j\ 

iU-jl ar^Ja (Eg. spelling) pi. J^ijl aragiP- 
narghile, hookah 

£jl II to date (* a letter, and the like, <-> 
with a date); to write the history of (* or J) 

£j\$ ta*rlk dating (of a letter, etc.); 
historiography; tank pi. £jjy tawdrik 2 
date; time; history; chronicle, annals; 
story, tale | SLJLI gjtJ t. al-hayah bio- 
graphy; curriculum vitae; As- £jtj 
( f dmm) world history; /•£ £jU an old 
story; ^jbJl »Uif. the historians; J-5 L. 
£jbJI pre-historic time 

fj^j^ idrlkl historic(al) 

£jy* mu'arrik pi. -wn historiographer, 
historian, chronicler, annalist; — mu* 
, arrak dated 

J--3i.jl arkabil archipelago 

arkamld 2 Archimedes 

j»-j! (a^cov) pi. ij>Ujl arakina archon, pi. 
notables (Chr,-Copt.) 

*—oji irdabb (now usually pronounced ardabb) 
pi. <-oljl arddib 2 ardeb, a dry measure 
{Eg.; - 1981) 
iojl irdabba cesspool 

<JWl ol-urdunn (m. and f.) Jordan (coun- 
try) ; the Jordan river 

Jijl urdunni Jordanian | vAjV *^Uil 
i-AUl al-mamlaka al-u. al-hasimiya the 
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 

jl jjji (Fr. ardoise) arduwdz slate 

^Jjl crz (n. un. 5) cedar (Cedrus libani; bot.) 

^Jjl aruzz rice 

C->-jiJji arzdarakt China tree, paradise tree 
(Melia azedarach; hot.) 

fjMj\ arasa % (ars) to till the land 

^jjl irris and arts peasant, farmer 

us Uj j( pJai-yl, ^jUl^x--;! aristuqrdtl aristocratic; 

*Jb\jk~*j\ t \b\j>j^*j\ aristuqrdtiya aris- 

jk-y! amMandj^^JLLLu-jl aristatalis 2 Aristotle 

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u^ 1 


^jl ar$ indemnity, amercement, fine, pen- 
alty; blood money (for the shedding of 
blood; 1st. Law) 

^ja-il ^>j\ (Gr. dQXLETtiaxonog) archbishop 

Jjjuijl (Ft. archiduc) archduke, UjX-ijl 

fcjuiji (Fr.) arsiv, arsif archive 

^j\ II to ground, (Brit.) earth (a antenna) 

^j\ ard f., pi. ^Ijl arddin, o^J>j\ aradun 
land, country, region; area; terrain, 
ground, soil; lot, parcel of land, estate, 
real estate {also ^jl <Ula5 qit r ata.); ^jV 
earth (as opposed to heaven or as a plan- 
et); globe, world | Ji-Jf ^j^\ (mf Id) the 
nether world; will ^jVl (muqaddasa) 
the Holy Land, Palestine; "LaJt^i\ ^IjVI 
(munkafida) The Netherlands; ^j^l C-* 1 

^jl orrft terrestrial, of the earth; 
soil-, land- (in compounds); situated on 
or near the ground, on the ground floor; 
ground (adj.); earthly; underground, sub- 
terranean | ^j\ jjj (daur), ^jl JjLW 
(tdbaq) ground floor; \~ej\ "^- (^ahatta) 
ground station; v^jl Xa~Jl* (mudifa) 
ground hostess; <u-^j' "o^ (kura) ground 
shot (soccer) 

Sj£ ^jl ardi sauki artichoke 

^ji arad (coll.; n. un. #) termite; 

<~J>j\ ardiya pi. -at floor; ground 
(also, e.g., of a printed fabric); back- 
ground (of a painting and fig.); flooring, 
floor covering; ground floor, first floor 
(tun,); storage, warehouse charges; 
groundwork, foundation, basis | i^jl 
*Sj\i a. barkeh parquet, parqueted floor 

fjyu^jl ardurum 2 Erzurum (city in NE 

<Ljl (also ~<&>jj\) urta pi. i»jl urat (i»jjl) 
battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.) 

iSJejl artaqa pi. -at heresy (Chr.) 

*jjIj see mj 

^pjI urgun pi. ^Ijl ardgin 2 organ (mus. 

Jj^jl urgul, argul a wind instrument (re- 
lated to the clarinet, consisting of two 
pipes of unequal length) 

<3j! ariqa a to find no sleep II to make 
sleepless ( 6 s.o.), prevent s.o. («) from 

Jjl araq sleeplessness, insomnia 

*£jjl arika pi. iL'ljl ara'i'F couch, sofa; 

ZSJ arglla pi. J^fljl ami/j? (ayr.) water 
pipe, narghile 

!-djl irlandd, SaJjl and oM%\ irlanda Ireland 
^Jdjl irlandi Irish 

1 aj1 arama i to bite 

j»jl ttrram molar teeth | ^jVl Jy- 
(Aaro^a) to gnash one's teeth (in anger) 

*ajj\ aruma, uruma root, origin; stump 
of a tree 

j»jt. mi' ram root (of a tooth) 

V L>' arara (— *Tj! pi. of fj rtm) white 

j*j}\ al-arman the Armenians 

J^jl armmn Armenian (adj. and n.) 

Lyt irmiya Jeremiah (biblical prophet) 

Uu.ji armeniya Armenia 

-kj^jVI al-arndvmt the Albanians 
J»jUjl amdunUi Albanian 

«_J;I amah pi. <-J[>' ardnib 2 hare; rabbit j 
,^-Lfc cJjl (Wwii) guinea pig 

<Jj\ arnaba female hare, doe [ Sjjl 
.JuVI a. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, 
muzzle (of an animal) 

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viUjl (Turk, ornek) urnlk pi. dJLjfjl ara?wjfc 2 
pattern, model; form, blank 

Lj jj I urvbbd Europe 

Ujjl urubbl European (adj. and n.) 
l i$j\ ary honey 
2 ^jT and 4jjI see under jT 
l^jl artha Jericho 
Jjjl (Engl, aerial) iriyal antenna 

jl azza u i {azz,yj\ aziz) to drone, hum (e.g., 
plane, motor); to buzz (insect); to make 
a hissing sound or wheezing noise ; to fizz 
(effervescent liquid); to whizz (bullet, 
arrow) ; to whistle (wind) ; to rattle, clatter 

Jrjl azlz drone, humming noise; buzz; 
whizz; rattling (see also the verb) 

£^±-j*\)\ azddarakt see C^-j4jj1 

l i->jl azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water) 

<_j!j£« mizab pi. .^jjL ma'azib 2 and 
<-j1>* mizab pi. «--jjL* mayazlb 2 drain; 
gutter, eaves trough 

2 <-jjl izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man 

liLjVl al-uzbak the Uzbeks 

u-*-jjjI azdarakt see C^j^jjl 

jjl azara i (azr) to surround (a II to 
clothe (© s.o. with an jljl izdr q.v.); 
to cover, wrap up (« s.o., *; to 
strengthen, brace (o s.o., a Ill to 
help (* s.o.); to support, back up, 
strengthen (• s.o.) V and VIII to put on 
an izdr (see below), wrap o.s. in an 
izdr VI to help each other; to rally, 
unite, join forces 

jjl azr strength | »jj I jJ. Sadda azrahu 
or »Jjl i> •*£ {min azrihi) to help, support, 
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; sadda az* 
ruhu to be energetic, vigorous, lusty, 

jljl izdr m. and f., pi. jj I uzur loin- 
cloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering, 

jjU mi*zar pi. jjL ma'azir 2 apron; 
wrapper, covering, cover 

«jj[>* my? azara support, aid, assist- 
ance, backing 

j j U ta'dzur mutual assistance ; cooper- 
ation, coordination 

jjbu muta'dzir cooperating, coordinated 

J»j\ azifa a (azaf, «J»jjl uzuf) to come, ap- 
proach, draw near (a time) 

Jjjl azaqa i (azq) to be narrow V do. 

Jjl* ma'ziq pi. JjL ma'dziq* narrow 
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottle- 
neck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical 
situation, also gj9~ JjL (harij) 

Jjl azal pi. JljT dzdl eternity (without 
beginning), sempiternity 

Jjl azali eternal, sempiternal 

iJjl azallya sempiternity, eternity 

fjl V to be or become critical, come to a 
head (situation, relations) 

4^ji azma pi. azamdt emergency; crisis; 
attack, seizure (med.) j SJjjJI -UJI i«jt a. 
an-naqd ad-duwaliya international mone- 
tary crisis; 4jj!jj 4-jl (w&ariya) cabinet 
crisis; a-Jj iyl (galbiya) coronary or 
heart attack 

AJb ta'azzwm: i!U-l *jb (, al-hdla critical 
development, aggravation of the situation 
>»jjL ma'zurn victim of a crisis 
AJfcu mutaazzim critical (situation) 

jy*j\ izmir 2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea- 
port in W Turkey) 

J~»jl izmll pi. J^-ljl azdmil 2 chisel 

CjjJI (Engl.) azoi azote, nitrogen 
jjjl azofi nitrogenous 

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face (« s.o., 

tjjl III to be opposite (*), 

►I J I izaa (prep.) opposite, face to face 
with, facing; in front of; in the face of 
(e.g., of a situation); as compared with; 
Jjb bi-izai opposite, face to face with, 
facing; in front of; *\j\ Jp r ala iza'i 
in the face of (e.g., of a situation) 

1 J\ as myrtle 

2 tr -T pi. -at ace (playing card) 

*JZ\ H to found, establish, set up (a, 
lay the foundation (a for) V to be founded, 
be established, be set up 

^1 uss foundation, basis; exponent 
of a power (math.) 

j^Ul asds pi. -at, (J ^\ usus foundation 
(also, of a building), fundament, ground- 
work, ground, basis; keynote, tonic 
(mus,); base (math.); UUI asdsan pri- 
marily, basically | ^Ll Jp (with foil, 
genit.) on the basis of, on the strength of, 
on account of, according to; *J ^-Ul V 
4p*^aJi j* (asasa, sihha) completely un- 
founded (news, rumor); ^UV' j princi- 
pally, mainly, chiefly; <^Ui *p in its 
essentials, completely, fundamentally, 

^L-l asdsi fundamental, basic; ele- 
mentary; essential ; principal, chief, main | 
,^-U-l JE (hajar) cornerstone, foundation 

CjL-L-I asdslydt fundamentals, prin- 
ciples, basic problems 

^j-a-u ta'sis founding, foundation, estab- 
lishment, setting up, institution; ground- 
ing, laying of the substructure (arch.); 
pi. -at facilities, utilities; institutions 

(^ju-fa ta'sisi founding; foundational, 
fundamental | (^-i-t ^r^f (majlis) con- 
stituent assembly 

tjfj* mu'assis founder 

w >p mu'assasa pi. -at foundation, 
establishment; firm (com.); industrial 
plant; (governmental) agency; institu- 
tion; organization | VrlxJl *— -J* (inta* 
jlya) production plant or factory; i—J* 
Sjjbf (tijdrlya) commercial firm, business 
house ; ^*^Jl ^sLSiJl i— J* m. at-taqdfa aS- 
Sa'blya school for adult education; "L^J* 
i«*-i (sa'biya) state-owned enterprise; 
(jU?U-) i*U Z^^ja state (private) institu- 

ilyU^I isbarta Sparta 

oL-Vl al-asban, al-isban the Spaniards 

jL-l asbdnl, isbdnl Spanish; (pi. -un) 

^L-i isbanak spinach 

LjL-I asbani yd, isbdniya Spain 

r-ljL-1 isbiddj and r'-^l isblddj white lead, 

yj^\ (It. spirito) isbirto alcohol 

&L .J isbalifa epaulet 

Jjr*\ (Fr. sport) isbor (eg.) sport, sporting, 
sportsmanlike J jj~*\ SjL*- sayydrat i. 
sports car; jj^ u^r** qamis i. sport 

C~- 1 see 1 c— 

LSCjU-1 istatikd statics 

^^CiliJ istatiki static (el.) 

ibu-l (Fr. stade) istdd stadium (sports) 

ib>i ustdd pi. *J£UI asdtida master; high 
school teacher; (Ir.) full professor; pro- 
fessor (academic title); form of address 
to intellectuals (lawyers, journalists, 
officials, writers and poets); ledger (com.)\ 
Jit VI it^-V (a'zam) Grand Master (of a 
lodge); jjf VI ib-Vl title of the Rector 
of Al Azhar University; >*jJLp SIl-I and 
ijp iU-t (Eg.) renditions of Master of 
Science and Master of Arts; ^j? jLJ 

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j~ l 

(kursi; Eg.) and ^Jsj ilx-1 ($&?•) full 
professor; ^^T ^ Sbu-l (£yr.) asso- 
ciate professor ; fjJc* j& iU--l (mutafarrig; 
Eg.) part-time professor (holding an 
office outside the university); OpL*. jU-l 
(must? id) assistant professor; J\j iL-i 
visiting professor; iSjlt* jL-i (musdrik) 
associate professor (Jr.); JjJ-l j SjJL-1 > 
{jadal) they are masters of disputation 

oL-l ustada professor (fem.) 

4jiU-l ustadlya mastership; professor- 
ship, professorate ; office of a professor or 
high school teacher 

JjJUJ istanbfd 2 Istanbul, Constantinople 
JjJlxJ istanbihli of Istanbul 

5jU— VI al-dsitdna, *j\zjy\ al-asiama, al-istana 
Constantinople, Istanbul 

JjoJ istabraq brocade 

f j^\JL>\ istratiji strategic 

iL^Jij^J istratijiya pi. -at strategy 
J \j^J usturall Australian 

UljU usturaliya Australia 

JJ^fwl istarlini sterling | ^Jj^-I <u^r pound 
sterling; <JJ yu-Vi iJikL. mintaqat al-i. ster- 
ling area 

>iaj>-I ivoiiij rdqisat istribtlz strip-tease 
dancer, stripper 

<ib>i (Fr. ilasiique) astik (eg.) elastic, rubber- 
insulated thread 

» j 1*1^1 see ja\ 

*j>>I (It. stoppa) tow, oakum; cotton waste 

ji*jzJ\ (It.-Engl. studio) istudiyo-p[.Cs\j>ji i sjZ*\ 
istudiyohdt studio; atelier 

i^TjS-l istokholm Stockholm 

UljX-l (Engl.) istoniya Estonia 

CjuLL-I istiydtU steatite, soapstone (min.) 

*iJLJu»l (Ft. elastique) astik pi. -at (eg.) erasor; 
ustek pi, iJLjL-l asa&A; 2 (ea.) wrist watch 
band or strap; i££J astika pi. -a( (ea.) = 

rj"\ look up alphabetically 

Jul X to display the courage of a lion (Jp 
against); take possession, seize control 
(J* of 

vUl a$ad pi. JL-I usudy usd, *j**\ ««ita*, 
s\J\asad lion ; .uV I Leo (sign of the zodiac ; 
astron.) ; the fifth month of the solar year 
(Saudi Ar., cf. J*j- hamal) \ j*J\ ±*\ a. 
al-bahr sea lion; ju-VI *'■* leontiasis (meo\) 

V^i asara i (asr) to bind, fetter, shackle, 
chain (« s.o.); to capture, take prisoner 
(» s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold 
spellbound {« s.o.), absorb, arrest (a the 
attention) X to surrender, give o.s. up 
as prisoner 

j*\ asr (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
ture; captivity [ ^Vt »JLi Mddat al-a. 
vigor, energy 

Zj~*\ usra pi. jJ\ usar, -at family; dy- 
nasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; — asirra 
see j j* j -ujjjyyi ^.iLadfVl 3^-Vi the 
European Economic Community (colloq. 
Common Market) 

(£j*m\ usri family (in compounds); dy- 

6^1) bi-asrihl entirely, completely, al- 
together, >r-L lj*^- all of them came, 
they came one and all 

jUI isar (leather) strap, thong; cap- 
tivity; captivation, enthrallment | JIj 
«jUI j to be subjected to, fall into 
the clutches of 

j^*\ asir pi, »[ r J usara z f tSj^ asr a, 
t^jL-l asara prisoner, captive, prisoner of 

ljj\ asira pi. -a( female prisoner, slave 

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jj\ dsir winning, captivating, fasci- 
nating; captor 

jj*X+ masur captivated, fascinated, en- 
thralled {<_; by) 

Kj~»\ asirra see j j* 

z ljyX> look up alphabetically 

JJl^l isrd'il 2 Israel | JJl^l ji» banu i. 
the Israelites; J-flyl <Jj^ daulat i. the 
State of Israel 

J-Jl^-I israill Israel itish; Israeli (adj.); 
— {pi. -uri) Israelite; Israeli; oULJl^l 

J-il^l isrdfil 2 Israfil, the angel who will 
sound the trumpet on the Day of Res- 

>-?j~>\ usrub lead (metal) 

J^JlkJ istanbul 2 Istanbul, Constantinople 

Jjk-l istabl pi. -at stable, barn 

A-k^l (It. stoppa) ustubba tow, oakum 

t->Vjk-«i asjurldb astrolabe 

(j-Jak-i istaqis pi. -a£ element 

4jl_jkJ ustuwdna pi. -a£, (^Ul asdtln 2 column 
(arch.); cylinder (math,; of an engine); 
(pi. -at) phonograph record; — pi. (>LUI 
high-ranking, prominent personalities; 
stars, celebrities, authorities, masters 
(e.g., of art: y&\ ^>\**\ a. al-jann) 

j^a-i ustuwani cylindric(al) 

IjJa^A ustura pi. _/d»U1 asdtlr 2 legend, fable, 
tale, myth, saga 

( £jja**\ usturl fabulous, mythical, leg- 

J}L*I ustul pi. JJ*UI asdtil 2 fleet; squadron 

□ Ji*-1 sts/a (colloq. for jUJ) pi. CjI^L-I 
ustawdt master; foreman, overseer; also 
form of address to those in lower callings, 
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc. 

<JlJ asifa a (asaf) to regret ( Jp or J, 
feel sorry (J* for), be sad (J* about) V do. 

tju-l asaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret | 
!»U**l I j wd asaf ah! oh, what a pity! 
it's too bad! »Ju->U bj wa-yd lal-asafi 
(or only ,Ju-^U) unfortunately; Ja^^\ ~ 
and (Ja--l Jkj bi-kulli asafin do. 

t-i*-! asif and «Ja— -1 aslf regretful, sorry, 
sad, grieved, distressed 

tju-fc ta'assuf regret 

*Jt-T asif regretful, sorry, sad | *£j 
C*~\ j\ir (gaira asifin) I left him without 
regret, I was only too glad to leave him 

<JU (J»j^-U masuf 'alaihi mourned 
(esp. of a dead person, = the late la- 

.JuJ* mu'sif distressing, sad, regret- 

(_i-Ix* nvuta'assif sad, sorry, regretful; 
!«Ju*lt* sorry! 

4-ULL-1 isfdndk and £LL-i isfdnak spinach I 
<jjj ^-Uli-I (ruml) garden orach (Atri- 
plex hortensis, bot.) 

uL-l asfalt asphalt 

Jli^l asfalti asphalt (in compounds) 

^u-l isfanj, isfunj, (Eg. pronun.) isfing sponge 
^fyj^\ isfanji spongy; porous 

o\xJl*>\ isfinddn maple (bot.) 

-I-Ui^l isfiddj white lead, ceruse 

^jL-I is/In pi. «>iUI asafin 2 wedge 

^5-^a—l isflnl: J-i-VI J**JI (AaW) cunei- 
form writing 

J,_^JL-I isqarbitti: ^jij^ q*j* (marad) 
scurvy (meat.) 

«Ju*-i tw?«/ pi. 3uuUI asdqifa, ,J«iUl asdqif 2 
bishop | iiaUVl j-jjj archbishop 
Ji-1 usqufi episcopal 
iui5-i usqufiya episcopate, bishopric 

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^j^jlm\ usqumri, isqumri mackerel (zool.) 

JjA*-l isqll an Oriental variety of sea onion 

X$l»\ (Engl.) iskets pi. -at sketch 

l-clx£~1 iskotlandd, iskutlanda Scotland 

^-lIiSL-1 iskotlandi, iskutlandi Scottish, 
Scotch; (pi. -tin) Scotchman 

USCJ uskujja see iJj&L* 

^JSs-l iskila pi. JTUI asakil 2 seaport, commer- 
cial center (in the East) 

UX-I iskamla stool, footstool 

ZjjjxSL*\ iskandaruna 2 Iskenderon (formerly 
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey) 

4jjJj5L-V' al-iskandarlya Alexandria (city in 
N Egypt) 

LJUj-uSL-I, LJU jlxSC—1 iskandindfiyd Scandi- 

jUjlSsU iskundinafi Scandinavian 

J-l II to sharpen, point, taper (* 

J— I asal (coll.) rush {hot.) 

SJL-1 asala pi. -at thorn, spike, prong; 
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of 
the tongue 

aJL-VI <-Jjj±-\ al-huruf al-asallya the 
letters J, ^ and ^ 

| J-*- 1 asll smooth | J^l .u- (kadd) smooth 

I cheek 

| iJUl asala eliptic, oval form 

J- <j* mu'assal pointed, tapered 

I J^oUt (variant of J^JlrJ) isldmbuli of 

I Istanbul 


I \Xi^J\ islanda and oOj^L-i islanda Iceland 



JjpU— 1 ismd"U 2 Ishmael (legendary ancestor 
of the Arabs and son of Abraham) 

4-LtU-V al-ismd'tllya Ismailia (town 
in Egypt on the Suez Canal); Ismailiam 
(a major branch of the Shiah in medieval 
Islam with numerous subdivisions) 

li^lx" S asmdnjuni sky-blue, azure, cerulean 

ayr*! asmara Asmara (city in Ethiopia) 

c-ir 1 ! asmant cement 

JJjH asmanti cement (adj.) 

j^-i asana i u and asina a to become brackish 
(water) ; to rot, decay, putrify, decompose 

jJF dsin brackish; rotten, putrid 

{jJ\ and ^-1) U! asa u (asw, L-l asan) to 
nurse, treat (a a wound) ; to make peace 
( ju between, among); — ^1 asiya a (^1, 
LI asan) to be sad, grieved, distressed 
II to console, comfort (a s.o.); to nurse 
(a a patient) III to share (one's wordly 
possessions, a with s.o.), be charitable 
(a to s.o.); to assist, support (a s.o.); to 
console, comfort (a s.o.); to treat, cure 
(a, medically) V to be consoled, 
find solace; to take as one's model (uj 
s.o.), emulate, follow {^> s.o., an example) 
VI to share the worldly possessions; to 
assist one another, give mutual assist- 
ance; to give solace to one another, 
console each other 

^-1 asan grief, sorrow, distress 

ljj\ uswa, iswa example, model, pat- 
tern I (-j »j*>\ uswatan hi following the 
model or pattern of, along the lines of; 
in the same manner as, just as, like 

eUU ma'sdh pi. ^-U ma* dsin tragedy, 

(jj*X* masawl and (jjL-U masdm 

^L-b iasiya consolation, comfort 

aU_^. muwdsdh (for mudsdh) consola- 
tion; charity, beneficence 

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j\j**\ iswdr, uswdr pi. jjt-l asdwir 2 , SjjUl 
asdwira bracelet, bangle 

olj-l aswan 2 Aswan (city in S Egypt) 

r-j*-l asuj Sweden 

-1 asujl Swedish; (pi. -tin) Swede 

L*-T dsiya Asia | (^yuJl LJT (sugrd) Asia 

(£^-l dsiyawl Asiatic, Asian (adj. and 

Js^-l asyut 2 Asyut (city in central Egypt) 

J .^ .1 abbreviation of Ja-jV J^iJl »LJl 
Middle East News (news agency), MENA 

< rr J-\ V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley 
(a crowd) 

4jIM usaba pi. <_JUI asa*ih z mixed, 
motley crowd 

SJL^I isblliya 2 Seville (city in SW Spain) 

(>*£! i$bin pi. (>jUI see ,>^ 

^1 asara w (air) to saw (a; — i to 
file, sharpen with a file (a II to 
mark, indicate, state, enter, record (a; to write a note or remark (t->, 
Jp on an application, petition, of an, offi- 
cial); to grant a visa; to provide with a 
visa (Jp 

ji\ asar liveliness, high spirits, exu- 
berance; wildness; insolence, imperti- 

ji\ asir lively, sprightly, in high spirits, 
exuberant; wild; insolent, impertinent, 

jlil* mi stir pi. j£\j* mawdsir 2 saw 

^u la sir issuance of an official 
endorsement; entering a remark; official 
endorsement; visa 

Sj^b ta'slra pi. -at visa | J>»o S^vit 
entry visa; zJ^- »j^ exit visa; S>iU 
j 3 j* t. murur or jU^-1 S^wU transit visa 

jt>jA muassir pi. -tit pointer (of a scale; 
techn.), indicator, needle (of a measuring 
instrument) ; gauge, measuring apparatus; 
indicium, indication ( Jp and <jp of a state 
of affairs, a process, development); index, 
index number (statistics) | jU-VI j$j* 
price index 

j$y mu'assar jagged, serrated; mark- 
ed, designated (^ by, with) 

>L*£\ isa r yd n t L*il a&Cyti Isaiah (biblical 

J-M is fa pi. cJLil astifin awl, punch 

oLiil usntin potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; 

Slit ttsna moss 

jj-il astir Assyria 

<Sjj2>\ aStirl Assyrian (adj. and n.); 
Ojjjj^VI the Assyrians | oUjj^Vl JU 
'*Zm al-a. Assyriology 

l ya^a\ asis pi. ^^-^1 wstts flowerpot 

JUtfl II to close, shut (a door, etc.) 

jj\ isr pi. jU^T tistir covenant, compact, 
contract; load, encumbrance, burden; sin; 
pi. jU?T bonds, ties 

lj^\ tisira pi. j**\j\ awtisir 2 bond, tie 
(fig., e.g., »*y^Jl j~e\j\ a. al-wala bonds 
of friendship); obligation, commitment 

JJw>! istabl pi. -at stable, barn 

uL^jL**! isfahtin* Isfahan (city in W central 

J^l asula u (SJLstfl asala) to be or become 
firmly rooted; to be firmly established; 
to be of noble origin II to found (a, 
give (a) a firm foundation, establish 
the foundation or origin of (a) V to be 

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or become firmly rooted, deep-rooted, 
ingrained; to take root, be or become 
firmly established; to derive one's origin 
(j-o from) X to uproot, root out, extir- 
pate, exterminate, annihilate (a; 
to remove (a an organ by a surgical 
operation) | <cib jJiJ (safatahu) to 
eradicate, eliminate radically 

J-^.1 ad pi. dj^p\ usul root; trunk (of 
a tree); origin, source; inception; cause, 
reason; descent, lineage, stock (esp., one 
of a noble character) ; foundation, funda- 
ment, basis; the original (e.g., of a book, 
of a work of art) ; original version; original 
document; autograph; original script; 
theoretical basis, general foundation (as 
opposed to ?ji far' practical application) ; 
— pi. J^tfi usul principles, fundamentals, 
rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science); 
rules; basic rules, principles, axioms; code 
of conduct; guidelines; ancestors, pro- 
genitors, forefathers; real estate, landed 
property; assets {fin.); — *>U»I aslan origi- 
nally, primarily; (with neg.) by no means, 
not at all, not in the least | J** VI J and 
jSi\ J-^l j originally, at first; really, 
actually; <^jkf J-^1 (tijari) fund (com.); 
commercial firm (Magr.);jj£ J^i (mu- 
harrar) original script, j^SC* Ju^l (mukar* 
rar) duplicate; H*aJI J^l a. ad-dimdg 
brain stem (anat); J-^ai Vj *J J-*oi V {asla, 
faskt) of lowly origin (person); with- 
out basis or foundation; false, artificial 
(speech); JJLo ^ ^1 (dimasq) he is 
from Damascus; <ui)1 J>^>l u. al-fiqh the 
4 foundations of Islamic jurisprudence, 
i.e., Koran, Sunna, qiyds (analogy) and 
ijma r (consensus); olj <J_j^1 fixed assets 
(ftn.); p_^^-j J^vcl assets and liabilities; 
<LJL*4; 6j^>\ capital assets {fin.); Jj-^1 
4jjU^ Caqdriya) real assets; (>J|>aJ1 J>*^ 
jurisprudence; Oj^L. Jj^l immediate 
ancestors; v*^' OUUJJ J>*»1 (jazai- 
ya) code of criminal procedure (jur.) ; Jj«*1 
Xae-i^AA (mudd'afa) double-entry book- 

keeping; J^Vi v— >- (hamba) properly, 
in conformity with regulations 

J^) asli original, primary, primal, 
initial; genuine, authentic, pure; basic, 
fundamental, principal, chief, main; reg- 
ular; real, true, actual | J^>VI j^iJI (to- 
man) cost price; iJ-^Vl ol^J-l (jihdt) the 
cardinal points (of the compass); J^l jAp 
Cadad) cardinal number; J^»f jj*. ( f udw) 
regular member; ^>\ JLj fundamental 
education; J^VI JtUJI the actual (or 
real) culprit; ll^\ *iJ (luga) mother 

4JU-1 asaku boa {zool.) 

J^l usuli in accordance with the 
rules, conforming to prevailing prin- 
ciples; proper, regular; traditional, usual; 

J-^l asil pi. oL*i usala' 2 of pure, 
noble origin ; original, authentic, genuine ; 
pure; proper, actual; firm, solid; sound, 
reasonable, sensible; of strong, unswerv- 
ing character, steadfast; deep-rooted; 
native, indigenous j J~-<*Vi J-^>Vl the 
actual reason; ^1^1 J^' of sound, 
unerring judgment 

J~m«I asll pi. JU*T dsdl, JjL-*1 asd'il 2 
time before sunset, late afternoon 

aJL*! asdla firmness, steadfastness, 
strength of character; nobility of ascent, 
purity of origin; asdlatan ir iediately, 
directly, personally | ^T^Jl 5' \ a. ar-ra'y 
clarity and firmness of .dgment; ju- 
diciousness ; <-Ju ^ 4JL9V U spontaneously, 
of one's own accord, in one's own name, 
personally, privately (as opposed to 
bji. jp IjLlILj); <uLJj aJLs^I asdlatan wa- 
niyabatan directly and indirectly 

aJL^u ta'slla pedigree, genealogy 

J-^b ta'assul deep-rootedness 

(jUziL-1 istisdl extirpation, extermina- 
tion, (radical) elimination; removal by 

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J^*k« mutaassil deep-rooted, deep- 
seated; chronic (illness) 

J^"bi. muta'asil of common origin (said 
of several things) 

Ja-Ui atit the moaning bray of a camel 

X J*\ atara i u {atr) and II to bend, curve 

jltl itdr pi. -a(, ^Ul wtor frame (also of a 
door, of eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); 
hoop (of a barrel, etc.); skeleton, outline 
(of an action); {Tun., Alg., Mvr., as a 
loan translation from Fr. cadre) skeleton 
organization, cadre, permanent staff, (pi. 
oljU»l) functionary, leading official or 
employee | jll»! <j (with foil, genit.) 
within the compass of, within the scope 
of (e.g., an event, an activity); O^LaJi 
jLW {Magr.) skeleton law 

SjU»l itdra rim, felly (of a wheel) 
jjlU iiarl framelike, hoop-shaped 

z *iJ&\ see isj^ 

iip^i utrugvlla, atrugulla turtledove 

bjjt*\ atrun — bjjbi 

dJUj^tVi, J-klkVl al-atlantik, al-atlantlq the 

JLj^WI atlantiql and JaJ^l a/fan^i At- 

^JW ate 2 satin; (pi. ^JtU ataW) atlas, 
volume of geographical maps; ( _ r ii»Vl > 
^jJ^VI JL>- Atlas Mountains 

tS Jl»l a tlasl Atlantic; ^JfiM the Atlan- 
tic | ^JWI oJ- and ^JLUVI .jJW (frity) 
the North Atlantic Treaty, the Atlantic 

Jm&\ aUanft Atlantic | ^klkVi «JJU- and 
jaLVt JU-I (A»7/) the North Atlantic 
Treaty, the Atlantic Pact 

pk1 alwm sea turtle 

Ul a^a, UT o^a pi. Cj\j*\ agawat aga, lord, 
master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain 

./a 1*1 agadir 2 Agadir (city in Morocco) 

jLel agabdni (syr.) a kind of native muslin 
embroidered with silk 

jjjy^l at-igriq, 4*;U"^I al-agariqa the ancient 

Jj^pI t^n^t classical Greek (adj.); a 
Greek (of antiquity) 

( _ r k-^l agusfus August (month) 

»J»1 V to grumble, mutter in complaint (y* 

.Jsl ujf dirt (in the ears or under the 
nails), earwax, cerumen 

«J»i ujf inter j. expressing anger or dis- 

^iil ajaf displeasure; grumbling, grum- 

uJisfa tcfajfuf displeasure; grumbling, 

*3yl afraqa Africanization 

£j*^\ al-ifranj the Franks, the Europeans | 
£^l ^i Europe 

^fjil ifranji European 

^J^l ifransl French; i-J^J^I the French 
language; u^-JyVI the French 

ijj~>>AjJ>\ afro-asiyawi Afro-Asiatic 

yj*\ ifrlz pi. Jrjlil afariz 2 frieze; edge; curb; 
sidewalk | *]«^l yj\ L al-mahatta plat- 
form (of a railroad station) ; Jaj U- 1 j j\ 
molding (arch.) 

LJaj^i afriqiya (also ifriqiya) and Ujy ! a/rSgw 
Africa | ij^J-1 LrflJ^il (janubiya), *-jji»- 
Liyl and tJajy 1 (-f^-*- South Africa; Li^l 
y^l {SamdUya) and Lijil JtpS North 

4-Jajy I ifriqiya 2 Ifriqiya, medieval name 
for central N Africa (comprising approx. 

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present-day Tripolitania, Tunisia and 
E Algeria) 

Jljs\ ifriqi, now usually pronounced 
afrlqi African; (pi. -un, SSjUl afdriqa) an 

Jjjil (Ft. ami) afrll (Alg., Tun.) April 

^ jiT a/irin bravo ! well done ! 

j>dLil afsintin, ifsantin wormwood, absinthe 
(Artemisia absinthium; 60/.) 

C-i-il (Engl.) a/*e£ offset (typ.) 

(>JLjl «/&?» pi. ^JtUt afd$ln 2 litany (CAr.) 

oUiVi al-afgan the Afghans; Afghanistan 
jlx-JUil afganistan 2 Afghanistan 
jUil afgani Afghan (adj. and n.) 

jil w/g, u/ug pi. JliT a/ag horizon; range 
of vision, field of vision; — JliT distant 
lands, faraway countries, remote regions; 
provinces, interior of the country (as 
distinguished from the capital) [ jliT 
u *j t )}\ a. al-ard the remotest parts of the 
earth; ^">UI JUT a. al-bilad the outlying 
portions of the country; »Oj-b- jliT new 
horizons; jU^I <u^Ji CjJI^-1 (mhratuhu) 
his fame spread throughout the world; 
JUVI ilXi Sudddd al-d. foreigners, tra- 

Jil ujql horizontal 

jttT dfdql coming from a distant 
country or region 

<3Lil affdq wandering, roving, roaming; 
(pi. -tin) tramp, vagabond; hoodlum 

iilil afaka i (afk) and afika a (ifk, afk, afak, 
£j\ ufuk) to lie, tell a lie 

dls\ ifk and SSCjI afika pi. dijiil afd'ik 2 
lie, untruth, falsehood 

illil o£fict£ liar, lying 

Jil a/aJa « i (Jyl w/uZ) to go down, set (stars) 
Jjil »/mZ setting (of stars) 

JiT o/S transitory, passing 

j^Wil afldtun 2 Plato 

jjL'^jt afldtuni Platonic; (pi. -fin) a 

iJ^U^Ail afldtuniya Platonism | «J^WiVI 
(iij-U-l) ijJU-JLl (muhdata, hadita) neo- 

(j^U^lil aflutin 2 Plotinus 

jil o/o» stupidity 

^.il afln and UjiL ma* fun stupid, 
foolish, fatuous; fool 

(j-ci! afandl pi. -iya gentleman (when refer- 
ring to non-Europeans wearing Western 
clothes and the tarboosh, formerly, after 
the name, also as a polite title, = Mr. 
So-and-so); (eg.) p-U*l afandimf Sir! (eg.) 
afandim? (I beg your) pardon? What did 
you say? 

j5lT>il (It. avvocato) avokdto advocate, lawyer, 
attorney | j>mJI ^jITyVi representative of 
the attorney general (— Fr. avocat 

Jix3>\ (Fr. affiche) afis pi. -a( placard, bill, 

jj-il afyun opium | bjS^\ ryj ruh al-a. 

Si I uqqa pi. -at oka, a weight, in Eg. — 
1.248 kg, in Syr. = 1.282 kg 

cJ}* muaqqat effective for a certain time, for 
a time only, temporary, transitory, pro- 
visional J \z*ja temporarily ; SsJj* hj*** (bi~ 
sura) do. ; 4x3j* <*jS^>~ provisional govern- 
ment; see also C^j* muwaqqat 

jlji-l uqhuvxln see under ji- 

j> SbjJl aqrabddin composite medicament | ip 
jol^s^l r ilm al-a. pharmaceutics, phar- 

,Jj iljyl aqrabddini pharmaceutic (al) 

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iz$l aqit cottage cheese 

-Li* I iqlid look up alphabetically 

]ii aqlama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt, 
adjust H ta aqlama to acclimatize (o.s.) 

Ji\ iqlim pi. JUI aqdlim 2 climate; geo- 
graphical zone; area, region; province, 
district; administrative district; JUVl 
the country, countryside, provinces (as 
opposed to the capital) 

L5r *~lSl iqlimi climatic; regional, local; 
territorial | v^iS^I oLii (miyah) terri- 
torial waters 

iLJGi! iqlimlya regionalism 

oJUl iqlid pi. JLllil aqalid 2 key 

^-LJUI iqlidis 1 Euclid 

(_jJlJL51 iqlidi Euclidean 

*jj\ uqnum pi. -J li I aqariim 2 hypostasis, 
divine person within the Trinity (Chr.); 
constitutive element 

aIjS! (Gr. eixcbv) iquna icon (Chr.) 

i^jjLSl uqyanusiya Oceania 

tpS"l akkddi Akkadian 

jolf I (Mor. spelling) agadir 2 Agadir (city in 

^ j IT I akadimi academic 

ijjcilTI akadimiya pi. -af academy 

j-jiT! oktobir October 

a5"i II to assure (a J s.o. of, ul that); to give 
assurance (a <j to s.o. of); to confirm 
(a, a view, a report, a fact, etc.); 
to corroborate (J* or a; to empha- 
size, stress, underscore (Jp, ,jl that), 
place special emphasis (Jp on) V to be or 
become convinced, convince o.s.; to be- 
come certain (<> of; to ascertain (<y; to be confirmed (view, report, fact, 
etc.); to prove to be true (J to s.o.), be- 

come clear; to be certain or sure; to be 
undeniable, be urgent (need) 

JLjTb to* kid pi. -at assurance; confirma- 
tion; emphasis; stylistic intensification 
of a meaning (gram.) | JuTI^Lj most cer- 
tainly! of course ! CjIJUI A-Sb self-asser- 
tion; -uTldl pV the affirmative particle la- 

jTIj ta'akkud assurance, reassurance 

-uTl akid certain, sure; firm (resolve); 
definite (desire); urgent, imperative 
(need); 1x5" I akidan certainly! surely! 

jSj* mtCakkad certain, definite, sure; 

-lTIu mutiCakkid convinced (^ of) 

yi akara i (akr) to plow, till, cultivate (a 
the land) 
jlTl akkdr pi. -tin, ljf\ akara plowman 

2 S J Tl ukra pi. jT I ukar ball (for playing) | 
l-jLJI y I round door knob 

Lc jTl ekzemd eczema (med.) 

{J S\ l*£\ asi rr at iks X-rays 

^jwS'l (Engl.) iksibres (Eg. pronun.) express 

Ij^Xl extra 

^.^S\ oksizen oxygen 

JUi' I aksada (derived from JL—S"" I , see below) 
to oxidize, cause to rust II ta aksada to 
oxidize, rust, become rusty 

»JL~r I aksada oxidation 

xSy miCaksid oxidizing agent 

JlSJa mu'aksad oxidized 

j\j^S\ (Fr. accessoire) akseswdr pi. -at acces- 
sories, extras, fittings (automobile) ; ladies 1 
accessories; props, sets (theat.) 

2jyL£'\ oksjord Oxford 

^^yjfl oksizen oxygen 

^wSvo jjV j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 



JL— S"i uksid, a~~. Sj\ pi. jl.-K'I akastd 2 oxide 
(chem.) | X--TI Jjl awwal u, monoxide, 
-U-Tl JLj dioxide; Oj^&l jl^TI m. al- 
karbon carbon oxide ; OjjjSOl •JL-.Tl (JIj) Jjl 
carbon monoxide (dioxide); JU -U- 1 JU-Tl 
ferrous oxide 

j^-Tl i&slr elixir 

L>-jJ_^ r -S' 1 aksiyolojiyd axiology, theory of 

ijsfl akuff see i„i5* 

Jp 1 akala u (akl, JpU makal) to eat (a; 
to eat up, consume, swallow, devour, 
destroy (a; to eat, gnaw (a at), 
eat away, corrode, erode (a; to 
spend unlawfully (a, enrich o.s., 
feather one's nest (a with) | j*j}\ <uU Jf I 
Lj^ij (dahru, Sariba) to be old and worn 
out, be time worn; \jj\ JTI (ribd) to take 
usurious interest; ^JjxSOI JSj; ^1 j* Lu 
ya'lamu min aina tiikalu l-katif he 
knows how to tackle the matter properly; 
a4U- 4iTl (jilduhu) his skin itched; <j jTl 
tf? (sahn) to eat off a plate; ***- Jfl 
(haqqahu) to encroach upon s.o.'s rights 
II and IV to give s.o. (a) (a) to eat, 
feed (a * s.o, Ill to eat, dine (o with 
s.o.) V to be devoured, be consumed; to 
be eaten away, corrode, undergo cor- 
rosion; to become old, worn, timeworn, 
full of cracks; to be destroyed by cor- 
rosion VI — V 

Jp) aid food; meal, repast; fodder, 
feed | JjS VI liji. gurfat al-a. dining room; 
(eg.) j>uJ\ JjTl a. al-bahr land washed 
away by the sea or the Nile (as opposed 
to ^»JI ^yk); j£j5\ fjl- JTI a. luhum al- 
basar cannibalism, anthropophagy 

Jffi ukul, ukl food; fruit | alTl JT to 
bear fruit 

ilTl akla pi. akaldt meal, repast; — 
ukla bite, morsel 

O lJ15~I ukdl prurigo, itch eruption 

J IS' I akkal, ^S\ akil, Jj5~ I akul vora- 
cious, gluttonous; hearty eater, gour- 
mand, glutton 

JTl« ma'kal pi. J£"U ma'dkil 2 food, 

JSj ta'akkul wear; corrosion; erosion 

JS"& id akul wear; corrosion; erosion 

JlSo*l itikdl erosion (geol.) 

JST akil eater | ^JuJI -»jJ- J5^T a. luhum 
al-basar cannibal 

iiT T aKfo gangrenous sore 

J^SU makul eatable, edible ; food, nour- 
ishment; pi. oV^S"Ufood, foodstuffs, eat- 
ables, edibles 

Jf ij* mu'dkil table companion 

jTlu muta'akkil and <JS"lu muta'dkil 

corroded; eroded; worn, timeworn; full 

of cracks ; rusty, rust -eaten 

4;JLin aklaseh pi. ~dt (eg.) cliche 

iSl^T' ikllrikl cleric (al) 

^j^iS"! iklirus clergy (Chr.) 

V"J-^' ikllruslya clericalism 

Jo^r^iTl ffinfe cleric (al) 

^LjLJo i ikllnlki clinical 

*&\ akama pi. -a(, *lfl ifcam, fl ukum, 
/•(TT flfa (coll. jfl afcara) hill; reef; 
heap, pile | U»ljj U aTV! »bj (ward*a) 
something's fishy! there is more to it 
than meets tjie eye 

bji § sj_£'\ akordyun, akordiycm accordion (mus.) 

J I ill pact, covenant; blood relationship, 

2 V' a-ld and LI a-md see I a 

8 V! aZasee 1 ^! 

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3 Vt alia (= V ol an Id) lest, that . 
order that . . . not, so as not to 

not, in 

4 VI itta (= V ol in Id) unless, if not; except, 
save ; (with a preceding negation:) VI — V, 
VI — L., V' — (I, etc., only, nothing but, 
just; not till, not before | VI ^Jlill Sje-UJI 
Loj (ilia rub* an) it is a quarter to two; 
ol VI ilia anna except that . . .; {intro- 
ducing the final clause of concessive sen- 
tences with "although, even if, despite 
the fact that 1 ') still, yet; (introducing 
main clauses) yet, however, but, never- 
theless; !il VI ilia ida unless, if not; ex- 
cept when; V'j wa-illa (and if not — ) 
otherwise, or else; y>j VI ilia wa-huwa 
(with a preceding negation) unless he . . . , 
except that he . . .; ol VI ^ Uj wa-ma 
hiya ilia an (with following verb in perf.) 
it was not long until . . .; presently, 
forthwith; J>- . . . ol VI ^ l» j wa-md hiya 
ilia an . . . hatta no sooner had he . . . 
than . . ., e.g., J*i J^ f b\ VI j> U 
(hamma) he had no sooner made hia plan 
than he carried it out, see also U 4. ; j^l V 
4J I V I (azunnu) I am quite sure that he . . . 

i^-Vl alaska Alaska 

^Vl aldy and ^VT dldy (Turk.) pi. -at (for- 
merly, mil.) regiment 

1 <_JI alaba u i (alb) to gather, join forces, 
rally II to incite (Jp a s.o. against) V to 
rally, band together, plot, conspire (J* 

*_JI ilb a crowd (of people) which rallies 
and sticks together | Jb-lj t_Ji 4-U ^* 
they are united against him, they are 
sworn to oppose him 

2 i_JVl JL»- jibal al-alb the Alps 

^!l albi Alpine | ^Jl W> (tazalluj) Alpine 

oU VI al-alhdn the Albanians 
LjLJI atbaniya Albania 

fjjl album album 

£l abbreviation of «^T Jl ila dkirihl and 
so on, etc. 

^JJI aUadi, f, JJl allati, pi. m. ^JUl aUadina 
f. J^Ji alldtl, J\j\i\ allawdti, J^UI alld'i 
(relative pronoun) he who, that which; 
who, which, that | Jllj LdUl ji*j ba'da 
l-lutayyd wa-llati after lengthy dis- 
cussions, after much ado 

^-IjJl (Fr. Alsace) alzds 2 Alsace (region of 
NE France) 

^Jl II to belittle, disparage ( Jp s.o.) 

^jiaJt (It.) alto alto (voice register) 

1 i_jJl alf pi. JsjJl uluf, J>VT aldf thousand; 
millennium | ZJdj* J*J\ (mu'allafa) or 
2iJJ* J»VT thousands and thousands; 
o>l VI Cj\j±e> 'aSardt al-u. tens of thou- 
sands; o^JVI oli. mi at al-u. hundreds 
of thousands; «J»jJVLj \J^>j they arrived 
by the thousands 

JJI alfi: JJI jlp ('id) millennial cele- 
bration, millenary 

2 i_jjl alif name of the letter I | <JU Jl <uJ1 <> 
from beginning to end, from A to Z; 
opUj <uJi C»j*i (wa-yd'ahu) he knows it 
from A to Z; »b ujjl ABC; Jb lJJI alpha- 

3 *JJI a&/a o (a//) to be acquainted, familiar, 
conversant (a with; to be on 
intimate terms (a with s.o.); to be or get 
accustomed, used, habituated (a to); to 
like (a, be fond of (a); to become 
tame II to accustom, habituate (a » s.o. 
to; to tame, domesticate (a an 
animal); to form (a e.g., a committee, 
a government); to unite, join, combine, 
put together (<ju different things); to 
compile, compose, write (a a book) | *JJI 
j^-jJlj (jo to bring people back to har- 
mony, reconcile people with each other 
V to be composed, be made up, consist (j* 

ss*C&*a jj^ jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 


of); to be united, be combined VI to be 
attuned to each other, be in tune, be 
in harmony; to harmonize (« with) 
VIII to be united, be linked, be connected; 
to be on familiar, intimate terms (c~» 
with); to form a coalition (pol.); to fit, 
suit (£., go well, agree, harmonize 
(p* with); to be well-ordered, neat, tidy 
X to seek the intimacy, court the friend- 
ship (e of S.O.) 

tJJl ilf pi. (J»Vi ulldf intimate; close 
friend, intimate, confidant; lover 

<a}\ ulfa familiarity, intimacy; friend- 
ship, love, affection; union, concord, 
harmony, congeniality 

«JJI allf familiar, intimate; tame, do- 
mesticated (animal); friendly, amicable, 
genial; (pi. wu^l aWif 2 ) intimate, close 
friend, associate, companion 

Jj_jJI aluf familiar, intimate; tame, 
domesticated (animal) ; attached, devoted, 

<JhJL ma'laf object of familiarity 

<JuJIj ta'lif formation (e.g., of a govern- 
ment) ; union, junction, combination d>j 
of separate things); composition, syn- 
thesis, formation (with genit.) of various 
components into a whole; literary work; 
composition, compilation, writing (of a 
book, of an article); (pi. tJJlj ta'dlif 2 , 
<JaJ\J>) work, book, publication | <JJtj 
plijVl dialing a number (by telephone) 

«JJ u ta'aluf harmony ; familiarity, 
intimacy, mutual affection ; comradeship, 
camaraderie ; solidarity 

iji^cj\ itilaf concord, harmony; agree- 
ment (** with); union; coalition, entente 

jlWl itilaf % coalition- (in com- 
pounds) | lU^I ojljj coalition cabinet 

Jr^Jt* ma'luf familiar, accustomed; 
usual, customary; custom, usage 

ijjj* mu'allif pi. -un author, writer; — 
mu'allaf composed, consisting, made up 
(o- of); written, compiled; (pi. -at) book, 
publication; see also 1 ( JJI alf 

»JiJLu muta*alif harmonious 

4 UJI a*£\ asi"at alf a alpha rays (phys.) 

jJI alaqa i (alq) to shine, radiate, flash, 
glitter, glisten; to sparkle V do. | SjU- j}\s 
(sa'ddatan) to radiate with joy VIII = 

jJI alaq brightness, brilliance 

<3Vi allaq bright, shining, brilliant, ra- 
diant; glittering, flashing, sparkling 

jJu ta*alluq glow, radiance, effulgence 

jjt;u muta'attiq bright, shining, bril- 
liant, radiant 

jj^SJl elektrod, iliktrod pi. -at electrode 

OjJ&Jl elektron, iliktron pi. -at electron 

<jjj&}\ elektroni, iliktroni electronic | 
5JjjiS3l <jT electronic apparatus; «_,— U- 
Jjj^SCll electronic computer; Jjj&\ Jap 
i'aql) electronic computer; Jjj^JI ^ 
(mukk) electronic brain 

oUjjoOI elektroniyat, iliktroniyat elec- 

1LSCJI alkala alkylation (oil refining; from 
^•^LSO!, Engl, alkylate) 

1 ^ii alima a (alam) to be in pain, feel pain; 
to suffer (<-* from II and IV to 
cause pain or suffering (« to s.o.), pain, 
ache, hurt (o s.o.) V = I; to complain 

jll alam pi. ^\ alam pain, ache, 
suffering, agony | 4JL-4J *VT (nafsdniya) 
mental agony; ^^\ g^J usbu e al-a. 
Passion Week {Chr.); a^\ S^j zahrat 
al-d. passionflower; #^1 &J* Via Dolo- 
rosa ; path of suffering 

Ji allm aching, sore; sad, grievous, 
painful, excruciating; hurting 

xw&o jjV j) Cuio Jj&L&a jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



iT dlam 2 more painful { Jp for s.o.) 

jIIj ta'attum sensation of pain, pain, 

{j* mu y lim aching, painful; sad, griev- 
ous, distressing 

|Itu muta'attim aching, painful; in 
pain, suffering, deeply afflicted ; tormented 

*p*y 1 ila-ma see Jf 

(^-Ui almas (al sometimes interpreted as 
definite article) diamond 

oil VI al-alman the Germans 

Jill almdnl German (adj . and n.) ; SJ UV I 
German, the German language | ijj^J-l 
4JULVI y»ljfjjcAH (dimuqrdtlya) German 
Democratic Republic 

L*UI almdniyd Germany J Li HI 4jjj^»- 
Sj^UiVl {ittihdd,lya) and LJlil ajj^^*- 
iJlj^l (fidrdliya) Federal Republic of 
Germany, (inofficial designation: 4j J>fr JJ 
iJULVI SJIj^aJ' German Federal Republic) 

iJUi almaniya German character or 
characteristics, Germanity 

^1 II ta'almana to be Germanized; to become 
a German or like a German; to behave like 
the Germans, take on or imitate German 
characteristics or traits 

fj-jll aktmonyum (Eg. pronun.) aluminum 

<JI II to deify (* s.o.), make a god of s.o. (0) 
V to become a deity, a godhead; to deify 

4JI, 9 VI ildh pi. UT dliha god, deity, 

<* VI ildhapl. -dt goddess 

J»\> ^Vl ildhl divine, of God; theo- 
logical; oLaVVI al-ildHydt theological, 
spiritual concerns | C^UVVI L r ilm al-L 

oil alldh Allah, God (as the One and 
Only) J dilj wa-llahi by God! Jjil bi-lldhi 

and «i-Lip djaU for God's sake, I implore 
you, I beg of you; 4p 4) Zi-JZaAi darruka 
exclamation of admiration and praise, 
see jj; »L£JI 10a ^ Jil (&j,f) h God, 
what a winter! (Je6.) 

^1 alldhumma O God! | VI JUI (ffi) 
unless, were it not that, except that, or 
at best (after a negative statement); 
lil ^fUl {idd) at least if or when; if only; 
j* f$>\ (na'am) by God, yes! most 

"<^Ji\ uluhlya divine power, divinity 

*J\j ta'lih deification, apotheosis; theism 

<JT dlih (pagan) god 

UT dliha pi. -at goddess 

^T dlihi divine 

till* miUa'allih divine, heavenly 

Oy^l etc., see o^*V 

i yi) VI aid u to neglect or fail to do, not to 
do (J, desist, refrain (j from IjJL. V to stop at nothing, be eagerly 
or uninterruptedly active, be tireless (*, a 
in a matter or for s.o. ; *, also j*, in doing; IjU-I UyL V {is'ddan) he is con- 
stantly striving to make her happy; a^jL V 
liU>|j Uw*i (nushan) he never lets up 
giving him advice and guidance; jJt V 
j 1^*. (jahdan) he will go to any length, 
he spares no effort, goes out of his way 
for IV to swear | jl *~J6 J* jT he pro- 
mised himself that he . . . 
»}U ild' oath 

yT(Fr. hallo) hello! 

U^JI aluminyd and fj~*J\ aluminyom alu- 

X JI *'&* (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; 
till, until; 01 Jl (conj.) until | ^T Jl 
(dkirihi) and so forth, et cetera; dlli Jl 
besides, moreover, furthermore, in ad- 
dition to that; Op Jl till tomorrow! 
•LIU I Jl (liqa 3 ) good -by! fl\ ildma 

ss*C&*a jj^ jl Cuio JaJmLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- c"* J^'j^i J^Vi ^Svpwo 



(= L. Jl) up to where? how far? JL. Jl 
till when? how long? Je dJLJl ( f annl) 
get away from me! away with you! 
dlii JU Jl (janibi d.) besides, moreover, 
in addition to that; JU J I IJU (with 
genit.) add to this that . . .; jl Jl IJU 
moreover, furthermore; dIB jf Jl (gairi 
d.) and the like; <dl Uj and the like, et 
cetera; (*fJI) <J' ,>j (wa-man) and other 
people like that; dJLJl (addressing the read- 
er) now here you have . . . ; here is (are) . . . ; 
following is (are) ..., e.g., U J^jLSJl Jlj 
in the following, the reader will find 
what...; ^j^I J' Jlj^ V.A'' (uslub 
'ibrani) a style of Hebrew approximating 
Arabic; iilS Jl Vj IJU Jl V neither this 
way nor that way, belonging to neither 
group; *iJJI j**i\ it's up to you, the 
decision is yours; *Uz Jl at his right- 
hand side; (jwJI iS a&\ Jl (aqsd l-y.) on 
the extreme right; j- v>^' J' £*i (y a * 
qa r u, janub) it is situated south of ... ; 
4Jj£m J I ^Li^ Ujj (mu'tadila) light to 
moderate winds 

2 »VT a/a' (pi. of Jl ilan) benefits, bless- 

8 1JI alya pi. alaydt fat tail (of a sheep); — 
t/ya buttock 

oUI iliydda Iliad 

M am or? (introducing the second member 
of an alternative question, also ^1 pi am 

2 i.l ama pi. »LI tma', ol^.! amawdY bond- 
maid, slave girl 

I 3 p' amma u (amm) to go, betake o.s., repair 
(* to a place), go to see (« s.o.); — (i.L.1 
imdma) to lead the way, lead by one's 
example (» s.o.); to lead (* s.o.) in prayer; 
— (o_^l umuma) to be or become a 
mother II to nationalize (a; to dis- 
possess (a private property, in a socialist 
economic system) V to go, betake o.s., 

repair (a to a place), go to see (* s.o.) 
VIII to follow the example (t-i of s.o.) 

pi umm pi. c»lfJ ummahdt mother; 
source, origin; basis, foundation; original, 
original version (of a book); the gist, 
essence of; (as attribute) original, 
primary, basic, parent; pi. ol^J matrix 
(typ') I <jiA A u - wwaiq screech owl (zool.) ; 
b\j*>- >•! u. ji f ran Egyptian vulture (zool.) ; 
4~sU~l M (jdfiya) dura mater (anat.); A 
jJ-\ u. al-hibr cuttlefish, squid (zool.); 
t j— J- 1 pi «. al-hasan (magr.) nightingale; 
djJ~\ pVl (hanun) pia mater (amif.); 
J^U-I pi V" aUkulul river mussel (zoo£.); 


•J-5 p 1 

ii. durman Omdurman (city in 

central Sudan, opposite Khartoum); pi 
f-U-dl u. ad-dimdg meninges (anat.); pi 
^f^Ji u. ar-ras skull, brain; cerebral mem- 
brane, meninges (anat.); <>*jjIj hj\ A 
u. arba f wa-arba r in centipede (zool.); 
iir 1 pi u. samla(ta) this world, the worldly 
pleasures; (>*il pL bi-u. al-ain or <£-& pU 
with one's own eyes; |*-f-oi p^ «j-i*^ (&*- 
«. a r yunihim) they saw it with their own 
eyes; oT^aJl pi and «_jIi£jI pi the first 
sura of the Koran; oji pi u. qarn rhino- 
ceros (zool.); iSy^ A u, al-qura Mecca; 
^ jJiJI pi u. al-qaiwain Umm al Qaiwain, 
name of an emirate on the Persian Gulf; 
i^b&l pi also: the original text of the 
Book from which Koranic revelation 
derives ; the uncontested portions of the 
Koran; p^JI pi the Milky Way; $>J\ pi 
u. al-watan capital, metropolis; p^l SS^JJl 
(sirka) parent company (com.); pVI j*~d\ 
pi. pVI jj^~d\ (sakr, sukur) primitive 
rock, parent rock; #Vl SiUl (luga) mother 
tongue ; £> -i Iji- 1 O Lf. 1 the most important 
events; J»jjL\ olf»l matrix (typ.); CjI$*\ 
JjL.1I the main problems; l __Ju>*-^aJI oLf.1 
w. as-suhuf the leading, most highly - 
respected newspapers; JiUaill oL^.1 the 
principal virtues; <_^xS3l cA^A %. al-kutub 
handbooks, basic books, essential works; 
(>w»jil olfil w. fli-mw'mwm Mohammed's 

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<*\ Ultima pi. f\ umam nation, people; 
community | -Urf. i*l Mohammed's com- 
munity, the Mohammedans; «JU«dtl v^l 
(muttahida) the United Nations; i.VI 
i*j^*Jl the Arab nation, the sum total of all 

t/1 umm l maternal, motherly; illiterate 
uneducated; (pi. -un) an illiterate 

4~*l ummiya illiteracy; see also under 

<yl umaml international; UNO (in com- 
pounds) | ijtlM iL^Jl (haia), <Si\ iUiiil 
(munazzama) the United Nations Organ- 

i-jfi umamlya Internationale (as feder- 
ation of socialist parties) 

X*ja\ umuma motherhood; motherli- 
ness, maternity 

* LI amama (prep.) in front of; in the 
presence of; facing, in the face of, opposite 
to | pLVI Jl (a,mami) to the front, for- 
ward, onward, ahead; ^L^U forward 
march! (command; mil.); Jki\ >»L*Al (un- 
zur) eyes front! (command; mil.); ^jSo J 
ui VI <uLI (ilia an) he had no other 

alternative but to 

r ! 




<uLI iS aj> to stride ahead, go straight 
ahead, continue straight forward; fLIjU 
to win a match from . . ., *LI j~±- and 
/•LI Ajp I or /> LI p* (huzima) to lose against 
or to (a team or opponent, esp. in. 
sports), be defeated by . . .; >»LI jl. ILUI 
(iqamatu saddin) erection of a bulwark 
against , . .; pLi oU^*il SJljl (izdlatu 
1-mvL awwiqai) removal of obstacles or 
hindrances standing in the way of . . . ; 
**Li iJaij (waqafa) to oppose, resist, stop, 

t^LI amdmi front, fore-, anterior, for- 
ward, foremost | ^*LI SkaJ (nuqta) outpost 

l»LI imam pi, He I a*imma, Sx I ayimma 
imam, prayer leader; leader; master; 
plumb line; standard, criterion | j^UVI « I 

dimmat al-i. the old teaching author- 
ities or spiritual leaders of Islam; iL^ii 
jf^l I p LV I (aA;6ar) title of high-ranking 
religious dignitaries (esp. of the Rector 
of Azhar University) 

<*U1 imdma imamah, function or office 
of the prayer leader; imamate; leading 
position; precedence 

oL»LI imdmiydt standards 

cJ& tcCmim pi. -at nationalization 

J LI a-md see I a 

2 LI ammd (with foil. J» fa) as to, as for, as 
far as... is concerned; but; yet, how- 
ever, on the other hand | JUo Ul (ba'du) 
(a formular phrase linking introduction 
and actual subject of a book or letter, 
approx, :) now then..., now to our 
topic: . . .; jc LI as to, as for, ^c LI 
^i ('anni, fa-la) as far as I'm concerned, 

3 LI immd if; Llj — LI be it — or, either — 
or (also j\ — Ll) 

<»L.I imbdba 2 Embabeh (a section of Giza) 

(^tL.1 ombdsi see ^Lijl (alphabetically) 

j^>\jv\ imbardtur, imbarator pi. -at, %Js>lA 
abdtira emperor 

iSjjb\j^*\ imbaraturi, imbaratori im- 
perialist (ic) 

*iJjklj\*l imbardtunya, imbaratoriya 
pi. -at empire, imperium; imperialism [ 
4j jU*z-l 4uJ&\jy*\ colonial empire 

JL^I imbiriydll imperialistic; (pi. -un) im- 

iJL^I imbiriydliya imperialism 

j^l ambir, amber pl.^LI amdbir 2 ampere (el.) 

Jj-J imbiq = J^wl 

c~»\ ami crookedness, curvedness, curvation, 
curvature; weakness 

'wSvo jj^ jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 

jl.1 amad pi. iLi amad final point, goal, end, 
limit; (limited) time, stretch of time; 
(utmost) extent, scope | -L*u x.1 far dis- 
tance; -L>u J- 1 JL. since an early date, for 
a long time (past); »\J-\ X>\ a. al-hayah 
life span, life expectancy; JU^I jwai short- 
lived, of short duration, brief; short-term 

^1 amara u {amr) to order, command, bid, 
instruct (« s.o. ^ to do, commission, 
charge, entrust {* s.o. <~> with or to 
do; — amara, amura u (SjLI 
imam) to become an emir II to invest 
with authority, make an emir (o s.o., 
Jp over) III to ask s.o.'s («) advice, 
consult (» s.o.) V to come to power; to 
set o.s. up as lord and master; to behave 
like an emir; to assume an imperious 
attitude; to be imperious, domineering 
VI to take counsel, deliberate together, 
confer, consult with each other; to plot, 
conspire (Jp against) VIH to deliberate, 
take counsel (i_j about); to conspire, plot, 
hatch a plot (*-» against s.o.) | «^lj j+zj\ 
to carry out s.o.'s orders 

ja\ amr 1. pi. j»\j\ awamir 2 order, 
command, instruction (^ to do; 
ordinance, decree; warrant (jur.); writ 
(jur.); power, authority; (gram.) impera- 
tive | J It j»\ ( e alin) royal decree (formerly, 
Eg.); Jp^I ( r aliy) decree, edict of the Bey 
(formerly, Tun,); jjiUjJ ordinance hav- 
ing the force of law (Tun.); lS ^\j j*^\ 
(wa-n-nahy) pi. J*\j$j j*\j$\ (lit.: com- 
mand and interdiction, i.e.) sovereign 
power; full powers, supreme authority; 
i^JL- j»\ a, jalb writ of habeas corpus (jur,) ; 
jj~a*- ja\ writ of summons (jur.); Cij,* j*\ 
a. sarf disbursement order, cash note, 
order for payment (econ.) ; jlUU ^V I (muU 
laq) categorical imperative (philos.); j*\ 
JUxpI warrant of arrest (jur.); Jlj^aI j*\ 
search warrant (jur.); Ajjjj^I (delivery) 
order (com.); ^^j j*\ (yauml) order of the 
day (mil.); iSj*\ £*£■ at your disposal, at 
your service. — 2. pi. jj*\ umur matter, 

affair, concern, business | *Slj y\ (ac- 
complished) fact; J>j j»j> ja\ common 
knowledge; j*^\ Jjl j at first, in 
the beginning; U y^ (amr in) for some 
reason or other; ifJIaT y^\ ^^Jl isn't 
it so? il&JS' j**i\j LI (ammo, wa-l-amru) 
things being as they are, there will, no 
doubt, . . .; j*\ j* jSo \$a (min amrin) 
whatever may happen; however things 
may be; ^j*\ ,>j _^a he has two pos- 
sibilities (or alternatives); <_£.i)l ^Vi which 
(introducing a relative clause the ante- 
cedent of which is another clause) ; (J J^ 
*ja\ qudiya amruhu it's all over with him; 
in the latter and similar phrases, a^J is a 
frequent paraphrase of "he"; »j*\ JS" 
everything that concerns him; Jp t_Jp 
<>ja\ (guliba) he was totally overcome, he 
suffered a complete defeat; »j*\ Jp p* 
(huzima) do. 

^1 immar simple-minded, stupid 

Ija\ imra power, influence, authority, 
command | 4^1 cJ^- under his command 

3jU1 amara pi. -ot, J\jS ama 3 ir 2 sign, 
token, indication, symptom, mark, char- 

SjUl imdra position or rank of an 
emir; princely bearing or manners; prin- 
cipality; (pi. -at) emirate; authority, 
power \j*^\ SjW i. al-bahr office or juris- 
diction of an admiral, admiralty; CjI>U 
^JUJI the Persian Gulf emirates, {official 
designation:) l^^SS \jj*>\ o[>l*Vl (mut* 
tahida) United Arab Emirates, also ilj-i 
"L>j*i\ oijUVI jL^I (daulat ittihad), short 
form: oljUVl i!jj; uLf J*-U- Cj\jL\ i. s. 
r umdn = ^-Uaxil oljUVl (mutasdliha) 
formerly: Trucial Oman 

j,a\ amir pi. *\j*\ umara' 2 commander; 
prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling 
house; tribal chief | ^Jl j^\ a. al-bahr 
admiral; (formerly, Eg.) rear admiral; 
(obs. military titles:) ^V! _>♦' a. aldy 
brigadier general (Eg., Sudan), jU*JI j^\ 
vice-admiral (Eg.) } *\J ju\ a. liwa major 

^wSvo jjV j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


general {If., Jord.), <~ Jl #y ^vJ a. Z. aZ- 
r a5sa commandant of the Bey's palace 
guard {formerly, Tun,); Cri*ji\ j*\ a. al- 
muminln Commander of the Faithful, 
Caliph; j*±i\ j^\ a. aS-Wr and ^j*l£}\ ju>\ 
a. as-§u f ara prince of poets 
lj\^\ amira pi. -at princess 

ijj^\ amiri (and D tSj* mlri) gov- 
ernmental), state -owned, state, public | 
<£j^\ ^jl (ard) government land (Syr.); 
aj^v^VI 4*Jail government press 

j LI ammdr constantly urging, always 
demanding (<_> to do; inciting, in- 
stigating | s^JLj SjL'yl { _ r &}\ (nafs, su) 
the baser self (of man) that incites to evil 

jjJs ta'mur soul, mind, spirit; peri- 
cardium (anat.) | jj*\d\ vW*" pericar- 
ditis (med.) 

2^'j* mu'dmara pi. -at deliberation, 
counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy 

j*U ta'ammur imperiousness, domi- 
neeringness ; imperious deportment, over- 
bearing manners 

J& ta'dmur joint consultation, counsel, 
deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy 

jU^Jl itimdr deliberation, counsel, con- 
ference; plot, conspiracy 

SjLilJ isti'mara (frequently written 
»j Us- 1) form, blank | dj£ SjUs-1 i. baht 

jj amir commander; commanding of- 
ficer, commandant (mil.); lord, master; 
orderer, purchaser, customer, client | 
^UJI jV^l absolute master, vested with 
unlimited authority; l-^^JI^^I (sahb) 
drawer of a bill or cheque (fin.) 

jjA* ma'mur commissioned, charged; 
commissioner; civil officer, official, esp., 
one in executive capacity; the head of 
a markaz and qism (Eg.) | ^j-jJ^JI j>»L 
superintendent of police; 4-dUdJ jj*l* 
(iaflisa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.); 
iS^LI jja\* m. al-haraka traffic manager 

(railroad); o^Jjl jj*\* m. at-taswiya land 
settlement officer; ^ni-JI jj^* to. as-sijn 
warden of a prison; Aju#d\ jj*\* m. at- 
tasjiya receiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; 

jur.); %_j\jjb\ jjA*, (jwjimXJl) yOiJl JjAa 

assessing officer, official who determines 
the amount of taxes 

4jjj>L ma'muriya pi. -at order, in- 
struction; errand; task, assignment, mis- 
sion; commission; commissioner's office, 
administrative branch of a government 
agency, e.g., 4-jUoS <tjj*\* (qadalya) 
judicial commission charged with juris- 
diction in outlying communities (Eg.) 

Ojj&j* muta'amirun conspirators, plot- 

Ojj£}a mu'tamirun conspirators, plot- 
ters; members of a congress, convention, 
or conference, conferees 

jXja mu'tamar pi. -at conference; con- 
vention, congress | j^l j£y> m. al-amn 
security conference; 3jj-Uly:J* 
and UaJI j£}a to. al-qimma summit meet- 
ing or conference ; j**-* j£y> (suhufi) press 
conference; ^UJI j£j* m. as-sulh peace 

i\j*\ II ta'amraka to become Americanized, 
adopt the American way of life, imitate 
the Americans 

ilj*\j iao/mruh Americanization 

(jJ^I amarillis amaryllis (hot.) 

ISCj^I amrika (formerly, also Uj^I) America | 
ij^itl ISo^i (janublya) South America; 
4JL-SJ1 \&ja\ (samdliya) North America; 
^LjloUI LSo^J Latin America; Ja—-_^ll ISo^l 
(wustd) Central America 

£ij*\ amriki American; (pi. -un) an 


olSy^VI al-amrikdn the Americans 
JISvj^I amrikdni American; (pi. -un) 

an American 

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mj»\ amsu (ace. L-J amsan), ^V al-a. theday 
past, yesterday; the immediate past, 
recent time; — amsi (adv.) yesterday; 
recently, lately, not long ago | ^VLj 
bi-l-amsi yesterday; not long ago; UJ 
u »a\ lailata amsi yesterday evening, last 
night; JjVI ,j~*1 amsi l-awwal and u ^\ Jjl 
awwala amsi two days ago, the day before 
yesterday; i_-jytJl ^1 and ^-jjJi" cr-*"^ 
very recently; ^ t )j\ oUjL— musdbaqdt 
al-a. yesterday's competitions 

X~»*\ umsiya pi, -at, ^-Ul amdsly eve- 
ning; 4- .*^l al-umsiyata tonight, this 

evening; CjL~* I umslydtin whole evenings, 
evening after evening | hj*5 £-—1 ($i r rt* 
yd) poetry evening; SJb* v~*1 (ginalya) 
soiree of song recital 


ojw! amstirdam Amsterdam 

j\l*\ ams'ir the sixth month of the Coptic 

*J «M f and i*J imma'a characterless 
person; opportunist, timeserver; yes-man 

4**J iimna'iya opportunism; timeserv- 


) i3ja mil q 

JJ amala u (amal) to hope (a or <_> for), 
entertain hopes (i or u of) II to hope; 
to expect (j* * of s.o.); to raise 
hopes (c in s.o.), hold out hopes (* for 
s.o.), give (« s.o.) reason to hope or 
expect | \_^ <lLI (kairan) to let s.o. hope 
for the best V to look attentively (a, » 
at s.o. or, regard, contemplate (a, J ; to meditate ; to consider, think over, 
ponder (a, j, reflect (a, j on) 

J*! amal pi. JUT amal hope, expec- 
tation (J of, also c-») | i_-otf J.1 
fallacious hope; jL J* I UiS** (kulluna 
amalun) we are all full of hope that . . . ; 
01 J* I J^ in the hope that . . . 

J.U ma mat pi. J*L madmil 2 hope 

J*b taammul pi. -af consideration; 
contemplation; pi. 0*>l»tj meditations | 
JLL J*fc (bdtinl) introspection (psych.) 

J*tl ta'ammuli contemplative, medita- 

J*T dmil hopeful 

J^.L mdmul hoped for, expected 

J.J> muammil hopeful 

J.tx* mutaammil contemplative, med- 
itative, reflective; pensive, wistful, musing 

1 t y\ amuna u (ajUI amdna) to be faithful, re- 
liable, trustworthy; — amina a (amn, OU! 
amdn) to be safe, feel safe (j* or a from) 
II to reassure (c s.o.), set s.o.'s (») mind 
at rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard, 
guarantee, warrant, bear out, confirm, 
corroborate (Jp, a; to secure (a; to provide (a; to insure (Jp 
s.o.,, ±J> against, e.g., Jjj^l -^ 
against fire) ; to cover by insurance, under- 
write (a risk); to entrust (a to s.o., Jp; to say "amen" (Jp to IV to 
believe (^ in) VIII to trust (• s.o.), 
have confidence, have faith (« in); to 
entrust (Jp © s.o. with, to s.o. 
X = VIII; to ask for protection, for 
a promise of security, for indemnity 
(« s.o.) 

^1 amn safety; peace, security, pro- 
tection | |»LiJ1 j*^l ( r dmm) public safe- 
ty; HjjJI jjJ a. ad-daula state security; 
^Vl JU-J tne police; J-^l o^T m&jHs 
al-a. Security Council; i y*'i\ £j\Js quwwdt 
al-a. police forces 

OUI amdn security, safety; peace; 
shelter, protection; clemency, quarter 
(mil.); safeguarding, assurance of pro- 
tection; indemnity, immunity from pun- 
ishment | <oil OUI j (a valedictory phrase) 
in God's protection! jjJLI OUI a. al-murur 
safe-conduct; OUI JSC without danger or 
risk; OUI Aj>- hizam a. safety belt; r-U-j 
OUI zujdj a. safety glass; OUI Jxs qufl a. 

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jjf kibrlt a. safety- 

safety lock; <jl*l 

4>J amin pi. »li»i umand' 2 reliable, 
trustworthy, loyal; upright, honest; faith- 
ful, true (description, report, etc.); safe, 
secure; innocuous, harmless (remedy, 
means, drug); authorized representative 
or agent; trustee; guarantor (J* of); 
(also jJ\ j^.1 a. as-sirr) secretary; 
chief, head; superintendent, curator, 
custodian, guardian, keeper; chamber- 
lain; master of a guild {Tun.); quarter- 
master sergeant (formerly, Eg.; mil.) | 
JjV Ci**)}\ (atmval) Lord Chamberlain 
(formerly, at the Eg. Court); *L.V1 j^ 
approx. : Chief Master of Ceremonies 
(ibid.); tJoJ^jl ^\ a. arsif archivist; ^1 
oQ^i>J.I do.; iSjL ,>•! a. buluk staff ser- 
geant, first sergeant (formerly, Eg., 
Sudan; mil.) ; o^JLl ^\ a. al-makzan ware- 
house superintendent; stock clerk; ,>_•! 
iJjjJl j* a, sirr ad-daula and ^1 ,>J 
a. as-sirr permanent secretary of state 
(Syr.); t3jX^\ ^*\ a. as-sunduq and 
Jill <>J treasurer; cashier; aj^UJI ,>J 
mayor of the capital city; fU (>.! ( r dmm) 
secretary general; <Ja>^L* J^J a. muthaf 
museum director; i*^. ^\ a. maktaba 
librarian, library director; J^-Jl <>•! 
<J.lL( a. as-sijill al-madani registrar of 
vital statistics; S^.1 ljj^> (sura) a true 
image, a faithful copy 

iw-.l amina: I»L IlJ (dmma) secretary 
general (fern.) 

^T amin amen ! 

4JUI amdna reliability, trustworthiness ; 
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; in- 
tegrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good 
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; 
confidentiality, secrecy (of; (pi. -at) deposited in trust, a deposit, trust, 
charge; secretariat; office of mayor in a 
capital city ; municipal council of a capital 
city | Jj-wJI *jUI a. as-sunduq treasury 

department; i»Lc iiLI ( r dmma) secretar- 
iat general; oULVl o)£ makzan al-a. bag- 
gage checkroom 

j^L ma'man place of safety, safe place; 

^Js ta'min securing, protection; assur- 
ance; safeguarding; reassurance; ensur- 
ing, providing, procurement, provision; — 
(pi. -at) guaranty, warranty; security, 
surety ; insurance ; resigned mood (in which 
one says yea and amen; J* to | 
^Ui^-I (jrwU (ijtimd'i) social security; j^*t 
J* Li full -coverage insurance; JU* Jub 
Ji>^l (didda) fire insurance ; *LLI J* ^fr 
(haydh) life insurance; o[>LJI Jp j<Js 
motor vehicle insurance 

oUI iman faith, belief (t~> in) 

oUzJl i'timan trust, confidence; credit 
(also/m.) | ^IjJ oUijI (zird't) agricultural 
credit; OUiJVi *j-* breach of trust or con- 

(jUij 1 itimant fiduciary (in compounds) ; 
credit (in compounds) | 4JUJI .'W.^' 
credit facilitations; 4JL^I 3}y*\ credit 

oL^L-l isti'mdn trust, confidence 

j*T amin peaceful; safe, secure 

J^.L ma'mun reliable, trustworthy; 
mild, innocuous, harmless 

j-J* mu*amrmn pi. -un insured person, 
policy holder | ^L^- 1 ,j*y person covered 
by social security, social security pen- 
sioner; <tJL ^Jm insured 

,yjA mu'min believing, faithful; be- 

^yrj* miitaman entrusted (Jp with); 
trustworthy; confidant; sequestrator 
(jur.); fiduciary, trusted agent; custodian, 

i iS ^\ look up alphabetically 

^j-al.1 omnibus omnibus, bus 

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*1»L$*I see pi umm 
<Sj4*\ amharl Amharic 
iSjjJ drnuri pi. -wn Amorite 

1 ( jtj>i awwxuJi of or like a bondmaid or hand- 

2 fjj*\ umawi Umayyad (adj.); <1>jj>«VI and 
3^1 j^ banu umaijya the Umayyads 

L-.1 amiha amoebae 

Jlj^l amiral admiral 

4Jlj\«l amirdliya admiralty 

lT>.l, «*S^J amerikd, amerika America (Leb. t 

^j*\ amerikl American 

(hamd) pi. 

-I >U-I 

amino acid (chem.) 

1 ol cm (conj.) that (with verb in the subj. 
indicating an action not yet realized, an 
expected or possible event; with verb in 
the perf. indicating that which has hap- 
pened) ; — in 1 . (conj.) if, in case ;whether ; 
b I j wa-in although, even though, even if; 
o\j — ul be it — or (be it); VI ilia 
(— V ,jl) look up alphabetically 2. (neg.) 
not, esp. in the phrase *H\j* Ci\ in huwa 
ilia (f. VI ,y> jl) it is nothing but, it is 
no more than, ^>- *JaJ- V' ^ b\ (lahza* 
{tun) it takes only a moment until . . . 

2 o\ anna (conj.) that (with foil, subject in 
the ace. or as a suffix and with nominal 
or copulative clause); <ul Lc bi-ma annahu 
since he (it), because he (it); <ii Jp 'aid 
annahu while he (it), whereas he (it); 
introducing a main clause: however, 
yet; <tjl dJJij that is to say, namely, to 
wit; — inna (part, introducing a main 
clause, with foil, subject in the ace. or as a 
suffix) behold, verily, truly (in most cases 
not translated in English) 

Lc I innama nothing but, only; rather, 
much more, on the contrary 

3 jl anna i (^Jl anin, jUfa ta'ndn) to groan, 
moan (,y at) 

<jl anna pi. -at moan, groan | oUTj ot>l 
wails and laments 

t>jl anin plaintive sound, wail; groan, 

OUI anndn moaning, lamenting 

Ul ana I | UVI the ego, J*Vl UVI (a r ld) the 
superego (psych.) 

O V^' al-aniya the ego (psych.) 

JU1 anani egotistic; egoistic(al), self- 

«Jli! andniya egoism, selfishness 

J^iUVl al-anddul, al-anadol Anatolia 

J^iLJl anddull, anadoll Anatolian 

^UUI ananas pineapple 

(_jl II to blame, censure, reprehend, up- 
braid (b s.o.); to scold, chide (« s.o.) 

4~JU ta'nib blame, censure, rebuke | 

j\*Jil\ v^H^ remorse 

LJl (pronounced ambd) Abba, a high ecclesi- 
astic title of the Coptic Church, preceding 
the names of metropolitans, bishops, 
patriarchs, and saints (< Xfifia) 

jLj! anbdr pi. j-Ljl andbir 2 , jolll andbir 2 ware- 
house, storehouse, storeroom 

^SlJ! see ^tlJjl (alphabetically) 

i-^Jl, <ij^\ see <^J 

J^l imbiq, ambiq pi. JjAil andbiq 2 alembic, 

CJ\ anta> f. anti thou, you {2nd pers. sing.); 
pi. m. jjl anturriy f. ^jl antunna you 
(2nd pers. pi. and polite form of address) ; 
dual l^ji antuma both of you 
lijl anta-dd you there; it's you! 

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SiU^Ljul antikkana museum 

aSCjui antilca pi. -at antique, object of ancient 
art; pi. olSCoul antiquities 

j^*Jul anlimun antimony 

>tS\ anuta u (^jl unvia) to be or become fem- 
inine, womanly, womanish, effeminate 
II to make feminine ; to effeminate, make 
effeminate ; to put into the feminine form 
{gram.) V to become feminine (also gram.) 

^1 unta pi, iljl indt, <j\j\ anata fem- 
inine; female; a female (of animals); 
jLtj s Ji al-untaydn the testicles 

,jj£il untawi womanly, female, women's 
(in compounds); effeminate, womanish 

4jjj \ unuta femininity, womanliness 

«i*jjlj ia'nit the feminine, feminine form 

£j£* mu'annat {gram.) feminine (adj.) 

Lst-jijijj^ \ antrobolojiyd anthropology 

^jijjjj^} antrobolojl anthropological 

^L^l injds (< <_^U-1 ijjds; coll.; n. un. i) 
pear {syr.) 

Jjfl II ta angola (Eg. spelling) to become 
English or anglicized; to take on English 
manners, imitate the English 

4i^l angala anglicization 

i>Lf I (It. Inghilterra; Eg, spelling) ingilterd 

0>~5^U^I (Eg. spelling) al-anglosakson the 

J^^SC^Lfl anglosaksonl Anglo-Saxon 

>UVi (Eg. spelling) al-ingllz the English 
^>Jjf I inglizi English; Englishman 

V^f I (Eg. spelling) angola Angola 

J^l i»7t? pi. J^Ui andjil 2 gospel 

J-^l injili evangelical; evangelist 
iJL^I injlllya evangelical creed 

^JLlVl al-andalus Andalusia ; name of Arab - 
icized Spain in the Middle Ages 
(^J-Ul andalusl Andalusian 

L-jujjJl indunisiyd Indonesia 

^^-juj-bM indunlsl Indonesian 

ry\ anzim pi. -at enzyme {chem.) 

^j-Jl anisa a and anusa u {uns) to be com- 
panionable, sociable, nice, friendly, ge- 
nial; jl i ,j-Jl to like s.o.'s company, like to 
be together with s.o.; to have confidence 
{Jf in s.o.), take a liking (Jl to s.o.); to be 
or get on intimate terms {^ or Jl with 
s.o.); to be used, accustomed, habituated 
(Jl to); to perceive, notice, find (* a qual- 
ity, J, J* in s.o.) ; to sense, feel, make out, 
recognize (a, j in, at) | <&juL ^Jl 
{U-hadttihi) to Uke to listen to s.o. II to 
put at ease ; to tame III to be friendly, nice 
(a to s.o.); to entertain, amuse (* s.o.) 
IV to keep s.o. (*>) company; to en- 
tertain, delight, amuse (* s.o.); to per- 
ceive, discern, make out (with the eyes; 
a; to sense (a; to find, see, 
notice, observe, e.g., SjUSJI <J ^jT he saw 
that he was duly qualified, that he was a 
capable man V to become incarnate (Son 
of God) X to be sociable, companionable; 
to get on familiar terms, become inti- 
mate; to become tame; to be friendly, 
nice, kind {* to s.o.); to accommodate o.s., 
accustom o.s., settle down; to b?, familiar, 
familiarize o.s., acquaint o.s. (<-> or Jl 
with); to inform o.s., gather information 
(l^ about); to take into consideration, 
take into account, bring into play (^, draw upon (<_;) ; to listen 
(J to, heed (uj an opinion) 

cr 3\ uns sociability; intimacy, famili- 
arity, friendly atmosphere 

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c^ 1 

iS J\ unsi: ^1 <_**5" (ka'b) talus, inner 
anklebone (anat.) 

tJ J>\ ins intimate friend; man, mankind, 
human race 

iS J\ ins% human; human being 

^Ul unds and^-U nds men, people, folks 

^Ul anasly (pi.) people, human beings, 

»m\ anis close, intimate; close friend; 
friendly, kind, affable, civil; sociable, 
companionable; tame 

oLJl insdn man, human being; oLJVl 
someone, somebody, one, a person, 
people | J**]! OLJl i. al- r ain pupil (of the 

4JLJl insdna woman 

JLJI insdnl human; humane; humani- 
tarian, philanthropist; iIjLjLJVI the 

aJLjI insdnlya humanity, humaneness; 
politeness, civility; mankind, the human 

XJi\ja mu'dnasa intimacy, familiarity, 
friendliness, geniality, cordiality; socia- 
bility; conviviality 

^bl Inds exhilaration; friendliness, 
geniality; familiarity, intimacy, cordi- 
ality; sociability 

^jJlJ ta' 'annus incarnation (Chr.) 

^UIjI i'tinas social life, sociability 

LJ i dnisa pi. ~dt, ^-Jlji awdnis 2 young 
lady, miss 

(j-jjL ma'nus familiar, accustomed 

^Jlu-. mustanis tame 

^/jl (Engl.) inS pi. -at inch 

WjJLJl (It. acciuga) ansuga (eg.) anchovy 

A^Tlkjl antdkiya 2 Antioch (ancient city in 
Syria; now Antakya, in S Turkey) 

^-jjjiajl ontolojl ontologic(al) (philos.) 

*i/>AJ I angola Angola 

«Jajl anifa a (anaf) to disdain, scorn (j^, 
o\ to do; to reject haughtily 
(a X to begin (a; to resume, 
renew, recommence (a; (jur.) to 
appeal (a a sentence) 

(Jul anf pi, (JsLiTam/, <J»jj\ unuf nose; 
spur (of a mountain); pride | <uil s-j 
ragma anfihl in defiance of him, to spite 
him; <aj\ ^y *s-J\ Jp (ragmi) and j*. l£j 
<aJ I (ragman) do. ; <U> I ^r-i' (anfahu) to 
humiliate s.o., put s.o.'s nose out of 
joint; .JuVl ^*li haughty, proud, super- 
cilious, arrogant 

Jjl anfi nasal 

Sujjl anaf a pride; rejection; disdain 
(^ of 

ij$jj\ anuf proud, haughty, stuck-up, 
supercilious, disdainful 

(Jshiju-! istindf fresh start, recom- 
mencement, renewal, resumption, re- 
opening (also, of a legal case); appeal 
(jur.) | lititU j»jJ (qaddama) to appeal, 
make an appeal (jur.) 

,jUiLJ istindfi of appeal, appellate; 
UUj£J istinafiyan by appeal 

.Jul dnif preceding, above | j^JJl du\ 
(dikr) preceding, above, above-mention- 
ed; liiT dnif an previously, above, in the 

iJjCjj* mu'tanaf primordial, virginal 
state; beginning 

<_ijtz~. mustanaf: <dLc »JaJl^JL! appel- 
lee, respondent in an appellate procedure 

Lr >j&\ (Fr. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in 
N Belgium) 

l>_jJLajl infiuwanzd influenza, grippe 

jil aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce, 
comely, pretty; to be happy (<-> about), 

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be delighted (^ by) IV to please (» s.o.) | 
♦^1 <vuji (sai'u) he likes the thing 
V to apply o.s. eagerly and meticulously 
(j to); to be meticulous, fastidious, 
finical; to be chic, elegant 

43UI andqa elegance 

jJl aniq neat, trim, spruce, comely, 
pretty; elegant, chic 

Jyl anuq Egyptian vulture (Neophron 
percnopterus) | j^iV' { y^, t> J*' a'asz 2 
mwt feairfi Z-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs 
of a vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than 
hens' teeth (proverbially for rare) 

jib ta'annuq elegance 

Jpj^ muniq, £j+ muniq pretty, come- 
ly, winsome, nice, pleasing 

(jptz* mvicfanniq chic, elegant 

tj2j\ anqara Ankara 

\JSju\ (Tun. spelling) = \Jte\, IJKjl 

>JUJNI (Tun. spelling) = >Jbf ^i, jOSJ'tfl 

(j-jlijl anqalls (syr.) eel 

<*JLiT anwib lead (metal) 

^jLiSoi inki$dr% pi. -iya Janizary 

IjU&l, S^J&I (It. Inghilterra) ingilterd, in* 
giltera England 

OySL>j&J V I al-anglosaksun the Anglo- Saxons 
AJ^-iC^JSCj^l al-anglosaksuniya Anglo- 

Jrd&Vl al-ingliz the English 

<j>J&l ingllzi English; Englishman 

(j-jiSjl ankalis (syr.) eel 

JlSCi&l anglikdni Anglican 

*)}j& \ angola Angola 

MjVI al-anam and pLl^'l (coll.) mankind, the 
human race 

2 Lcl innamd see 2 oi inna 

r-ijjc*l unmudaj model, pattern; type, ex- 
ample; sample, specimen 

Ojjc'1 anamun anemone (hot.) 

*y\ anod pi. -at anode (el.) 

1 i }\ and i to mature, become ripe; to draw 
near, approach, come (esp. time) | ul <d Jl 
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative 
statements: oL il a-lam ya*ni? isn't it 
about time . . . ? V to act slowly, proceed 
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient 
X to take one's time, hesitate (j in, 
with); to wait 

jl anan pi. »L'T ana (span of) time, 
period | JJ! *UT j (laili) all night long; 
jlfJl ujl^lj JJI »^T a?taa l-laili wa- 
atrdfa n-nahar by day and by night 

oUI anah deliberateness; perseverance, 
patience; equanimity, balanced judg- 
ment j *Li*^l J^U tul al-a. long-suffer- 
ing, great patience; SlJVl J;^ long-suffer- 
ing (adj.) 

»UI ina pi. XS\ aniya, o\j\ awdnin 
vessel, container, receptacle; plate; dish; 
jij^l kitchenware, pots and pans | »UI 
«JJI i. at-tabk cooking pot; *UUI 4jT 
a. at-ta f am plates and dishes, tableware 

ub ta'annin slowness, deliberateness 

ouu muta'annin slow, unhurried, de- 

2 (j\ anna (interrog. part.) where... from? 
why is it that...? why? where? (place 
and direction); how? wherever; how- 
ever j , . . ^ 1 4} J\j (alia) and why shouldn't 

dj~**S I anisun, Oj^jj I aniseed 

L»jl anlmiyd anemia | O ""^^ W*' perni- 
cious anemia (med.) 

»T dhif Ul dhan/ ( inter j.) oh! 

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t_**l II to prepare, make ready, equip (J a, * 
s.o., for) V to be ready, be pre- 
pared; to prepare o.s., get ready; to 
equip o.s., be equipped (J for) 

ILaI uhba pi. <_*aI uhab preparation, 
preparedness, readiness, alertness ; equip- 
ment, outfit, gear | «-*j^ ***' u - o^-harb 
military equipment; J~«vJI V 1 ' J* ready 
to set out; il-u^-Vl 4^1 Jp fully prepared; 
on the alert (mil.) ; «k-a1 JL>-I to make one's 
preparations, get ready 

i-iUI ikab skin, hide 

t-jblJ ta'dhhvb preparedness, readiness; 
(pi. -at) preparation; (also c^auJI 5JU-) 
stand-by {mil.), alert, state of alarm 

(_jfclu muta'akhib ready, prepared 

JaI aAaZa « i (Jy>l wAuZ) to take a wife, get 
married; — ahila a to be on familiar 
terms (<_> with); — pass, uhila to be in- 
habited, be populated (region, place) 
II to make fit or suited, to fit; to qualify 
(J a, o s.o., for, e.g., for a goal, a 
task, a job); to make possible (a J for 
s.o., enable (a J s.o. to do, 
make accessible (a J to s.o.; to 
welcome (<-> s.o.) V to be or become fit, 
suited, qualified (J for; to qualify 
(J for, e.g., for the next round in sport) ; to 
take a wife; to marry, get married X to 
deserve, merit (a, be worthy (a of) 

J* I ahl relatives, folks, family; kin, kin- 
folk; wife; (with foil, genit.) people, 
members, followers, adherents, posses- 

i sors, etc.; inhabitants; deserving, worthy 

f (J of; fit, suited, qualified (J for); 

eligible, competent (J for; — pi. 

I j^JUl members of the family, relatives; 

(with foil, genit.) adherents, followers, 
members (of a movement, religion, etc.); 
— pi. JUI ahdlin population, inhabitants 
(of a city, a country); JUVI the natives; 
the native population | *r-jJl JaI a. al-bait 
members (of the house, i.e.) of the 

, family; the Prophet's family; ji-Ul JaI 

the people living in the house; JaI 
4i^l a, al-hirfa people of the trade; 
iJlU-I JaI a. al-hilf people pledged by oath, 
members of a sworn confederacy; JaI 
IjX\ a. al-hibra people of experience, 
experts; ik-XJ! JaI a, as-sajsata Soph- 
ists; 4X-JI JaI a. as-sunna the adherents 
of the Sunna, the Sunnis; 1*11 J* I a. al- 
T ilm learned people; i_jIi$3I JaI a. al-kitdb 
people with a holy writ, monotheists 
(Christians, Jews); j Jhj j-dl JaI a. al- 
madar wa~l-wabar the resident population 
and the nomads; *aU-^JI JaI a. al-wa* 
jdha people of rank and high social 
standing; ^4-j :Aa1 ahlan wa-sahlan wel- 
come! db i\aI ahlan bika welcome to 
you! { \^j JaI UjIj J *J he is a welcome 
guest in our house; JaI Ja! as members 
of one family, without formality and un- 
ceremoniously, informally; 1$1aI £jl you 
are the right person for it; JaI ^a U 
h \jj^ he is not fit for the office of minister 

Ja! ahli domestic, family (adj.); na- 
tive, resident; indigenous; home, na- 
tional; tame (animal) | JaI vfJbj national 
bank (Eg.); UaI ^>j^- (harb) civil war; i£^ 
4j1aI (mahkama) indigenous court, fU^dll 
Ja^I (qada) jurisdiction of indigenous 
courts (formerly, Eg.; limited to Eg. na- 
tionals); JaI Jj^ national team (sport); 
JaVI r-^Vl (intaj) domestic production; 
JaI tjiij (ww<7/) family wakf 

4JUI ahliya aptitude, fitness, suitable- 
ness, competence ; capacity (e.g., for learn- 
ing) ; eligibility (for an office, for member- 
ship); qualification | iJUt iJUl i^aqliya) 
mental capacity; v>^' «-W legal 
capacity; /*I>J*V1 *JLaI capacity for en- 
gagement, commitment; 4JUI ji suited, 
able, fit; capable; qualified; aJUVI ij 
radd al-a. rehabilitation; iJUVI J-tT le- 
gally competent; ^IaVI f ^ legally incom- 
petent, under tutelage; iJUVl A«Li un- 
suited; legally disqualified; 4JUVI ^j^aj 
naqs al-a. legal incapacity 

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J^aIj to'M qualification; training, edu- 
cation (e.g., for a craft or profession) | 
^itfl J^aIj (akddimi) academic educa- 
tion, qualification for a vocation by vir- 
tue of a college diploma ; ^* J**b (mihni) 
vocational training 

JaT dhil and <Jy>L ma hul inhabited, 
populated (region, place); J^L (saud.-ar.) 
manned (space craft), provided with a 
crew | jlSC-JU JaT (sukkdn) densely pop- 
ulated (city) 

JaJ* mu'ahhil pi. -at qualification, cer- 
tificate of qualification; graduation cer- 
tificate, diploma (for a course of train- 
ing) | ^Lp JaJ* (dirasl) record of gradu- 
ation from a school or other educational 
institution, diploma; JLp JaJ- ( f dlin) 
qualification by virtue of higher educa- 
tion, university diploma; Js-ji* J*£» (m«* 
tawassit) record of secondary education, 
secondary school certificate; l^a^J> o^J> 
(saksiya) personal aptitudes, abilities, 

JaJ^ miiahhal able, capable; qualified 
(esp. by an education) 

JaL. muta'ahhil married 

Jjfct^. mustcChil worthy, deserving, mer- 
iting; entitled 

^LJUI ihlilaj myrobalan, emblic (fruit of 
Phyllanthus emblica L.; boL); ellipse 

^jsJLUI ihlilaji elliptic(al) 

j! au or; (with foil, subj.) unless, except 
that; ji j\ (anna) or it may be that . . . 

1 (^_jj1) ^T aba u (aub, \j\ auba, »_jIjI iyab) 
to return; <_-> <jT to catch, contract, 
suffer, incur, be in for, be left 
with, get one's share of 

Vj' lt i> m ^ n kulli aubin from all 
sides or directions; ^j^>j t_jjl JS* ^ 
(wa-saubin) do. 

hj\ auba return | *ij\j i-jUj (dahdb) 
comings and goings (of people) 

t-^ljl iyab return | LjLij LUi dahdban 
wa~iyaban there and back; back and 
forth, up and down ; <_jM iLLo muqabalat 
i. return match (as opposed to <~jUi iLLi. 
m. dahdb; sports; Tun.) 

t->l. ma db place to which one returns; 
(used as verbal noun:) return j c-> l*j «->_»* S 
coming and going 

i_-oT ayib: *_*J ^\'$ y, he goes up and 
down, back and forth 

2 <_jT look up alphabetically 

\jj\ (It.) obrd {., pi. Cj\jj\ dbirdt (eg.) and 
\jj\ oprdy opird pi. -at opera; opera 

xJj\ (Fr. avherge) oberj restaurant, inn, 

C*jjj\ (Fr.) opret, oberet (eg.) pi. -at operetta 

<i\jj\ obek, dijjl obek OPEC (acronym for 
Organization of Petroleum Exporting 

Ojt (Fr. aout) fit August (month; Alg., Tun.) 

uHH>j' (^ r -) otobis pi. -at autobus, bus 

J*\j*rj>j\ (Fr.) otogrdf pi. -at autograph 

<J*\j*yj\ otuqrdtl autocratic 

< 5^jL*>jjI (Er.) otomdtikl automatic 

Jjj^jjjl (Er.) otomobll pL -at automobile 

Jjjl (Fr.) otel pi. -at hotel 

r-ji auj highest point, acme, pinnacle; cul- 
mination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak 
(fig. ; of power, of fame) 

p-T ah albumen, eggwhite 
O (>^l dhin albumin 

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^Ijt awdkly (pi. of classical ^>-T) ties, bonds 
(e.g., of friendship) | j>~\j$\ iui* «Ijl^ 
an intimate, firm friendship 

($j\) JT ad& u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, 
crook (a; to burden, oppress, weigh 
down (o s.o.); — *j\ awida a {awad) to 
bend; to be bent V to bend; to bow 

eijl auda burden, load 

±j\ awad: OjL As to provide for s.o.'s 
needs, provide s.o. with barest subsistence, 
keep s.o. barely alive; */}\ A*\ and sjjl *\i\ 
(awadahu) do. 

<_j^j! »Axp e uqdat udlb Oedipus complex 

i-jijN I al-udissa the Odyssey 

j\j\ uwdr heat, blaze; thirst 

L-ljjl urdsiyd Eurasia 

^bj' wnwww Uranus (planet) 

Ljjl urubbd Europe 

tijjl urubbl European 

j^jjill <^ lugat al-urdu the Urdu language 

tpjji wdi: 4j4;j*yi or ^jV' ^AJ' the 
Urdu language 

JLijjl uru£alim 2 Jerusalem 

&jj1 (= SLjl) ur$a pi. i»jl «ra£ battalion 
(formerly, Eg.; mil.) 

h t^l^pjj! uruguwdy Uruguay 


f \JL£jj\ (It.) orkestrd m. and f. orchestra | 
j>iw- IjL^jl (simfunl), *jjsu~*> \JLS>j\ 
| symphony orchestra 

liJLjjjl (Turk, ornek) urnlk pi. dJUIjl ardnik 2 
I sample, specimen; model, pattern; form, 

ljjj\ urubbd, bjjjl Europe 
lJjjj! urubbl European 


dyrjjj\ uruguwdy (Eg. spelling), ^jhjj^ 
uruguwdy Uruguay 

Jjl II (eg.) to ridicule (J* s.o.), make fun of 
s.o. (Jp) 

Jj\ iwazz (coll.; n. un.) goose, geese 

criJ'Jj' uziris 2 Osiris 

^T as myrtle; see also alphabetically 

LM^jl usturaliyd Australia 

Ijj^jl (It.) austriyd Austria 

jJLjl Oslo 

Ja-j! usta see LS k-l 

<J.j\ usiya pi. ^iljl awdJiin prayer, oration 

Xj>j\ (Turk, odd) oda {eg.), uda (syr.) pi. 
^j\ uwad room 

\x£j\ ugandd, tx£j\ Uganda (country in E 

43T afa pi. -di harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane, 

evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemic 

JsjJ* ma'uf stricken by an epidemic 

6jjj\ (Engl.) ovirol overalls 

c-juijl of set offset (£#p.) 

1 (Jjl) jT a^et « to bring s.o. (Jp) bad luck, 
cause discomfort or hardship (Jp to) 
II to burden (« s.o.) with unpleas- 
ant, troublesome or difficult 

2 4Sj\ see 44 I 

3 oUjjI uwaiqdt (dimin. of Jjlijl) short times; 
good times ' 

4 (jL* see jU 

jjJUljl, L^-^LijI oqiyanus, oqiyanus ocean 

5Jjl wglya pi. -af ounce, a weight of varying 
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; 
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g) 

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j^jjSji (Fr. occasion) okazyon clearing sale, 
special sale 

\~j\jfj\ ukrdniyd Ukraine 

J^Sj\ (Fr.) oksizen, {eg.) uksojln oxygen 

JL-ijl uksid see Xj-^l 

(Jji) JT ala u (aul, JL ma'dl) to return, re- 
vert {Jl to); to go back, be attributed, be 
attributable (Jl to), spring, derive (Jl 
from); to lead, conduce, tend (Jl to), 
result eventually (J( in); to become (Jl, turn, be converted (Jl into), be 
reduced (Jl to); to come or go eventually 
(Jl to s.o.), pass into the hands of (Jl); 
to attain (Jl or J to; to descend, 
fall (Jl to an heir); to devolve (Jl upon 
s.o.), accrue (Jl to s.o.); to fall to the lot 
(Jlofs.o.); to vest (Jl in s.o.) [ Jl j*V\ JT 
the long and the short of it was that . . . ; 
J I .jlkit <o JT (?natdfu) he eventually 
got to the point where ... II to interpret, 
explain (a 

JT dl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; 
companions, partisans, people; mirage, 
fata morgana 

ill ala pi. -at instrument, utensil; tool; 
apparatus; device, implement, appliance; 
machine | aJ"V IT mechanically; ^J-l Cj^T 
a. al-hiss sensory organs; ^-l^VI O^T a. 
al-intdj means of production; ^jU 1 SJV 
(bukdriya) steam engine ; jL I 5JT a. al-jarr 
tractor; v^*- <JT (jatiannamiya) infernal 
machine; <£j>- Ifl (harblya) instrument 
of war; ^Lj>*JI "4\ motor, engine; *JT 
^L-U- calculating machine; 1JjJ&\ i)T 
(elektronlya) electronic apparatus; ill 
aJj j#3l v -U- electronic computer ; 3jT 
iST-J-i a. al-hiydka power loom; SLLiJl aJI 
sewing machine; jjjIj <JT radio; <*s1j aJT 
hoisting machine, crane; derrick; pump; 
iJ[> *il icblg.) typewriter; ^i*-Ul ill and 
4ii»*»* i)T (musakkina) heater; jj^\ <jT 
(photographic) camera; ip-LLJl 5J1 print- 

ing press; J— ill 5jT a. al-gasl washing 
machine; frjJdh «JT incubator ; jLi^-^l <jT 
receiver, receiving set (radio); ZJ&aa 3JT 
(muqattira) distilling apparatus, still; iJT 
Zj£ a. qahwa coffee maker; *jli£ll 3jT and 
4-JlT 5JT typewriter; j jjiJ! ^J 3JT a. fo f 6 
al-qimdr automatic gambling device; ill 
iJL-j-* (musiqiya) musical instrument; 
4;JcJI 3jT alarm ; siren ; horn (of an auto- 
mobile); *\s? iJi (^amwwx') (fig.) tool, 
creature, puppet 

JT all mechanic (al) ; mechanized; mo- 
torized; instrumental; self-acting (appa- 
ratus); automatic; automated (e.g., tele- 
phone connections with direct dialing); 
organic; pi. CjLJT motorized units j 
JT OLjl (insan) robot, automaton; u-yli 
Jl motorboat; JT d>l^t (mihrdt) motor 
plow; *J^[I ol^JaJl (quwtoat) motorized 
troops; iJT iTp- {haraka) a mechanical 

«JT dllya mechanics; automatism; 

JVT dldil pi. SJVT dldttya (eg.) mu- 
sician; singer 

Jji annual 2 , f. Jji ?*Jd, pi. m. -£n, Jjljl 
awd'il 2 , f. CjLJjI ulayat, pi. m. andf. Jji 
ttwaZ 2 first; foremost, most important, 
principal, chief, main; first part, be- 
ginning; (with def. article also) earlier, 
previous, former; see also under Jj | 
JjVl oLJV [insdn) primitive man; *-»>J* 
Jji physician-in-chief; JU~Tt Jji a. tt&std 
monoxide (cAem.); JjVi al-uwal (attrib.) 
the most prominent, the most outstand- 
ing (of people); JjIjVI, j^JjV I the fore- 
bears, forefathers, ancestors; the ancients 
(authors, religious authorities, etc., in 
classical times); Ojjt-^\j (JjJjVl {dkirun) 
the ancients and the moderns; #^ill Jjijl 
the beginnings, the origins of; JjIjS 
iJkli a. at-talaba the most distinguished 
or the best of students; JJljVI J^JULI the 
ancient Muslims, Muslims of the earliest 

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times ; JJ Ijl awaila and JJ Ijl j at the very 
outset, at the beginning of, in the ear- 
liest stages of, e.g., CjK.,,, 1 '1 JjIjI j at 
the beginning of the fifties; ^-Ul JjIjI a. 
a$-£ahr the first ten days of a month, be- 
ginning of a month; JjVl ^l amsi l-aw* 
wala, ~*\ Jjpl aiuwalaamsi, 4>-jUl Jjl day 
before yesterday ; lj* JjV li-aivwali mar- 
ratin or Jj^JI S^J for the first time; j* 
Jjl, aIjIjI ,y since its beginnings, from the 
very beginning; »^-T Jl <djl ^y (dkiriki) 
from beginning to end, from A to Z; 
j*^ Jjl awwafo l-amri at first, in the be- 
ginning; a^.1 Jjl j. {a. amrihi) from the 
very beginning; jlfJl Jjl j at break of 
day, in the earliest morning; ,y*j\ ^* 
3ji\ {zaman) since earliest time; JjVI 
JjV^i each time the first available; L. Jj! 
(aivwala) the moment when, just when; 
at the very outset of; JjVl ,j* jo! 
(aktara) more than before 

Vjl aivwalan first, firstly, in the first 
place; at first, in the beginning | JjL *i/jl 
and ^jli Vjl hy and by, gradually, one 
after the other, one by one; lj*>-lj Vjl 
and \j^j Yji (akiran) first and last, alto- 
gether, simply and solely, merely 

Jjl awwall prime, primary, primordial, 
original, initial, first; elemental, funda- 
mental, basic, principal, chief, main; 
elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval; 
a priori (in compounds) | 4Jjl X^jX* {mad- 
rasa) elementary school of the old type ; 
<Jj\ jljp (mawddd) raw materials; jj^*~* 
aJj\ mother rock (geol.); <Jj\ j^Ua* pri- 
mary sources; Jj( jJtc- ( v adad) prime 
number; iJjl Sjjjli (fdtura) pro forma 

*Jj\ awwallya pi. -at fundamental 
truth, axiom; primary constituent, es- 
sential component, element; original (of 
a typewritten letter); precedence; pri- 

Jjl ayyil, iyyal, ttyyal pi. JjUI ayaiP 

4JLI iydla pi. -at province; regency 

SJjIj' ailula see alphabetically 

O JjjI uwayyil pi. -6* proton (phys.) 

J"L mo'aZ end; outcome, final issue, 
upshot; result, consequence | JU-I j 
Jilt jj at present and in the future 

JjjIj fa'wt/ pi. -at, JjjTj tadwil 2 inter- 
pretation, explanation 

JjT a^iZ: JejJUJ JjT ripe for a fall, about 
to collapse, ramshackle (house) 

*Vjl ulai> diiljl, d\j^j\ via ilea these; those, 
pi. of the demonstr. pron. !i and dil i 

J.jl olimbi, olimhl, also ^*Jj' Olympic | 
SJLjVl v^^' tne Olympic games; Sjj^ 
^Jjl (daura) Olympiad 

jUijI oUmbiydd Olympiad 

_jjjl ttftl (pi. of ji) owners, possessors, people 
(with foll.genit. : of) | ^ I jJ j\ u. l-amr 
rulers, powerful leaders; Xk^\j JJ-I j}j\ u. 
l-hall wa-Vaqd (lit.: masters of solving 
and binding) do.; J*J**«sJl j)j\ precise, 
critical people; critical editors; jUJI jij\ 
ii. s-&an the responsible people; see 
also j i 

^ lj! uwdm thirst 

2 *j\ ohm (eZ.) 

^L.jl ombdSi see ^LJjl 

(jOti^j' omnibus omnibus, bus 

1 oT an time; uSfl al-dna now | jT j and 
Jb-ij oT j at the same time, simultane- 
ously; ^T Jl <jT j^ (czArara) from time to 
time; j^-\j oT ,jo L. (wa-dkara) and 
ol JUj UT sometimes, at times, now and 
then, once in a while; lJU U I gradually, 
by and by, little by little; '^J\j — Ul 
(divinatan) sometimes — ■ sometimes, at 
times — at times; jS'I JJ qabla l-dna 
before, previously, formerly; drSU li-l-ana 

ss*C&*a jj^ jl Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 



and o^fl J>- Aafta i-ttna until now, hith- 
erto, so far; u5/l -Uj ba'da l-ana from 
now on, henceforth, in the future; <y 
Ij^L^a o^l mm al-dna fa-pa idan do. 

jT am timely, present, actual 

J&T dnaidin that day, at that time, 

6\jf\ dnaddka that day, at that time, 

jjl aun calmness, serenity, gentleness 

jljl awan pi. jujT dwina time | JJ 
<0lj1 prematurely; -oljl j at the right 
time, timely, seasonably, *jljl jf j at 
the wrong time, untimely, unseasonably; 
^/S' ^j from time to time; Zj}\ ju 
iSj^\j (ulcrd) and <^>-i JOu ^jT (dwinaian, 
ukrd) at times, sometimes; i£j£-\j — <jj' 
sometimes — sometimes, at times — at 
times; Sj^V* ijj^l j in recent times; 
jljVl oli" (/ato) it is too late; b\fi\ jT 
(ana) the time has come, it is time (J for, 
to do 

2 b\ji) look up alphabetically 

^Ujl (Turk. oriba§%) ombdM pi. -tj/a corporal 
(formerly, ,%., Sudan; mil.) 

Ji^j\ Unesko UNESCO 

~k~jj\ unsa and X*&j\ un$a ounce 

Zvj\ (Turk.) awanta {eg., syr.) deceit, swindle 

j?bij\ awantagl (eg.), awantazi (syr.) 
pi. 4?/a cheat, swindler, impostor 

(ojl) oT aAa w and II to moan, sigh V to 
moan, sigh; to sigh with admiration (<J 
over), exclaim "ah!" 

oT ah, UT aha, *jl awwah, <t\j\ uwwdh 
(interj.) ah! oh! alas! 

aaT aha pi. -a* sigh, moan; pi. oUT 
sighs of admiration; rapturous exclama- 

•jb iaawwuh pi. -a* moaning, sighing; 
admiring exclamation; plaintive sound, 

(^jl awa i to seek refuge, seek shelter ( Jl at a 
place); to go (Jl to bed); to betake o.s., 
repair (Jl to a place); to shelter, house, 
put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as 
a guest (a, o s.o., II to shelter, 
lodge, put up, accommodate, receive as 
a guest (o s.o.) IV to seek shelter (Jl at 
a place); to retire {J! to a place); to 
betake o.s., repair (Jl to a place); to 
shelter, house, put up, lodge, accommo- 
date {a s.o.) 

*\ji\ iwa" accommodation, lodging, hous- 
ing, sheltering 

^jL ma wan pi. jL maawin place 
of refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting 
place; dwelling, habitation | JJ ^jU 
(laili) shelter for the night; doss house; 
fW^ <iJ^ orphanage 

,jjT j,\ ibn dwd pi. ^jT ub banal a. 

J iiT dya, coll. JT ay, pi, -d( sign, token, mark; 
miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, 
exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (J of, 
e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse, 
JsCU ^Jdl JF (ay ad-dikr) the verses of 
the Koran; passage (in a book), utter- 
ance, saying, word; oil (with foil, genit.) 
most solemn assurances (of love, of 

2 (jl ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit 

3 ^l % yes (with foil. *»lj yes, indeed! yes, by 

*^l ayy, f. aj I ayya (with foil, genit. or suffix) 
which? what? what kind of? whoever, 
whosoever ; any, every, no matter what . . . ; 
(with neg.) no; Ix! ayyumd whatever, 
whatsoever | cJlT X>\, olT Ul ayyan kdna, 
ayyatan kdnat whoever he (or she) is, no 

^wSvo jjV jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' 6t^'j*!5 cP^ta ^Svpwo 



matter who he (or she) is; OS" ,y ^1 a«/;y^ 
?na?i £ana whoever it may be, whosoever; 
JU- fji J* (ayyi halin) in any case, at any 
rate, at all events, by all means; Jb-lj ^! 
ayyu wahidin any one; uli <jl LjU «0 ul 
mfia Za&it sanan ayya sanin it is of the 
greatest importance (lit.: it is of im- 
portance, and of what importance!); t_~£! 
ljL*I Lei <j ^'i&a 6iAt ayyamd i f jabin 
how much he admired him! he admired 
him greatly; jLJi U I <ui& JJl aqbala 
c alaiki ayyama iqbalin he showed the 
greatest interest in it 

LI iyyd with nominal suffix to express the 
accusative | q\ £JL1 take care not to ..., 
he careful not to . . . ; ,y lib 1 , j ilL I beware 
of...! lib I j (dial, wayyak), oblj (wayydh) 
with you, with him 

->y i 


I abrasiya, see 

iJijLjl Ibarsiya pi. -a< 

Lfol ayyaiuha see 1+-I 

jlf I t/ar see under ^>- 

*f I ^ 6aAr t?i/& the Aegean Sea 

Jbl II to back, support {& s.o., a a claim, an 
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate, 
endorse (a news, a judgment, etc.) 
V = pass, of II 

Jul aid strength 

Jbl ayyid strong 

JUU' ta'yld corroboration, confirmation, 
endorsement, backing, support; assent, 
I sanction, approval (of a parliament, a 
i party or meeting) 

Xija mu ayyid pi. -wn supporter, helper; 
l adherent, follower (of a politician or 
party), partisan 

|i j^>-jjsA (Fr. hydrogine) idrozen hydrogen 

4JL>-jjJul Ujj (qunbula) hydrogen bomb 

U»">i^jJui idiyolojiya, 'k^jiji^j} idiyolojiya 
pi. -at ideology 

^-jljl~io\ Idiyoloji ideological 

1 j\ air pi. jjA uyur penis 

2 jL( ayyar 2 May {Syr., Leb. t Ir., Jord.) 

olj-l ira?i 2 Iran, Persia 

JI j- I Irani Iranian, Persian; (pi. -un) 
a Persian, an Iranian 

Ijdyi irlandd, ayirlanda Ireland 

t3^j\ irlandi, ayirlandi Irish; (pi. -un) 

JLj-l (Engl.) eriydl aerial, antenna 

^y I izis Isis 

^j-ji ayisa a (,j-LI it/as) to despair (j-. of 

^-Li iyds despair 
*>ju''>LjI islanda, ayislanda Iceland 
(^j^ijl (Fr. echarpe) sash 

(o^d') u^ <^ a • (tr*i' a *^) to return, revert 
(JI to; to become (JI II to 
metabolize (physiol.) 

^j\ aid metabolism (physiol.) | ,^1 
^.ji* (hadmi) catabolism (physiol.) 

iS oj\ aidi metabolic | v^*i' l^*!/*' me * a_ 
bolic diseases 

\jtA aidan also, too, as well, likewise, 
equally; again; in addition, besides, 

LJUaj 1 . italiyd Italy 

JIUjI Itall Italian; (pi. -un) an Italian 

ZjJu) (Gr. eixdiv) iquna and *LJ_>ijl Iquniya 
pi. -aZ icon (CAr.) 

dU at& (coll.; n. un. S) thicket, jungle 

x Jji, JjI and aJLI see under Jjl 

xw&o jj^ j) Cuio J^ojImuo jj OU-3-03-0 ajJJJLo^ p^^Xo < j^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 



2 JjLI ailul 2 September {Syr., 

Leb., Ir., 

'SJjIjI ailula takeover or transfer (of prop- 
erty, an inheritance, profits, power) in 
possession of another; {Eg.) title deed | 
ItjJLiVl *-y estate tax, inheritance tax; 
£>ljrdl iJ^JLI devolution of an inheritance 

(f\) *\ ama i: <^jj ^ pi (zaujatihi) to lose 
one's wife, become or be a widower, c*+\ 
Wr^J Ct* {z&wjiha) to lose one's husband, 
become or be a widow 

<Lci aima, >»^jl uyum and r\j ta* 
'ayyum widowhood 

f\ ayyim pi. v Ul ayaimr, ^/bl ayama 
widower, widow 

fji) aiwam? see 


*li I r\ and auI jx 1 see <>x under ,^x 

aLI ay yam see r^j 

lei ayyumd see 4 c jl ayy 

*— »-U I imajism, (Engl.) imagism (liter, move- 

1 ( t v!) ul ana t to come, approach, draw 
near (time) | o\j$\ ul (awan) the time 
has come; jl *J <jT it's time for him 

jl see Oj\ 

j>\ aina where? ( — at or to what 
place?) | (>' t> fnin aina where ... from? 
^1 Jl where? (= to what place?) ,>. ,yd ^ I 
how far we still are from..., worlds 

separate us from ... (fig.); ^j* <>' what 
a difference there is between us! IJL* ^1 
ijli j* what is this compared with that! 

j>y\ al-ainu the where; space (philos.) 

Icjl ainamd wherever 

ol I ay y ana when? (conj.) when 

y II to ionize (a V to be ionized (el.) 
OyJ iyon, iyun and ayun pi. -at ion (el.) 
,>jU ta'yin ionization 
j. J* mu'ayyan ionized 
^Lu muta'ayyin ionized 

4jl ihi (inter j. of appeal or incitation) go 
ahead! come on! let's get going; — eh 
(interj. of regret or pity) ah! alas! 

Lf-I ayyukd, f. L t Z*l ayyatuha (vocative part., 
with article before the foil, noun) 0...! 
tf-l I, f. 1^1 U do, 

^jA ayyub 2 Job | <~>jAj>\ camel 

Oj-j^VI al-ayyubiyun the Ayubites 

pjl awam 2 see pj 

1 6^1 see *-,J 

2 jl^jl iwdn pi. -df hall with columns, por- 
tico ; hall or chamber on the ground floor 
opening through a high arched entrance 
onto a courtyard ; dais opening onto the 
main room through an arcade (in tradi- 
tional Arab houses) 

1 o> abbreviation of ujI chapter and -Ou in 
>• »_j ba'da l-mildd after Christ, A.D. 

2 »-j bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); 
with (indicating connection, association, 

attendance); with, through, by means 
of (designating instrumentality or agency, 
also with pass. — by); for (= at the 
price of); by (= to the amount of); by 
(introducing an oath) | JJL bi-l-lail at 

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(by) night, jl^b bi-n-nahdr during the 
daytime, by day; 3j^ Vlr 1 samalan 
bi-sarqin northeast; £.,*'ij LfJ fa-bihd 
wa-ni'mat in that case it's all right; 
jl <J 1<r J it is not my intention to ...; 
ill Ju IJu /wzc£a bi-ddka now we are even, we 
are quits; ^j IjL* (with foil, price) that 
costs, amounts to . . .; ^Jj cJl dh (W- 
oM, ummi) you are as dear to me as my 
own father and mother (formula of ven- 
eration); j^Jl) jrwJi ( f oi») an eye for an 
eye; «*Lj <CLstJJ (maji'ihi) an hour 
before his arrival; <~> "with" frequently 
gives causative meaning to a verb, e.g., 
»(^> (j-i-r (lit.: to rise with, i.e.) to 
boost, further, promote; Jl 4j iL 
to cause s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to; 
for its use as copula after negations, etc., 
see grammar; ^ bi-ld without; 6 1 lx 
bi-md anna in view of the fact that; 
since, as, inasmuch as, because; «ui Lc 
bi-md fihi including; <o Ijti fa-ida bi* 
hi there he beheld before him, there 
I stood before him . . . (with foil, n.), see 
also Mil; aJjL bi-llahi and *fJLU *aiL> for 
God's sake, I implore you, I beg of you 

I *\j bd* name of the letter lj 

Lb 6afia pi. o!_jjLj bdbawdt, Cj\j\j\j pope (also 
title of the pope and patriarch of the 
Coptic church); papa, father, daddy | L>1 
rys- see under ^ 

iSjAi bdbawi, ^jLL papal 
t *i>.k bdbawtya papacy 

1 1 LL ba'ba'a to say "papa" (child); to babble 

I 5iji &w*6«* root, source, origin; core, heart, 
I inmost part; pupil of the eye, also 
I 0"^ MM &* al- r ain 

I J>b babil 2 Babel, Babylon 
JjL bdbiU Babylonian 

t 4A1 babih the second month of the Coptic 
i calendar 

^jt\i bdbuj pi. ^i\ji bawabij 2 slipper 

j jilt babur pi. -a£, ju)j> bawdbir 2 (= j>jlj) 
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer 

£j>\* bdbunaj camomile {hot.) 

<c-JIj batista batiste 

i/rjj'h odtoloji pathologic(al) 

L^J^jIj bdiolojiyd pathology 

jbtfjb bddinjdn and 01^-Lj baidinjdn (coll.; 
n. un. 5) pi. -at eggplant, aubergine; 
(savd.-ar.) tomatoes, i^l <L>Lf il> (ostwzd) 

*j!j 6ar pi, -a( bar; taproom 

2 jL ba'ara a to dig a well 

Jj bir f., pi. jtT a&ar, jb 6»'ar well, 
spring; water pit 

SjJj 6w'ra pi. jJj bu'ar center, seat 
(fig.); focus (phys., opt.); site; pit; abyss 

iSJji bu'ri f ocal (phi/s., opt.) I cSjjJI JOjt 
(6w f d) focal length (opt.) 

£>jJ*\j\i (Fr. parachute) bdrd&ut parachute 

^I^pI;Lj baraguway Paraguay 

LjjJ[jIj baranoyd paranoia 

(j^jjLj see d,jjj 

oiijb (Fr. parfum) bar fan (eg.) perfume 

AjjTjLj (Fr.) barheh parquet, parquetry floor 

£tJjl> see Mjj- 

ojb iara pi. -af para (coin) 

ijjit bdrud saltpeter; gunpowder 

ojjL bdruda pi. Oj j|^j bawdrid 2 rifle, 

Ojjlj baron, barun baron 

^jli &am 2 Paris 

t^-Jjlj 6ami Parisian 

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(Ji-M bdriyum barium (chem.) 

jb bdz pi. jl>j 6«ara and jL 6a' z pi. J^Jj 
bu'iiz, o\'Jj bi'zdn falcon 

jljLj iasar pi. -d£ bazaar 

cJjb bazalt basalt 

JUJjJb bdzuband bracelet 

^^t bcCusa u {^\i ba's) to be strong, brave, 
intrepid; — j-Ju ba'isa a (^Jj bu's) to 
be miserable, wretched VI to feign 
misery or distress VIII to be sad, worried, 

j^-jjl ^Ju bi'sa r-rajulu what an evil 

j-tj ba's strength, fortitude, courage, 
intrepidity (as verbal noun of .^Jj 
ba'usa) ; power, might; harm, hurt, injury, 
impairment, detriment, wrong | JLjJlS 
^.tjl and j-ti ji courageous, brave, 
intrepid; <u ^L V (6a sa) there is no 
objection to it; unobjectionable; not 
bad, rather important, considerable, 
e.g., If ,jA) V Cj\S (Jcammiydt) consider- 
able quantities; ^L V (ba'sa) never 
mind! it doesn't matter! it's all right! 
j I ^-L V it doesn't matter that...; 
^L <^1 ayyu ba'sin? what does it 
matter? what of it? j* ^-b *lJu> ^-J 
(&a*$im) he will be none the worse for . . . ; 
.iJLip ^\j V (ba'sa) it won't do you any 
harm! don't worry! don't be afraid! j X 
<-> UL (yam) he saw nothing wrong in 
(doing it) 

ijjj iiibj banatu bis calamities, ad- 
versities, misfortunes 

^Jj 6u's, *Ub fca'sa' 2 , ,^-jJj 6tt'w5 
and ^Jj Wsa pi. ^JjI a£>'«$ misery, 
wretchedness, suffering, distress 

^j ba'is pi. -wn, *U-Jj buCasa 2 miser- 
able, wretched 
^b ba'is miserable, wretched 

j>^b (Fr.) baspor pi. -at passport 

JJL-L (Fr.) ftosfeJ pastel 
J^b 6<mZ bacilli 

^b 6a£ senior, chief (in compounds) 

(jtjjU^ib basSawis', ^jj b£ b and ^b 
^ijjU sergeant major (formerly, Ify., 
Sudan; mil.) 

( S^ f b bdshaklm physician-in-chief 

«_jl£ib baslcdtib chief clerk 

Jaj^L) bdsmufti chief mufti (Tun.) 

^ilir'b bdsmujattis chief inspector 

^-u^b bdSmuhandis chief engineer 

Lib 6asd pi. ol^ib bdsawdt (oijlib) pasha 
4j j-ib bdSawiya rank of a pasha 

jj:b bdSaq, bd§iq pi. J-ijjj bawdsiq 2 sparrow 

j^iiUl al-bdsqird the Bashkirs 

^r^Slib see j\£lij 

1 cr ^b (Engl.) bds pi. -<z£ bus, autobus 

2 <_>^b (Fr.) Ms pi. -at bass, double bass (raus. 

j>Lb 6o£un concrete, b6ton 

4pb &a^a celluloid; tortoise shell 

b^/uTb see b j^o 

oU^TUi al-bdkistdn and jlx-Tb bdkistdn 2 

(Jbi«5*b bdkistdnl Pakistani (adj. and n.) 

^Tb bdku pi. Ctj^Tb bakawdt (eg.) packet, 
small package 

x Jb bal whale (zool.) 

2 4jb &a£a pi. -at bundle, bale 

bj^Jb balarlnd and bjjtfb ballerina ballerina 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-O3-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



jLHj balto pi. oIjLJIj balfowaU J>~M baldtl 
overcoat; paletot 

jJb (It. fcaWo) ball, dance 

dj) b fcaJon pi. -at balloon 

jUUi jj>- juzur al-bdliydr the Balearic Is- 

<Jb (Fr.) 6am ballet 

L.b and <u*b bdmiya gumbo, okra {Hibiscus 
esculentus L., bot., a popular vegetable in 

ub see jjj 

<-r>ab 6*wifa>mim pantomime 

r-ioib (Fr.) banddi bandage 

o^lkib bantalon see j^ikj 

Ub see UiJ 

vl>>^ *^ ^ a banordmiya (— Fr. ecran 
panoramique) cinemascope screen 

4JjJj bcfuna the tenth month of the Coptic 

^b 6a y, f. 4jU 6aj/a pi. -a* formerly, in Tunisia, 
a title after the names of the members 
of the Bey's family 

JU\ jb ddr al-bay (formerly) the Tuni- 
sian government 

jm babr pi. jj^ bubur tiger 

»U*j babgd' 2 (and babbaga 2 ) pi. O^jU-j babgd* 
wdt parrot 

Cj 6afto it i (6aM) to cut off, sever (a; 
to complete, finish, achieve, accomplish, 
carry out (a; to fix, settle, de- 
termine (a, decide (a, j on II to adjudge, adjudicate, award 
(a VII to be cut off; to be finished, 
be done; to be decided | j*^\ o-ajI Jj 

Jmj Oj it's all over between him and 
them, they are through with each other 

Co batt settlement, decision; b battan 
definitely, once and for all 

o batta pi. -at adjudication, award; final 
decision; a knocking down (at an auction), 
sale to the highest bidder (Tun.); id I 
(d-battata and o battatan definitely, 
positively, decidedly, esp. with nega- 
tions: absolutely not, definitely not 

Jj baiti definite, definitive 

aJu battiydy bittiya pi. ub baidtly 
barrel; tub 

lib batdtan decidedly, definitely, pos- 
itively, categorically, unquestionably, ab- 
solutely; lib . . .V absolutely not, by no 

c~cuj feztoif adjudication, award 

ob 6a# definite, definitive, categorical | 
ob ^ (wiaft') categorical interdiction; 
CjL> ^j (ra/d) firm refusal, categorical 

<~>y~* mabtut: iball ^>V m - as-?ifo 
having no connection (*-» with), bearing 
no relation (<~> to) 

*ju fcatara u (&a£?-) to cut off, sever (a; 
to amputate (a; to mutilate, render 
fragmentary (a a text) VII to be cut 
off, be severed, be amputated 

Jj batr cutting off, severance, sepa- 
ration; amputation 

Jul abtar 2 curtailed, docked, clipped, 
trimmed; imperfect, defective, incom- 
plete; without offspring 

jb battdr cutting, sharp 

J\j bdtir cutting, sharp 

jjl^ mabtur broken, abrupt, un- 
connected; fragmentary, incomplete ; mu- 
tilated, poorly and incompletely trans- 
mitted (text, tradition, account) 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $jAXa$ P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 

2 *\Jj bilrd' 2 , batra' 2 Petra (ancient city of 
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in 
SW Jordan) 

ilju batrak patriarch 

tjjl^Sjjv bitroJciniawi petrochemical 

djjv bitrol petroleum 

Jjyo bitroli petroleum- (in compounds) | 
Jjjo JJU- (fo^Z) oil field 

Ujju. (Fr. patron) pi. -a£ dress pattern (for 
women's clothing) 

£=jl a&£a r2 an assonant intensifier of *^i 
ajma rz all, altogether, whole, entire 

£jb 6a£f strong; full, whole, entire 

dJb II to cut off (a 

1 Jjj batata i u (ball) and II to cut off, sever 
(a; to make final, close, settle, 
make conclusive, clinch (a V to 
retire from the world and devote one's 
life to God (-oil Jf); to be pious, chaste 
and self-denying; to live in chastity 
VII to be cut off, be curtailed, be docked 

dy^ batul virgin; JyJi the Virgin Mary 

<SjZ> batull virginal 

aJ_jTj batullya virginity 

Jxcu mutabattil an ascetic, a recluse; a 
pious, godly man 

2 V>xj batuld birch tree 

d-j batta u {batt) to spread, unroll, unfold 
(a, e.g., a rug); to scatter, disperse 
(a; to disseminate, propagate, 
spread (a, e.g., a spirit, an ideology, 
a doctrine); to sprinkle (a a on); to 
let s.o. (o, also o) in on (a, esp. on a 
secret); to give vent (to), express (a feel- 
ings, desires); to radiate, send out (a 
electr. waves); to transmit (a by 
radio, TV broadcasts, UU/ bamdmajan 
a program, pictures by satellite), broad- 

cast (a, also by loudspeaker) | 
^>s*J' ^H to peer around; aUJVI do to 
plant, or lay, mines IV to let (» s.o.) in 
on a secret (a) VII to be spread; to be 

do batt spreading, dissemination, prop- 
agation; announcement, expression; 
broadcast, radio transmission; radiation; 
grief, sorrow | ^L ij {mubaSir) live 
broadcast; J^jilJ do (tekvizyonl) TV 
broadcast ; jlpS I do expression of longing 
or desire; dJI V^>-\ ajhizat al-b. trans- 
mitting sets, transmitters (radio, TV) 

jv batata % (batira a) and V to break out with 
pimples or pustules (skin) 

ju batr pi. jjZj butur (n. un. "*Ju batra 
pi. batardt) pimples, pustules 

ju batir, jrtij batir pustulate, pimpled 

,j£j bataqa i u (batq) to open flood gates so 
that the river will overflow its banks 
(object : ^jl an-nahra) VII to break forth, 
burst out, well out, pour out, gush out; 
to emanate, proceed, spring (,y or je 
from) I^Ndill jtul (fajr) dawn broke 

Jliul inbitdq outpouring, effusion, out- 
pour, outburst; emanation 

gg bajiha a (bajah) to rejoice (^ at) V to 
vaunt, flaunt ( v, boast, brag (^_> of) 
£>*J tabajjuh bragging, braggery 
p^« mutabajjih braggart 

6-X& bajda, bujda root, source, heart, es- 
sence, basis | yi\ So< the heart of the 
matter, the actual state of affairs, the 
true facts; If^. j>\ j* (ibn bujdatihd) he 
knows the job from the ground up, he is 
the right man for it 

4pUi bijddl garnet (mm.) 

j^\ abjar 2 obese, corpulent 

tr *i bajasa u % (bajs) and II to open a 
passage (for the water), cause (the water) 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Coio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 



to flow V and VII to flow freely, pour 
forth copiously, gush out 

( _ r ^ bajs, *m£ bajls flowing freely, 

*^ baja' <n. un. ;) pelican 

Jj£ II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with 
deference (» s.o.), show respect (« to 
s.o.); to give precedence (Jp * or » to 
s.o. or over) V to be honored, be 
revered, be venerated 
Jjf bajal syphilis (ir.) 

J~>»*j tahjll veneration, reverence; def- 
erence, respect 

J^* mubajjal revered, respected; ven- 

j£ bajama i {bajm, *j£ bujum) to be 
speechless, dumfounded 

j£ II to clinch (a a nail) 

£ bdhha a (bahh, ~£ bahah, *-y^ buhuh, 
~\je. bahah, **-j£ buhuha, lU-Ltf bahaha) 
to be or become hoarse, be raucous, 
husky, harsh (voice) II and IV to make 
hoarse (» s.o.) 

i£ buhha hoarseness 

£l abahh 2 hoarse 


mabhuh hoarse 

*^£ II tabahbaha to be prosperous, live in 
easy circumstances; to enjoy o.s., have 
a good time 

rj?^ bahbuh gay, merry 

o-j-^ buhbuha middle ; (also ^^ijuJl ^-j^- 
b. al-'ai§) life of ease and comfort, pros- 
perity, affluence | ^ ~**-j^ J amidst 

^*>w mubahbah well-to-do, prosperous ; 
enjoying an easy, comfortable life 

C^- baht pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, 
also j-Vi c-^; li^ bahtan merely, solely, 
purely, exclusively, nothing but . . . 

j£- buhtur stocky, pudgy, thickset 

<£j^ buMuri stocky, pudgy, thickset 

<Z*£- bahata a (baht) to look, search (,jp for, seek ( jp; to inquire (a into; to do research (J on, in a field); 
to investigate, examine, study, explore 
(a or jp, look into (a or jp); to 
discuss (a a subject, a question) III to 
discuss (o with s.o., j a question) VI to 
have a discussion, discuss together; to 
confer, have a talk (*. with s.o., j 

tt^- baht pi. i>_^ buhut t c*\jj£, i>U^i 
abhdt search (jp for), quest (jp of); 
examination, study; research; investi- 
gation (with genit.: of an incident, etc.), 
inquiry (into, examination (of ; 
exploration; discussion; treatise; (pi. 
*i*Uil) study, scientific report ( j on) 

£>l^ bahhdt pi. -un scholar, research 

4jL£ bahhdta eminent scholar 

d^w mabhat pi. «i-#-L. mabahit 2 sub- 
ject, theme, field of investigation or dis- 
cussion, object of research; research, 
study, examination ; investigation | ti^LLi 
<*UII ( f dmma) national inspection and 
controls (e.g., of drug traffic); secret 
police (Eg.) 

4i>-L. mubdhata pi. -at negotiation, 
parley, conference, talk, discussion 

d.*.L bahit pi. -un and iL£ buhhdt 
scholar, research worker; examiner, in- 

jy£. bahtara to disperse, scatter (a; 
to waste, squander, dissipate (a 
II tabahtara pass, of I 

Ij.^- bahtara waste, dissipation 

jv*~» mubahtir squanderer, wastrel, 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $jAXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



1 J £- bahira a to be startled, be bewildered 
(with fright) 

2 ^ II to travel by sea, make a voyage IV do. ; 
to embark, go on board; to put to sea, 
set sail, sail, depart (ship); to go down- 
stream, be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) 
V to penetrate deeply, delve (j into); 
to study thoroughly (J a subject) X =V 

j£- bahr pi. jU^ bihdr, jyi buhur, jl^l 
abhdr, j£\ abhur sea; large river; a 
noble, or great, man (whose magnanim- 
ity or knowledge is comparable to the 
vastness of the sea); meter (poet.) | j 
j£- in the course of, during, ^>ii-» j£ j 
(sanatain) in the course of two years, 
within two years; S^jA\ ,^^^1 ^*Jl 
(abyad, mutawassit) the Mediterranean 
(sometimes shortened to (j^Vl j^)\ 
jJiiJI j£ b. al-baltiq the Baltic Sea; 
«_jyJ-1 j£ b. al-janub the South Seas; 
j*-^\ j>J\ the Red Sea (also fjUIl yt 
b. al-qulzum); jjXl j£- b. al-kazar and^ 
if jj* &• qazwin 2 the Caspian Sea (also^Jl 
JLl-531); mjJ\ jjz b. ar-rum the Medi- 
terranean; ^-V' j>~)\ (aswad) the Black 
Sea; i^LiiaJI j£ 6. az-zulumdt the At- 
lantic; Vjj j£ b. lut and £*A\ j*J\ (may- 
yit) the Dead Sea; J-Jl j£ (eg.) the Nile; 
X^Ji j£- 6. al-hind the Indian Ocean 

t>>**Jl al-bahrain the Bahrein Is- 
lands ; (State of) Bahrain 

Jlj^ bahrani of the Bahrein Islands; 
*jjU*JI al-baharina the inhabitants of the 
Bahrein Islands 

(jj£- bahri sea (adj.), marine; maritime; 
nautical; naval; navigational; (in Eg.) 
northern, bahriya (with foil, genit.) north 
of; (pi. -un, i) sailor, seaman, mariner; 
(after a military rank) on active duty 
in the navy | y>U ^j£- appro x.: seaman 
apprentice (Eg.); <sj*J\ -U«Jt (said) deep- 
sea fishing; 4j^J1 CjJ^aJI (quivwdt) the naval 
forces; ^jg- JjlT (kdbil) ocean cable; olJLJ 

\j£ (nabdtdt) marine flora, water plants ; 
(jj£ <~*Ju captain in the navy (mil.) 

*ij& bahriya marine; navy [ \j£- <_Jlk 
naval cadet 

lj£- bahra pond, pool 

jUi bahhar pi. -un, SjUi bahhdra sea- 
man, mariner, sailor; pi. *jl^ crew (of a 
ship, of an airplane) 

lj& buhaira pi. -at, J[£. bahd'ir 2 lake; 
(tun.) vegetable garden, truck garden 

o\j& buhrdn crisis (of an illness); cli- 
max, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy) 

jl^t ibhar navigation, seafaring 

j^J tabahhur deep penetration, delv- 
ing (j into a subject), thorough study 
(J of} 

j>*~* mutabahhir thoroughly familiar 
(j with); profound, erudite, searching, 

u Z*z bahasa a (syr.) to dig 

(jLtf bahlaqa: «ljLp j^ ('ainaihi) to stare, 
gaze ( j at) 

1 f. f\ ^k bak excellent! well done! bravo! 

2 £ bajcka u (bakk) to snore; to spout, 
spurt, squirt (a; to sprinkle, splatter 
(tj a with) 

4+X& bakkdka nozzle 

4j*-^ (eg.) bukkeka squirt, syringe 

4^. mibakka nozzle 

cJ^ bakt luck; a kind of lottery | C-^Ji JJ* 
unlucky; £J*J\ ^ bad luck 

C~^£ baklt lucky, fortunate 

Oj^* mabkut lucky, fortunate 

^ II tabaktara to strut, prance, swagger 
J^^J tabaktur strutting gait 

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j^ II to vaporize, evaporate (a; to 
fumigate (a; to disinfect (a; 
to perfume with incense, expose to aro- 
matic smoke (a V to evaporate 
(water) ; to volatilize, turn into smoke or 
haze; to perfume o.s., or be perfumed, 
with incense 

j Li- bukdr pi. -at, IJ£\ abkira vapor? 
fume; steam | »UI jlafi water vapor 

^ jlaC bukdri steam (adj.), steam-driven | 
^jUi fL*j» (hammam) steam bath; <il>«* 
4jjIs^ ( r ajala) motorcycle 

jj£ bakur incense; frankincense | jy£ 
pj* b. maryam cyclamen (bot.) 

J£\ abkar 2 suffering from halitosis 

lj>*~* mibkara pi. ^L* mabakir 2 (also 
-at) censer; thurible; fumigator 

j^lJ tabkir fumigation 

J^3 tabakkur evaporation, vaporiza- 

S^L bdkira pi. j>-\y m bawdkir 2 steamer, 

»j£ji buwaikira small steamboat 

^Jfi bakasa a (baks) to decrease, diminish, 
reduce (a; to lessen (e.g., <cuJ 
qimatahu the value of; to disregard, 
neglect, fail to heed (a 

^Jfi- baks too little, too low; very low 

(jJ^l abkas 2 smaller; lower (price) 

^-^L 6<xK$ small, little, trifling, un- 

£ JjJ& baksls pi. <_/^L£ bakasis 2 tip, gratuity 

«k baka'a a (bal/) with «uuU: to kill o.s. 
(with grief, anger, rage) 

jfi\ abkaq 2 , f. ♦Li^ bakqa' 2 one-eyed 

JJc bakila a (bakal), bakula u (bukl) to be 
niggardly, be stingy (<_j with, jp or 

Jp with regard to s.o.), scrimp (^y;, J* 
s.o., »-> for), stint (^ in, je or J* s.o.), 
withhold (^, J* from s.o., ^ VI to 
give reluctantly, grudgingly (&., J* to 
s.o., l-j 

Jj£ 6«H avarice, cupidity, greed 

J^ &aM pi. »^ bukala' 2 avaricious, 

greedy; miser, skinflint 

l\j*^ mabkala cause of avarice, that 

which arouses avarice or greed 

^k- buknuq pi. JjLV- bakdniq 2 kerchief, veil 
(to cover the head) 

Jb badda u (badd) to distribute, spread, 
disperse II to divide, distribute, spread, 
scatter, disperse (a; to remove, 
eliminate (a; to waste, squander, 
fritter away, dissipate (a V pass, 
of II; X to be independent, proceed 
independently (i_-» in, e.g., in one's opinion, 
i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, head- 
strong); to possess alone, monopolize 
(<^>; to take possession (i-j of s.o.), 
seize, grip, overwhelm, overcome (*-> s.o.; 
said of a feeling, of an impulse) ; to dis- 
pose arbitrarily, highhandedly («_-> of; to rule despotically, tyrannically, 
autocratically (i~> over) 

Jb budd way out, escape | j^j J \h\ 
d\ ,> Jb (buddun) if it is inevitable 
that . . . ; Jb V (budda) definitely, cer- 
tainly, inevitably, without fail; by all 
means; j* Jb V it is necessary, inescapable, 
unavoidable, inevitable, <c <J -b V he 
simply must do it, he can't get around it ; 
Jb JS" ^ min kulli buddin in any case, at 
any rate 

Jb jLI abddld 2 (pi.) scattered 
JbJw tatidid scattering, dispersal, dis- 
persion; removal, elimination; waste, 

iljUu-l istibddd arbitrariness, high- 
handedness; despotism; autocracy; ab- 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio J^oJLLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


(^jl-LJu-l istibdddi arbitrary, highhand- 
ed, autocratic, despotic; authoritarian; 
oU-ila-JUl istibdadiyat arbitrary acts 

SjjIaJu-I istibdddiya autocracy; author- 

jO*. mubaddid scatterer, disperser; 
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift 

Xl~*» mustabidd arbitrary, highhanded, 
autocratic, tyrannical, despotic; auto- 
crat, tyrant, despot | aAj jUL^ (bi-ra'» 
yihl) opinionated, obstinate, headstrong ; 
2-LL~. iiCL (malakiya) absolute mon- 

\is bada'a a (»ju bad") to begin, start (<^> or 
j with, a; with s.o.; with 
foil, imperf.: to do or doing 
respectively); to set in, begin, start, 
arise, spring up, crop up II to put (a, Jp before else), give preced- 
ence or priority (a to, J* over else) III to begin, start (uj, «. 
with regard to s.o.), make the first step, 
take the initiative or lead (lj in, » 
toward s.o.), e.g., p^JU oLsL> {kaldm) to 
accost s.o., speak first to s.o. IV to do or 
produce first (a, bring out (a 
new) | -U*j Uj ^.Lj U ma yubdiu wa-md 
yu'idu he can't think of a blessed thing 
to say; X^jj £$-Uj he says or does every- 
thing conceivable VIII to begin, start 
(<-> with 

*4j bad' beginning, start | oJ! JL. from 
the (very) beginning; i*-bj l^p 4*j ( c au* 
danwa-bad"an) or<u*b J* tsj* {'audahu f ala 
bad'ihi) or *X> Jl \*jp (ild bad' in) he did 
it all over again, he began anew 

SLu bad'a and i^-U badfa beginning, 

SpIjj badaa and □ <jIju biddy a pi. -at 
beginning, start ; first step, first instance | 
*& S*Ioj badd'ata bad 3 in right at the out- 
set, at the very beginning ; ^*V ! ^ulJb J 
in the beginning, at first 

<j\Ai badal initial, original; (also bu* 
dd'i) primitive; OjJ\jJ\ the primitives | 
SJIju lU-^* (marhala) initial stage 

aJIoj badaiya, budaiya primitiveness 

I.L* mabda pi. JpL. mabddi' 2 be- 
ginning, start, starting point; basis, foun- 
dation; principle; invention; pi. prin- 
ciples, convictions (of a person); ideology; 
rudiments, fundamental concepts, ele- 
ments j ^Lil t-^5" &%£«& aZ-m. elementary 

ja~» mabda I original, initial; funda- 
mental, basic; Lj-L^ mabda'tyan origi- 
nally; in principle 

•loal ibtida beginning, start; novitiate 
(Chr.) | |^# ,J4xj1 ibtida' an min from, 
beginning . . . , as of {with foil, date) 

(jloijl ibtida % initial; preparatory, ele- 
mentary, primary; of first instance (jur.); 
original, primitive | 3-jUxjI i*SCtf (m<z^ 
kama) court of first instance; JlA^V' J^Jl 
elementary education; JJUul <-j^* (wmrf* 
rasa) primary school; yljttjl oLfi (sa- 
A<Ha) certificate of elementary school 

£$aL 6arfi' beginning, starting | _^l ^jU 
&aii"a Z-aw and j**$\ Jptj j in the begin- 
ning, at first; J^J\ [pU bddia r-ra'yi 
and J\J\ £pLj j beginning with the 
very first impression, right away, at once, 
(i.e., without closer consideration or re- 
flection); »4j ,_p ^jb fozdra ^* &ad'wi 
right at the outset, at the very beginning; 
at first, in the beginning; primarily; ^jUI 
6jfi al-bddiu dikruhu (the person or 
thing) mentioned at the outset, the first- 

\s*h* mubtadi' beginning; (pi. -tin) be- 
ginner; novice {Chr.); neophyte 

4?0^4 mubtadia pi. -at beginner (fem.) 

IjOj badara u {jj-^j budur) to come suddenly 
(» to, over s.o.), come unexpectedly, by 

^wSvo jjV jl Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ijJJJLo^ p^^Xo < j^j-o cr **» j-oljJjj Jj^i ^Svpwo 



surprise; to escape (j- s.o.; e.g., words in 
excitement); to occur or be executed 
spontaneously (j* by s.o., movement) 
lit to come to s.o.'s (») mind, occur 
to s.o. (a) all of a sudden, strike s.o. 
(idea, notion); to embark, enter (Jl upon or set out (Jl to do with- 
out delay; to rush, hurry (Jl to s.o., 
to a place); to hurry up (l-> with; 
Jljib with foil, verbal noun: to do 
promptly, without delay, hasten to do; to fall upon s.o. (*) with (lj), ac- 
cost, assail, surprise (lj » s.o. with; 
e.g., JiJU f^ASo apt) to snap rudely at 
s.o.); to take advantage unhesitatingly 
(a of chances); to react, respond (Jl to | Ac^JI jLf I Jl jib (injdzi l-wa'd) 
to set out to fulfill a promise VI jjL> 
j*Jdl J I (dihn) to suggest itself strongly, 
be obvious ; to appear at first glance as if 
(jl); jl <yo Ji jil-j (dihni) it occurred 
to me all of a sudden that . . . ; jfi\ Jl jitJ 
(fahm) to be immediately understood 
YIII to hurry, rush, hasten (a to); to get 
ahead of s.o. («), anticipate, forestall 
(a s.o.) | "^Jl* Uj4xj1 before she could say 
a word he exclaimed . . . 

jJa badr pi, jj-b budur full moon 

SjJb badra pi. badardt, jIju bidar huge 
amount of money (formerly — 10,000 
dirhams) | Jlj*VI CjIjAj enormous sums 
of money 

jljb baddri hurry! quick! 

«pL« mubddara pi. -at spontaneous un- 
dertaking, unexpected action; sudden in- 
spiration, impulse, idea; initiative 

»jib bddira pi. j*\jt baivddir 2 herald, 
harbinger, first indication, sign; unfore- 
seen act; stirring, impulse, fit (e.g., of 
rage); inconsiderate remark or act, slip, 
lapse; spontaneous idea | jJ- Spl b. kai- 
tin a good, or generous, impulse 

s j-*rf baidar pi. jjLj bayadir 2 threshing 

/» jjJU and JjjAj (Turk, bodrum) badrum, bad* 
run pi. -at basement 

f-Ju bada'a a (bad') to introduce, originate, 
start, do for the first time (a, be the 
first to do (a); to devise, contrive, 
invent (a II to accuse of heresy 
(o s.o.); to excel (J in) IV = I; to create 
(a; to achieve unique, excellent 
results (J in); to be amazing, outstand- 
ing (J in VIII to invent, contrive, 
devise, think up (a; to introduce new; to advocate innovations, new- 
fangled, heretical doctrines (relig.) X to 
regard as novel, as unprecedented (a 

9-ju bad e innovation, novelty; creation | 
lijpj Ujo bad' an wa-audan repeatedly 

9 Ai bid* pi. f Ijbl abdd* innovator; new, 
original; unprecedented, novel | p.b 1/ 
la bio" a no wonder! j! f-JU V Id bid" a an 
no wonder that . . . ; j* £Jj else than; 
unlike, different from 

4p-b bid' a pi. 9As bida r innovation, 
novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pi. 
creations (of fashion, of art) j 9-jJI JaI 
aM al-b. heretics 

£j-b bad? pi. PJa bud r unprecedented, 
marvelous, wonderful, amazing, admira- 
ble, singular, unique ; uncommon, original 
(style) ; — creator | «^JLJi U "Urn al-b. 
branch of Arabic rhetoric, dealing with 
figures of speech and (in general) the art 
of beautiful style 

4*jJL> badl'a pi. *JlJb badd'i' 2 an aston- 
ishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder; 
original creation 

^jJb badl r l rhetorically excellent, of 
high stylistic value 

9*i\ abda r * more amazing, more ex- 
ceptional; of even greater originality 

plJbl ibdd" creation, fashioning, shap- 
ing; a marvelous, unique achievement; 
uniqueness, singularity, originality; crea- 
tive ability 

ss*C&*a jj^ jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 £j£JIo5 P.5^° < <IHj*° cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



O ^I-VjI ibda'i romantic 

Q l^\Ai\ ibd&iya romanticism 

f-lAul ibtidd' new creation, innovation; 
introduction of new, heretical doctrines 

O «ut'-to1 ibtidciiya romanticism 

f-L* mubdi* producing, creating; crea- 
tive; creator; exceptional, unique, out- 
standing (in an achievement, esp. of 
an artist) ; pi, j^p-L* creative personalities, 
great artists 

£-£*» mubtadi' innovator; creator; her- 

Jj-j look up alphabetically 

Jjb badala u (badl) to replace (<-> a by), 
exchange (<_j a for) II to change, 
alter (a a to), convert (a a 
into); to substitute (a for, ^ or 
j-«, exchange, give in exchange 
(a, uorj* for); to change (a e.g., 
one's clothes, one's occupation) ; to shift (a 
gears of a car) ; to make a change, intro- 
duce a modification III to exchange (a a 
with s.o. IV to replace (*_j a 
by), exchange (^ * for else); 
to compensate (a <_-> e s.o. for with else), give s.o. (*) (a) in ex- 
change for (^>) V to change; to be 
exchanged VI to exchange (a, also 
words, views, greetings) ; to alternate with 
each other, take turns {a doing X to 
exchange, receive in exchange, trade, bar- 
ter (<_* a and a <~> for); to replace (a 
uj and a l-> by), substitute (cj a and 
a <^> for else) 

Jju badal pi. -at, JIjuI abddl substitute, 
alternate, replacement; equivalent, com- 
pensation, setoff; reimbursement, rec- 
ompense, allowance; price, rate; (gram.) 
appositional substantive standing for an- 
other substantive | "*>\J~\ Jaj b. al-jirdya 
allowance for food; ijj-i-JI Joj b. as- 
safariya travel allowance; jSC- Jju b. 

sakan extra allowance for housing; Jju 
iJlj^Vl subscription rate ; *j^p J-U b. gurba 
separation pay (as an increment to sala- 
ry); JJUsJI Jaj expense account, expense 

J-b badala (prep.) instead of, in place 
of, in lieu of 

j- V-b badalan min in place of, in- 
stead of, in lieu of 

iJ-b badla pi. badalat, J jo bidal suit 
(of clothes); costume | All 4J-b 6. al- 
hammdm bathing suit; i_ jjAj SJjb train- 
ing suit, sweat suit; Z^j aJju [rasmlya) 
uniform; »j^J\ aJju 6. as-sahra dress suit, 
evening dress; ^JUj^I) aJju (tasrifatiya) 
full-dress uniform; *LiiII aJ^U b. al-fada 
space suit; ££jjJ1 SJju 6. al-warsa overalls, 

iJ^j badaliya compensation, smart 

Jl-b badala (prep.) instead of, U Jljb 
(conj.) instead of (being, doing, etc.) 

Jj-u 6od^ pi. >V-b budald' 2 , JJIju badail 2 
substitute, alternate (^e or l >, also J for) ; 
stand-in, double (theaL); (f. 5) serving as 
a replacement or substitute | iL-U Ijyu 
{ma f ram) reserve detachment (mil.) 

Jl-U badddl grocer ; money-changer; — 
(pi. -a£) pedal (auto, bicycle) | ic^JI <JU 
6. as-sur'a gas pedal, accelerator (auto) 

<]Iaj badddla culvert; pipeline; tele- 
phone exchange, central 

□ JjL. mabddil 2 see JJj 

JjJJ foMiJ change, alteration; replace- 
ment (of, v by else) 

SJ.iL. mubadala pi. -a£ exchange | CjV.iL. 
^iJ^f (tijdriya) commercial exchange, 
trade relations 

Jiojj ibdal exchange, interchange, re- 
placement ((_j by), substitution («-* of); 
change; phonetic change 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-09-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 


JjlJ tabaddul change, shift, turn; 
transformation; transmutation, conver- 

J^LJ tabadul (mutunl) exchange | 
iSj* VI J^Lj t. al-asrd exchange of prison- 
ers; iSJ^J J^ J^Uj {taqdjl, tijari) cul- 
tural and commercial exchange; JjIj 
jljcJI i}^\ t. itldq an-nlrdn exchange of 
shots; W-JI JjU L as-salam exchange of 
greetings; £*\jJ-\ cblJ t. al-kibardt ex- 
change of experiences; _^]^J- 1 J^Lj 
thought transference, telepathy 

J I JUL- 1 istibddl exchange, replacement, 

^x^ rnvbdil: Cj\}\J^J^\ Jju* m. al-ustu* 
wdndt automatic record changer 

JiLju mutabddal mutual, reciprocal 

JyUL-j mustabdal: JjUL. 
player (sports) 

pV reserve 

jJu baduna u and badana u (budn) to be fat, 

jju badan pi. olJbl abdan y j-bi abdun 
body, trunk, torso 

Jjj fiackmi bodily, corporal, physical, 

Z\Jj badana corpulence, obesity 

j>Jo badln pi. u-b budun stout, cor- 
pulent, fat, obese; pyknic (type) 

<ujJb buduna corpulence, obesity 

Oil bddin pi. d-b budn stout, corpulent, 
fat, obese 

»Jb badaha a to come, descend suddenly (* 
upon s.o.), befall unexpectedly (a s.o.); 
to surprise (o s.o.) with (l->) III to 
appear suddenly, unexpectedly (i~> * 
before s.o. with VIII to extem- 
porize, improvise, do offhand, on the 
spur of the moment (a 

4*\ Jb badaha spontaneity, spontaneous 
occurrence, impulse ; simple, natural way, 

naturalness, matter-of-factness ; <a1 Jj badd* 
hatan and ^aIjJL all by itself, spontane- 

if-Jj badlha sudden or unex- 
pected; improvisation; impulse, inspi- 
ration, spontaneous intuition; intuitive 
understanding or insight, empathy, in- 
stinctive grasp, perceptive faculty | Jp 
if- -J I all by itself, spontaneously; off- 
hand; 4^-oJl jJ>\>- quick-witted, quick at 
repartee; Z^U- If-Jb presence of mind 

^Jb badlhl and ^Jj badahi intuitive; 
self-evident; a priori (adj.) | ol ^-^ <j* 
and 61 ^^jlJI j* it is immediately appar- 
ent, obvious, goes without saying that . . . 

IL^-Jo badihlya pi. -at an axiom, a fun- 
damental or self-evident truth; truism, 
commonplace, platitude 

ajIjLj badd'ih 2 fundamental or self- 
evident truths 

(j-b) Iju badd u to appear, show, become 
evident, clear, plain or manifest, come 
to light; to be obvious; to seem good, 
acceptable, proper (J to s.o.) | <il 4-ip \*i 
one could see that he . . . Ill to show, 
display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare 
openly | Sjl-bJU ^\i ( r addwa) to show 
open hostility IV to disclose, reveal, mani- 
fest, show, display, evince (a sth.); to 
demonstrate, bring out, bring to light, 
make visible (a; to express, utter, 
voice (a | j ajIj ^juI (ra'yahu) 
to express one's opinion about; <~*j ^-bl 
(ragbatan) to express a wish or desire 
V = I; to live in the desert VI to pose as 
a Bedouin 

jAi badw desert; nomads; Bedouins 

^_jJU badawl Bedouin, nomadic; rural 
(as distinguished from urban); a Bed- 

ajjJU badawiya pi. -at Bedouin woman, 
Bedouin girl 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $jAXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



Sl-b badah pi. £>\jJo badawdt whim, 
caprice; ill-humor 

2jl.u badawa and biddwa desert life, 
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 

»Iju baida 2 desert, steppe, wilderness, 

•Ijbl ibdd' expression, manifestation, 

3b bddin apparent, evident, obvious, 
plain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pi. 
Sl-b buddh Bedouins 

iob bddiya desert, semidesert, steppe; 
peasantry; (pi. s\y, bawadin) nomads, 

j^So-b (Fr. pedicure) bediker {eg.) pedicure 

Aj badda u {badd) to get the better of (a), 
beat, surpass (o s.o.) 

X) badd and Sb badd slovenly, untidy, 
shabby, filthy, squalid 

«h\Xt baddda slovenliness, untidiness, 
shabbiness, dirtiness, filth 

lit badaa a to revile, abuse (J* s.o.), rail 
{ J* at s.o.); — *(jX> badia a, jJb badua u 
to be obscene, bawdy 

>(j\t badV disgusting, loathsome, nause- 
ous, foul, dirty, obscene, bawdy, ribald 

►!Jb badd 3 and 3*1 Jb bad&'a obscenity, 
ribaldry, foulness {of language); disgust, 
loathing, aversion, contempt 

r\i badaka a to be haughty, proud 

£0j badah luxury, pomp, splendor; 
haughtiness, pride 

ioli badik pi. £o1jj bawddik 2 high, 
lofty; proud, haughty 

jjj badara u {badr) to sow, disseminate (a, seed, also fig. = to spread) II to 
waste, squander, dissipate (a 

jit badr spread, propagation (of a trend 
or ideology) ; — (pi. jjh budv,r,j\\> biddr) 
seeds, seed; seedling; pi. jjXj pips, pits, 
stones (of fruit) 

ojXi badra (n. un.) a seed, a grain; pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ 
cell (of a development, and the like) 

j\X> biddr seedtime 

jX^j tabdir waste, squandering, dissi- 

j.L. mubaddir pi. -un squanderer, wast- 
rel, spendthrift 

(jjlj look up alphabetically 

J-L badala i u (badl) to give or spend freely, 
' generously (a; to sacrifice (a; 
to expend (a ; to offer, grant (a | 
a-l$»- Jjj {jahdahu) to take pains; JJb 
' J >ff do. ; Sa^L^ JT Jaj (kulla musd'adatin) 
to grant every assistance; ^Lil JJb to 
make efforts; J itLkJl JJb to obey s.o., 
defer to s.o.; JU JT JJb (kulla gdlin) and 
J~a— J a^J^j JUJI JJb to spare no 
effort, go to any length, give everything, 
pay any price for or in order to; JJb 
<^-j »l» {ma' a wajhihl) to sacrifice one's 
honor; (o^i ^ or) o^i Oji <*J6 JJb to 
sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; <u-*j JJb (wus'ahu) 
to do one's utmost, do one's best V to 
fritter away one's fortune, be over- 
generous; not to spare o.s.; to give o.s. 
over (e.g., to some low work or activity, 
to vulgar or common); to prostitute 
o.s. (woman); to display common, vulgar 
manners VIII to wear out in common ser- 
vice, make trite, vulgar, commonplace, to 
hackney (a; to abuse (a; to 
express o.s. in a vulgar manner, use vulgar 
language; «u*i* Ji^l to degrade o.s., de- 
mean o.s., sacrifice one's dignity 

J.b badl giving, spending; sacrifice, 
surrender, abandonment; expenditure; 
offering, granting; (also JJb l±f- 'amalt- 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° < (IHJ- cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


yat b.) puncture, tapping (med.) | J-b 
£j\j}\ self-sacrifice 

*JJu badla suit (of clothes) 

JJL. mibdal pi. JiL* mabddil 2 slipper; 
pi. (JiL. casual clothing worn around 
home | JiL. j o^i so-and-so in his 
private life 

Jl-bl ibtiddl triteness, commonness, 
commonplaceness ; banality; debasement, 

JiU badil spender 

JJLi. mutabaddil unstintingly involved ; 
completely dedicated (to a job); vulgar, 

JJb*. mubtadal trite, hackneyed, banal, 
common, vulgar; everyday, common- 
place (adj.) 

x j barra (1st pers. perf. barirtu, barartu) a i 
(birr) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; 
to be kind (o or <-> to s.o.); to be chari- 
table, beneficent, do good (t-» to s.o.); to 
give out of charity (c-» » to s.o. ; to 
obey (* s.o., esp. God); to treat with 
reverence, to honor (yor. the parents) ; 
to be honest, truthful; to be true, valid 
(sworn statement) ; to keep (ua promise, 
an oath) II to warrant, justify, vindicate; 
to acquit, absolve, exonerate, exculpate, 
clear (*, « s.o., [ <^> <^j jj (wajhahu) 
to justify o.s. by; j^ V (yubarraru) un- 
justifiable IV to carry out, fulfill (*, 
a promise, an oath) V to justify o.s. ; to 
be justified 

j birr reverence, piety; righteousness, 
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness; 
charitable gift; charity j ^J^ljiii j<5\ (wali* 
dain) filial piety 

j barr and jb bdrr pi. jlyl abrdr and 
Ijj barara reverent, dutiful (^ toward), 
devoted (c-» to); pious, godly, upright, 
righteous; kind 

lj^ mabarra pi. -at and jL. mabarr 2 
good deed, act of charity, benefaction; 
philanthropic organization; charitable 
institution, home or hospital set up with 
private funds 

jjotabrir pi. -at justification, vindica- 
tion; palliation, extenuation; pi. £s\j j3 
pleas, excuses, pretexts (for vindication) 

i$jju tabriri justifying, vindicating; 
exonerating, extenuating 

jL bdrr reverent, faithful and devoted; 
see also under j barr above 

j j j.* mabrur (accepted into the grace 
of the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a 
deceased person) 

j j* mvharrir pi. -at justification; 
excuse | J j>. V (mubarrira) unjusti- 

2 j barr land (as opposed to sea), terra fir ma, 
mainland; open country; \j barran out, 
outside | \j£-j \j barran wa-bahran by 
land and sea 

t£j barri pertaining to, or located on, 
the mainland; land (in compounds, as 
opposed to (jj^- bahrl) ; rural, belonging to 
open country; wild (of plants and ani- 
mals) | S-jL Joy SjL- (sayydra, md'iya) 
amphibious vehicle; '<uj i*^ ('aldma) 

hj barriya pi. ^jlj- bardriy open 
country; steppe, desert; see also 1 I/ 

j\j barrdnl outside, outer, exterior, 
external; foreign, alien 

3 j burr wheat 

1 lj' bara 3 a a (*-j bar') to create (a, said 
*of God) 

*j bar" creation 

<U bariya pi. -at, ^}j bardyd creation 
(— that which is created); creature; see 
also 2 j t 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



J$jUl al-barV the Creator (God) 

*\$jr barVa a (2»ly bard 9 a) to be or become 
free, be cleared (^ from, esp. from guilt, 
blame, etc., Jt toward s.o.); to recover 
{,>• from an illness) II to free, clear, 
acquit, absolve, exculpate (» s.o., ^ from 
suspicion, blame, guilt) | J»-^i 5*-U \j 
(sdkata r-rajtd) he acquitted the man 
IV to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate 
(» s.o.); to cause to recover, cure, heal 
(» s.o.) | <oo ]j\ (dimmatahu) to clear 
s.o. or o.s. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or 
o.s.; to release s.o. from a charge V to 
clear o.s. (j-. from suspicion, from a 
charge), free o.s. (j* from responsibility, 
etc.), rid o.s. (^ of); to disclaim asso- 
ciation (j- with s.o.); to declare o.s. 
innocent, wash one's hands (j- of); to 
be acquitted X to restore to health, 
cure, heal (* s.o.); to free o.s. (j- from), 
rid o.s. (j- of) 

»j^ bur' and *jj buru' convalescence, 

*i£j^ ban' pi. t\jj\ abriya' 2 , »\j burd 3 , 
biro* free, exempt (<> from), devoid 
(j- of); guiltless, innocent; guileless; 
harmless, innocuous; recovered, restored 
to health; sound 

A j bard* {also for f. and pi.) free, ex- 
empt (,y from); innocent, guiltless (j* of,.) | & *\j a^o (dimmatuhu) he is inno- 
cent of . . . 

S»lj- baraa being free; disavowal, with- 
drawal; innocence, guiltlessness ; naivete, 
guilelessness, artlessness; (pi. -at) license, 
diploma, patent | 9 \Jj-\ l*\j patent on 
an invention; XJcd\ U\j exequatur (a 
written authorization of a consular officer, 
issued by the government to which he 
is accredited); aj&\\ 1*\j b, at4iqa {Tun.) 
credentials (dipl.); i-JJl lAj b. ad-dimma 
certification of clean slate; exoneration; 
exculpation ; unspotted or cleared record ; 

release from a legal obligation; »*\j Jp 
harmless; without guilt, innocent 

4jj3 tabri'a freeing, exemption; acquit- 
tal, absolution, discharge, exoneration 

SljL. mvbarcta mubarat, divorce by 
mutual consent of husband and wife, 
either of them waiving all claims by way 
of compensation (Isl, Law) 

*\j\ ibrd* acquittal, absolution, release; 
release of a debtor from his liabilities, 
remission of debt {Isl. Law) | <lo »\j\ t. 
dimmatikl exoneration of s.o., discharge 

>\jcJ\ istibrd": JJJ *\jcl~\ ist. al-hamal 
the ceremony of selecting and purifying 
the Host before Mass (Copt.-Ckr.) 

i^Lk-U (Eg. spelling) baraguway Paraguay 
Jjji^JI al-bardzll (m.) Brazil 

Jj j\j bardzili Brazilian (adj. and n.) 

iSjy^J (Fr. brasserie) braseri beer parlor, 

9\j Prague 

olilj- (Fr. paravent) baravdn folding screen 

lfi\j bdrahma, barahmd Brahma 

<jj birba and *J,j birbd pi. ij\j bardbl 
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins 
dating back to ancient Egypt [eg.); 
labyrinth, maze 

£j» barbak pi. f)j bardbik 2 water pipe, 
drain, culvert, sewer pipe 

j j barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large 
crowd), jabber, mutter, prattle 

jjj\ al-barbar the Berbers 

iSjj barbarl Berber (adj.); barbaric, 
uncivilized; — (pi. ~*j)j bardbira) a 
Berber; a barbarian; \jj$ the Berber 

^wSvo jjV j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $jAXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



\j j barbarlya barbar(ian)ism, barbar- 
ity, savagery, cruelty 

j jc* mutabarbir barbaric, uncivilized 

{ j~£ij look up alphabetically 

1 i J>j*j barbus (alg.) coarse couscous 

2 JLu j barbU {syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an 
enema, etc.) 

jajj- barbata to splash, paddle, dabble (in 

Ojij (It. barbcme) barbunl t also Oj*j red 
I mullet {Mullus barbatus; zool.) 


} ijj see hj 

| * " 

[ j-jjy barbis barbel (200 J.) 

; JUj^JI al-burtugal (m.) Portugal 

[ JUjy burtugdli Portuguese (adj.); (pi. 

•un) a Portuguese 

jUjy burtuqal, uLajy burtuqan (coll.; n. un. 3) 
orange; oranges 

JUS/ burticqaU, JlUy burtuqdniOT&nge, 
orange- colored 

lyj burtun pi. ^ly baratin 2 claw, talon 

Vj- V to display, show, play up her charms 
(woman); to adorn herself, make herself 
pretty (woman) 

Vy burj pi. -ru buruj, ^\j\ abraj tower; 
castle; constellation; (also ibtfl/l gy) 
sign of the zodiac j JjL *y b. babil 
tower of Babel; confusion of tongues; 

<**\j>- -rjh. hirasa watch tower; 


6. hafr drill rig, derrick (oil exploration) ; 
rlc^-' rj 6- al-hamdm pigeon house, 
dovecot; ILJl^ rj- b. muraqdba control 
tower (airport); ^U ^y ivory tower; 
•LLI ry &• al-miydh water tower 

*4jn-jIj barija pi. rj'ji bawdrij 2 warship, 
battleship; barge 

jsj-y II tabarjaza to become bourgeois or 
middle class 

\j-U-jJI «--*J fo f 6 al-birjds a kind of equestrian 
contest, joust, tournament 

2 Lr A>-yJl al-birjls Jupiter {astron.) 

^-j barjal pi. J*-1j- bardjil 2 compass, (pair 
of) dividers 

lx~j bur junta pi. ^-iy bardjim 2 knuckle, 
finger joint 

iSJ\j»rJ etc - see t?Jl>rJ^ 

*y bariha a (r\j barah) to move or go away 
(from one's place); to leave (* or j- a 
place, J I for), depart (* from, Jl on 
one's way to); with neg.: to continue 
to be ( — Jlj) I j t- j ; U he is still in ...; 
U.& -.y U (ganlyan) he is still rich; ^y 
•UA-'I {Icafd') the matter has come out, 
has become generally known; tjj ^ 
to come and go II to beset, harass, 
trouble, molest (u s.o.) Ill to leave 
(a a place, Jf for), depart (a from, Jl on 
one's way to) 

J\j barah departure; cessation, stop; 
a wide, empty tract of land, vast expanse, 
vastness; \*-\j bardhan openly and 
plainly, patently 

£jlJ tabdrih 2 agonies, torments (e.g., 
of longing, of passion) 

ia- j L* mubdraha departure 

j-jU bdrik (showing the left side, i.e.) 
ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as 
opposed to ^U); ^jUi al-bdriha yester- 

i^jUl al-bdrihata yesterday |VjU! SLDI 
{lailata) last night; l^jUi Jjl awmala 
l-b. the day before yesterday, two days 

rjy. mubarrih violent, intense, ex- 
cruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains) 

^wSvo jjV jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' 6t^'j*!5 cP^ ^Svpwo 



<u -rf* mubarrah bihi stricken, afflicted, 

l ij barada u to be or become cold; to cool, 
cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to cool, 
chill (a; to soothe, alleviate (a 
pain); - — baruda u to be or become cold 
II to make cold (a; to refrigerate 
(a; to cool, chill (a, also fig.) J 
to soothe, alleviate (a pain) V to refresh 
o.s., cool o.s. off; to be soothed, be 
alleviated VIII to become cold, cool off 

*j bard coldness, chilliness, coolness; 
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh 

ij barad hail, Zsj barada (n. un.) 

sjj barud collyrium 

sjj burud coldness, coolness, chilliness; 
emotional coldness, frigidity 

Isjj buruda coldness, coolness, chil- 
liness; emotional coldness, frigidity | 
y*^Jl Isjj b, ad-dam cold-bloodedness 

hsj bardlya ague, feverish chill; see 
also below 

>\*j burada 2 ague, feverish chill 

s\j barrdd (leb.) refrigeration plant; re- 
frigerator, icebox; (eg.) teapot | ^U s\j 
a pot of tea 

Zi\j> barrdda cold-storage plant; re- 
frigerator, icebox 

Jojy tabrid cooling, chilling; cold 
storage, refrigeration; alleviation, mit- 
igation | ^ijd\ jl$>- jakdz at-t. cold- 
storage plant, refrigerator; JU^l iiji 
gurfat at-t. cold-storage room 

jjb bdrid cold; cool, chilly; easy; 
weak; stupid, inane, silly, dull; dunce, 
blockhead | ojLJI w^J-l (harb) the cold 
war; ojlj i*-Ji. an easy prey; jsjLj Jits. 
( r ais) an easy life; ojb ^ (hujja) a weak 
argument; jjL> ^J (tibg) light, mild to- 

*jy mubarrtd cooling, refreshing; — 
(pi. -at) radiator; cooling apparatus; pi. 
Cj\ijy* refreshments (beverages, etc.) [ j>>. 
»J^JI m. al-hawa electric fan, ventilator 

sj* mubarrad cooled, chilled 

2 ij barada u to file (a a piece of metal, etc.) 
i\j barrdd pi. -un tool cutter 

i*\j birdda tool cutting, milling (as a 
trade in the metal industry) 

oi\j burdda iron filings 

i>. mibrad pi. ijL. mabdrid* file, rasp; 
tool cutter, (milling) cutter (as a machine) 

9 *j> burd pi. s\j\ abrdd garment 

Is j burda Mohammed's outer garment 
h\ij burddya curtain, drape 

4 j j IV to send by mail, to mail (a a letter) 

Oj j band post, mail | ^ji- 1 ju^OI (jawwt) 
air mail; ^aUI -b^l ('ddi) surface mail 

iS'bj baridl postal; messenger, courier; 

h sjj\i look up alphabetically 

*<jsj bardi, burdi papyrus (bot.) 

hi j bardlya pi. -at papyrus | oL j^i it 
'ilm al-b. papyrology 

7 <£2j barada Barada, name of a river in Syria 
£\ij barddq pi. Jjily barddlq 2 jug, pitcher 
rSj&\ <_-*J 2a'6 al-bridz bridge (game) 
f-ij bardaka to polish, burnish (a 
□ ha j — h-ij 
d\$ij> = jUj/ 

Jjiij bardaqus (= Jjs*jA marjoram 
ojjij (Fr. bordure) bardura curbstone, curb 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $jAXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


r J . 

iciy barda'a pi. 9- Sly barddi fi saddle, pack- 
saddle (for donkeys and camels) 

^ilj- barddi'i maker of donkey sad- 
dles, saddler 

bj'ij birdaun pi. ^ l\j baradin 2 work horse, 
jade, nag 

l jj baraza u (jjj buruz) to come out, show, 
appear, come into view, emerge; to step 
out (^ e.g., of a building); to jut out, 
protrude, be prominent (also fig.); to 
stand out (pU against), contrast (with); 
to surpass, excel (Jp s.o.) II to cause to 
come out, bring out, expose, show, set 
off, accentuate (a; to emboss, raise 
in relief from a surface (a; to em- 
phasize, highlight, give prominence to (a 
a point, a theme); to excel, surpass 
(j J* s -°- m )> stand out (j for), dis- 
tinguish o.s. (j by) III to meet in 
combat or duel (4 s.o.); to compete in a 
contest ( e with s.o.) IV to cause to come 
out, bring out, expose, make manifest 
(a; to emphasize, highlight, give 
prominence to (* a point, a theme); to 
publish, bring out (* a book, etc.); to 
present, show (a e.g., an identity card) 
V to evacuate the bowels VI to vie, con- 
tend VIII to stand out, be conspicuous 

jjj buruz prominence, projection, 
protrusion; protruding edge or corner 

j\j birdz excrement, feces; competi- 
tion, contest, match (in sports) ; duel 

•j j buraiza (bireza; eg.) ten-piaster 

j j I abraz 2 more marked, more distinc- 
tive; more prominent | ^aUUI jj\ a. aX- 
mazdhir the most outstanding or conspic- 
uous phenomenon 

SjjL* mubdraza competition, contest, 
match, esp. in sports; duel; fencing | 
(.ri^ SjjLil (sis) fencing with foils 

j\j\ ibraz bringing out, displaying, 
setting off, accentuation; production; 

jjb bdriz protruding, projecting, sa- 
lient; raised, embossed, in relief; marked, 
distinct, conspicuous; prominent (per- 
sonality) J jb— *yi jj\j 6. al-asndn buck- 

j'j\a mubarriz surpassing (Jp s.o.), 
superior (J* to s.o.); winner, victor (in 

J jv* mubarraz embossed, worked in relief 

JjL« mubariz competitor, contender; 
combatant, fighter; fencer 

2 > j (Fr. 'prise) brlz pi. -at (plug) socket, wall 
plug, outlet (syr.); ljj barlza pi. j\j 
bard'iz 2 do. (eg,) 

3 jj\ look up alphabetically 

A o\jj barazdn trumpet 

rjj barzak pi. fj\j bardzik 2 partition, bar- 
rier, bar ; isthmus ; straits ; dividing space 

3 j j j burzuq sidewalk 

1 (*L-j' birsdm pleurisy 

2 -«j j 1 look up alphabetically 

V7 birsim clover, specif., berseem, Egyp- 
tian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.; 

l J*J burs j>\. (jSlj-l abras mat 

fj>j\ abras 2 spotted, speckled 

2 L£ j \ look up alphabetically 

C^j birist: cJ^j ^^j (baid) soft-boiled 

ajjLZj barsilona Barcelona (seaport in NE 

J-j barsama to stare, gaze (J! at; to 
rivet (a 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 

r j . 


*Pj barsama riveting 

j»Li_/ bursam and oLi^ (n. un. I) pi. -af 
wafer; Host (CAr.) 

luLij- bursama rivet 

^Uy burstimji riveter 

S-^r'y bursampya riveting 

tfjZj barSumi (saud.-ar.) prickly pear 

1 i yj' barisa a (baras) to be a leper 

^j burs wall gecko (Tarentola mau- 
ritanica, zool.) 

^j baras leprosy 


I abras 2 leprous; leper 

o"J: f 

I *u 

sdmm a. wall gecko 

2 X^>j bursa stock exchange 

<j*j barada u {^jj burutf) to germinate, 
sprout (plant) 

j^j bartuz: <ij>^\ jj*j b. al-balirlya fore- 
castle, crew quarters (on a merchant 

£^>j barta f a {**hj barta'a) to gallop 

JUy bartala (Slkj- bartala) to bribe (e s.o.) 
II tabartala to take bribes, be venal 

JJ»j« fewffl pi. JJ»1 j; bardtll 2 bribe 

1 1?^ bartama to rave, talk irrationally 

rjkj; burtum, bartum trunk of an 

a jU»/ bartaman pi. -<z£ (e^f.) glass jar (for 
preserves, etc.), jelly jar 

8 oLJv (Fr. appartement) bartaman pi. -a£ 
(taw..) apartment 

pV bara'a a to surpass, excel (e s.o.); (also 
baru'a u) to distinguish o.s., be skillful, 
proficient V to contribute, give, donate 
(l_j; to undertake (voluntarily, ^, volunteer (»_-> for), be prepared, 

willing (cj to do; to be ready, be 
on hand (<^» with) 

a&\j bara'a skill, proficiency; efficiency, 
capability, capacity 

4*jj- buru'a superior skill, outstanding 

jvl o&ra' 2 more prominent or excellent; 

£yj tabarru* pi. -a( gift, donation; 

pjLj 6ort c skilled, skillful, proficient, 
capable, efficient; brilliant, outstanding 
(work of art) 

£j<u mutabarri" donor, contributor 

pj bar'ama to bud, burgeon, sprout II tabar* 
'ama to bud, put forth buds; to reproduce 
by buds, be gemmiparous (biol.) 

/j bur'um pi. ji\j barcFim 2 and *y.j 
bur c um pi. ^piy bara'im 2 bud, burgeon; 
blossom, flower 

**jj tabar'um formation of buds; gem- 
mation (biol.) 

<t>ji-j burgut pi. i-*l^ bardgit 2 flea ; pi. ii-*ilj- 
(syr.) small silver coins | ^^.Jl <L>y>j b. 
al-bahr shrimp (zool.) 

J&j t bargas (coll.; n. un. 2) gnat(s), midge(s) 

Jpy burgul bulgur, cracked wheat kernels, 
used in cooking and served together with 
other food 

J^j (Turk. J^jy burgu) burgi pi. J.\j 
baragi screw 

j&j birfir pi. j*il j, barafir 2 purple 

Sijy look up alphabetically 

1 Jy baraqa u to shine, glitter, sparkle, flash | 
*\gj\ cJj (samau) there was lightning 
IV — I; to emit bolts of lightning 
(cloud); to flash up, light up; to brighten 
(face); to cable, wire, telegraph (Jl to) 

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3 j barq pi. 3jj buruq lightning; flash 
of lightning; telegraph [ <_JU- 3j barqun 
kullabun and b. kullabin lightning without 
a downpour; a disappointing, disillusion- 
ing matter; an unkept promise 

Jy barql telegraphic, telegraph- (in 

13 j barqlya pi. -at telegram, wire, 

jjy bariq pi. jJly baraiq 2 glitter, 

shine, gloss, luster | J.U* ^j ji (ma f = 

dini) lustered, coated with metallic 

J I j- burdq Alborak, name of the 
creature on which Mohammed made his 
ascension to the seven heavens (r}s*) 

J 1 j barraq shining, lustrous, spar- 
kling, flashing, glittering, twinkling 

j>. mabraq glitter, flash | p^aJI 3j^ J 
f% m. is-subh with the first rays of the 
morning sun 

JjU bariq: J*V' Jjb b. al-amal 
glimpse of hope 

SSjIj bdrtqa pi. Jj1_^ bawdriq 2 gleam, 

J>^ mubriq: e-JlT J># teletype; *JT 
«>* do. 

*3/JI al-barqa Cyrenaica (region of E Libya) 

\5iyl *^ r *ff P^* JiJ^' oftarig'*, (2«n.) ~4jL\ aba- 
riqa pitcher; jug 

Jlj bariq — jj j-1 
4 J>^1 look up alphabetically 

(jiiy barqasa (^Jisj barqasa) to variegate, 
paint or daub with many colors (a; to embellish (a; <AJs one's 
speech) II tabarqasa reflex, and pass, of I 

jjiS/ birqU and ^Lr jmJ »&w baraqi$ 
bishop bird (zool.) 

XiSj barqasa colorful medley, variety, 

^yZji* mubarqas colorful, variegated, 

*ij> barqa'a to veil, drape (a, a s.o., 
II tabarqa r a to put on a veil, veil o.s. 

*ij> burqu* pi. *Sl^ baraqi' 2 veil (worn 
by women; long, leaving the eyes exposed) 

t5ji/ barquq (coll.; n.un. S) plum (egr.) | 3J*j 
i£j (barn) sloe plum 

l ilj baralca u to kneel down II and IV to 
make (a the camel) kneel down II to 
invoke a blessing (Jp or j on, J 
on s.o.) Ill to bless (j or » s.o., also J 
or Jp), invoke a blessing on; to give 
one's blessing (a to, sanction 
(a | dJU 4> I iijLj God bless you! 
V to be blessed (<~> by); to enjoy (<_->, 
find pleasure, delight (<-» in); to ask s.o.'s 
(oj) blessing; to seek a blessing (c-» from 
a saint) VI to be blessed, be praised; 
. . . £]jLj tabdraka . . . God bless . , .!; *ul 
JUjj iljlJ (tabdraka wa-ta'ald) God the 
Blessed and Sublime X to be blessed 

dS'j Hrka pi. ilj birak pond, small 
lake; puddle, pool | *»-LJl ~&j b. as- 
sibaha swimming pool 

'S'j baraka pi. -at blessing, benediction | 
<T/Ji <& qillat al-b. misfortune, bad luck 

ilj 1 abrak 2 more blessed 

dhjv tabrlk pi. -at good wish; blessing, 

iJjL* mubdrak blessed; fortunate, lucky | 
tSjjp- b £ijL* congratulations, my friend! 

2 dLjl/ bardrik 2 (mor.) barracks 

JCj birkdr compass, (pair of) dividers 

olTj- burkdn pi. t>5"ij< bar akin 2 volcano 
J IT/ burkani volcanic 

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d\ij barlamdn pi. -at parliament 

(jUj- barlamdni parliamentary 

iJ^ij; barlamdniya parliamentarianism 

Jxly (It. brillante) briUcmti brilliant, dia- 

jjj- barlin Berlin 

l *j barima a (baram) to be or become 
weary, tired (^ of), be fed up, be bored 
(uj with), find annoying, wearisome (^ V to feel annoyed {«-» by), be dis- 
pleased (u^ with); to be fed up (c-> with), 
be sick and tired (<-> of, also j-); to be 
impatient, discontented, dissatisfied; to 
grieve, be pained 

*j barim weary, tired (<-> of), dis- 
gusted (^ at, with); dissatisfied, dis- 

fju tabarrum weariness, boredom, dis- 
gust; discontent, dissatisfaction; uneasi- 
ness, discomfort, annoyance 

pjo mutabarrim cross, peevish, vexed, 

2 ?j barama u {barm) to twist, twine (a a 
rope); to shape (a round and long; 
to roll up (a the sleeves); to settle, 
establish, confirm (a IV to twist, 
twine (a a rope); to settle, establish, 
confirm (a; to conclude (a a pact); 
to confirm (a a judicial judgment); to 
ratify (a a treaty, a bill) VII to be set- 
tled, be established, be confirmed; to be 
twisted, be twined 

Xa\j^ barrama pi. -at drilling machine 
?j barlm rope; string, cord, twine 

1c j barrima pi. -at drill, borer, gimlet, 
auger, bit; corkscrew | «y j^ (mm* 
mar) screw 

O <?£ j barrimiya spirochete 

fly I ibrdm settlement, establishment; 
confirmation; conclusion (of a pact, etc.); 

ratification | f i yVlj ^-SJI "*&■ mahkamat 
an-rwqi wa-l-i. Court of Cassation (Eg.) 

fjj* mabrum bent, twisted, crooked | 
O f jj? *i-U— {silk) wire rope, cable 

l»jv» mubram firm, strong; irrevocable, 
definitely established; confirmed, rati- 
fied | *j\* »Uaif (qada) inescapable fate; 
<*j^ »jj**i irrevocably 

3 aaj burma pi. aj buram, *lj. birdm earthen- 
ware pot 

\aj burma Burma 

(jU/ barmSl amphibious | <J\^j olo (dab* 
bdba) amphibious tank (mil.) 

O yt*j; barmafiya amphibian 

cJJUy (Engl.) barmdnant permanent wave | 
ijUl J* tUuUy cold wave (in hair) 

g*j barmaja to program (a 

*£-j barmaja programing; program 

£aj* mvbarmaj programed, scheduled | 
£*j* ^Lo programed instruction; *\j* 
4?-j^* (mawadd) programed learning mate- 

J*y barmaq pi. jjy bardmiq 2 baluster; 
spike (of a wheel) 

Cjlf*y baramhdt the seventh month of the 
Coptic calendar 

fL^Jwy Birmingham 

i-s^ j barmudu the eighth month of the Coptic 

J~»y barmll pi. J*»lj- bardmll 2 barrel; keg, 
cask: tun 

ijy barnlya pi. Jiy bardnly clay vessel 

gUy barndmaj pi. *l^ bardmif program, 
plan, schedule; roster, list, index; cur- 

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&4-j burunjuk gauze, crope 
'jj barnaza to bronze (a 

l ,jJj burnus pi. ^J \j bardnis 2 (also ^yj 
barnuSy burnus pi. ^-w'y fcarcmts 2 ) bur- 
noose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble 
(of Coptic priests) | *\L\ ^j b. al- 
hammdm bathrobe 

^j baranist pi. -lya maker of bur- 

\ * {J ~i\jA\ JL*- jibal al-bardnis the Pyrenees 


k i j*ij brins prince 

I "L^Jj brinsesa princess 

Jajy II tabarnata to wear a hat 

ikJy bumaita pi. -at, -kJlj- bardnit 2 
(European) hat (men's and women's); 
lamp shade 

**>j burha pi. burahat, *j burah a while, a 
time; short time; instant, moment; 
l*j burhatan a little while | (>^y -Ui 
{after two moments =) in a short time 

ID fj barharn (syr.) — fj* marham 

I \>j bwahma, barahmd Brahma 
lAj barhama Brahmanism 
J* j barkami, barahmi Brahman (adj.) 

a*J>j> barhamiya, barahmiya Brahman- 

^j barahman pi. i*\j t bardhima Brah- 

^7 barhana to prove, demonstrate (Je or 

b\±j burkan pi. ^\j bardhin 2 proof 

I i*j< barhana proving, demonstration 

*$j barwa waste, scrap 

tiJbuJjjJ! al-brotostant the Protestants 

Jilz-Jjy brotostanti Protestant; (pi. -un) 
a Protestant 


brotostantlya Protestantism 

ji~5jj> (It. yroiesfo) brotosto protest (of a bill 
of exchange) 

JjS^y brotokol protocol 

byjj broton pi. -at proton 

Cf^jj brotin, protin protein 


brogrdm program 

jjTJ-r &w«/* pl« -*^ a trumpeter, bugler 
jjj barwaza to frame 

jijy barwdz, birwdz pi. > j'/ 6amm"z 2 

L^jy (It. Prussia) burusiyd Prussia 


burusl Prussian 

*J>jj (Fr. brochi) broseh pi. -a/ brochure, pro- 

is j j and *5 j j- (It. yroua) brova> brofa pi. -at 
test, experiment; proof sheet; rehearsal 

jj~sjj and jj~Jjj brofesor Professor (Euro- 
pean and American) 

J-Sjy broksel, {eg.) biruksil and (tarn.) JL-T,^ 

LjLJjy (Fr.) broletariyd proletariat 
iSJ^JJ broletdri proletarian 

jjj (Fr.) bronz bronze 

(Sjjj bronzi bronze, bronzy | _ / **jJI 
iSjjjl\ Casr) the Bronze Age 

1 <£j bard i (bary) to trim, shape (a, nib 
(a a pen), sharpen (a a pencil); to scratch 
off, scrape off (a; to exhaust, tire 
out, wear out, emaciate, enervate (* s.o.), 
sap the strength of («) HI to vie, com- 

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pete (s with s.o.), try to outstrip (» s.o.) 

VI to vie, compete, contend, be rivals; 
to meet in a contest, try each other's 
strength (esp. in games and sports); to 
play a match, play (^* against; sports) 

VII to be trimmed, be nibbed, be sharp- 
ened; to defy, oppose (J s.o.); to under- 
take, take in hand (J, set out to do (J), enter, embark (J upon) ; to break 
forth (^ from); to get going; to break 
out, let fly, explode (with words, esp. 
in anger or excitement) 

^j baran dust, earth 

IA j barrdya, WSVl «j1j> b. al-aqldm 
pencil sharpener 

*\jy mibrah pencil sharpener; pocket- 

SljL. mubdrdh pi. CjLj jL. mubdraydt con- 
test, tournament, match {in games and 
sports); competition, rivalry | <jij SljL* 
{wvddlya) friendly match (sport); SljL. 
aJV {nihalya) final match, final (sport) 

jU : L^-jLj (j-jill Jatl a r ti l-qausa bd* 
riydhd give the bow to him who knows 
how to shape it, i.e., always ask an 

jLju mutabarin participant in a con- 
test, contestant, contender; competitor, 

2 Zj see A j and 2 j 

£.4 j- (Engl.) drtrff, bredz{= -^j), ^AjjJI <-^*J 
game of bridge 

LjUajy biritaniyd Britain | ^IwJI ^^hj 
(uzmd) Great Britain 

Jllaj^ biritdni British; Britannic; (pi. 
-uri) Briton 

x j bazza u (bazz) to take away, steal, wrest, 
snatch (a « from s.o., rob, strip 
(a « s.o. of; to defeat, beat, out- 
strip, excel (o s.o.), triumph, be vic- 

torious (« over); to surpass (a, y 
by means of) VIII to take away, steal, 
pilfer (a; to take away, snatch 
(a money, <> from s.o.); to rob, fleece 
(0 s.o.) I ^LJI <JljJ Jul to lift money out 
of people's pockets, relieve people of 
their money 

jlj^l ibtizdz theft, robbery; fleecing, 
robbing (of s.o.) 

2 y bazza u to bud, burgeon 

j buzz, bizz pi. j\y bizdz, j\y\ abzdz 
nipple, mammilla (of the female breast) ; 
teat, female breast 

lil> bazzdza pacifier, nipple (for babies 
to suck on); baby's bottle 

3 > bazz pi, jj> buzuz linen; cloth, dry goods 

3> bizza clothing, dress; suit; uniform | 
Zfj Sjr (rasmiya) uniform 

j\j bazzdz draper, cloth merchant 
lj\j bizdza cloth trade 

jjiJ, bazbuz pi. y*\y bazabiz 2 nozzle; spout, 
lip (of a teapot or kettle) 

jj bazara i (bazr) to sow 

jj bizr pi. jjj buzur seed(s); pi. Jy\ 
abzdr and j J U I abdzir 2 spice 

Sj> bizra (n. un.) seed; kernel, pip, 
pit, stone (of fruit) ; germ 

j\y bazzdr seedsman 

Zj_y buzaira pi. -at spore (bot) 

jy bazaga u to break forth, come out; to 
dawn (day) ; to rise (sun) 

£j> buzug appearance, emergence; 
rise (of the sun) 

3j bazaqa u (bazq) to spit 

Jl> buzdq spit, spittle, saliva 
43 \y bazzdqa snail; cobra 

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Ja— J 

4»>» mibzaqa pi. JjL* mabdziq 2 spittoon, 

Mj- bazala % {bazl) to split (a; to pierce 
(a, make a hole (a in); to tap, 
broach (a; a cask); to puncture, 
tap (e s.o.; med.); to clear, filter {a a 

J> bazl puncture, tapping, paracentesis 

J1_> buzdl bung {of a cask) 

J_>^ mibzal pi. JjL. mabdzil 2 spile, 
spigot, tap; cock, faucet 

2 4i> (It. jpise?Zi) bizilla and V> green peas 

fj\ ibzlm pi. < jljl abdzim 2 buckle, clasp 

0^*> bizmut bismuth 

by I atean look up alphabetically 

Jai> bizantl Byzantine 

jli fctmn- pi. »t> buzah, j\ji bawdzin, o\jy m 
blzan falcon 

[ 1 cr J bassa u to crush, pulverize (a 

\, i ir i bass and <uj tema pi. ^l— j ta*as cat 


Lj basa'a a (o^ 6oa s ) to treat amicably 
(*_j s.o.); to be intimate, be on familiar 
terms {<_> with) 

'• LIjLj besdrdbiyd Bessarabia 

j^L-j basbds, 3L-L-J basbdsa (eg.) mace (&o£.); 
(nwgr.) fennel 

5*y~j basbusa (eg.) pastry made of 
flour, melted butter, sugar and oil 

jwi bastara to pasteurize (a milk) 
I JLj* mubastar pasteurized (milk) 

1 "*k~i bastilla pi. -af (ep.) tub 

| 1 6l^-J bustdn pi. ^jL-j basdtin 2 garden 

jlr~j bustdnl gardener; garden (adj.); 

il-j bastana gardening, horticulture 

2 dy~i (Ft. piston) biston pi. -at, jjwJ (Engl.) 
bistan pi. JiLj basdtin 2 piston 

3 Jyuj (It. bastone) bastunl spades (suit of 
playing cards) 

(Ft.) bastlliya pastilles, lozenges 

~j baska Easter; Passion Week (Ghr.) 

j basara u (jj— J busur) to scowl, frown; — 
basara u (basr) and VIII to begin too 
early (a with), take premature action, 
be rash (a in 

^ busr (n. un. S) pi. jLj bisdr unripe 

jj^l) bdsur pi. ^n-"ijj bawdsir 2 hemor- 

„j fcasa/a «. (bast) to spread, spread out 
(a; to level, flatten (a; to 
enlarge, expand (a; to stretch out, 
extend (a; to unfold, unroll (a; 
to grant, offer, present (a; to sub- 
mit, state, set forth, expound, explain 
(a,, J or Jp to s.o.); to flog (» s.o.; 
Nejd); to please, delight (« s.o.) | J*~j 
<ut!jS (dird'aihi) to spread one's arms; 
jJoJi jlfr* aJ Ja— i (mihdda l-udr) to hold 
out a helping hand to s.o., ease the way 
to vindication for s.o. ; J SOpLJJ Aj Ja-»> 
(^ada l-musd r ada) to extend a helping 
hand to s.o.; aJJUl Ja-J to lay the table; 
— basuta u (&Lj basdta) to be simple, 
openhearted, frank, candid II to spread, 
spread out/extend, expand (a; to 
level, flatten (a; to simplify, make 
simple (a Ill to set forth, state, ex- 
pound, explain; to be sincere (<-> o with 
s.o. about or in, confess frankly (* 
«_j to s.o.; to speak openly (« to s.o., 
J about V to be spread, be unrolled, 
be spread out, be extended; to speak at 

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great length (j about), enlarge (J on), 
treat exhaustively, expound in detail (j a 
theme); to be friendly, communicative, 
sociable, behave unceremoniously, be 
completely at ease | £j.U-I j Ja^ to 
talk freely, without formality VII to 
spread, extend, expand (intr.); to spread 
out flat, open up (the palm of the hand), 
be open; to broaden, become broader 
(content); to be merry, gay; to be glad, 
be delighted, be or become happy 

Ja~j bast extension, spreading, un- 
rolling, unfolding; presentation, state- 
ment, explanation, exposition; broad, de- 
tailed treatment (of content in books); 
cheering, delighting, delectation; amuse- 
ment; numerator (of a fraction; math.) \ 
4JI ia-j b. al-yad greed, cupidity 

aL-j basta extension, extent, expanse; 
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abili- 
ties; excess, abundance; (pi. -at) state- 
ment, exposition, presentation; — (pi. 
J»Lj bisat) landing (of a staircase); es- 
trade, dais, platform {eg.) 

^Lj bisat pi. -at, aL—jI absita, U-» 
busut carpet, rug | aj^J\ J*Lj b. ar-rahma 
winding sheet, shroud; j^+*L\ i»Uj the 
civilized world; Jp ijLy. (*J>j or) *>J? 
<i-»-Jl J?Lj (mas'alatan, baht) to raise a 
question, bring a question on the carpet, 
also iiilill J»L.j Jp (6. il-mundqaSa) for dis- 
cussion; -tkLj j J* (tawa) to be finished, 
be done, come to an end, finish; .ULJI ^Jia 
•ti Lc to bring the matter to an end, 
settle it once and for all 

Ja-~J basit pi. *lk«j busata 2 simple; 
plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, mod- 
est, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; >^-.-.».l l 
name of a poetical meter; pi. »LL~j 
simple souls, ingenuous people | ^-Ul Ja^j 
b. al-yadain (pi. .k-j busut) generous, 
openhanded; !*k~«J a simple matter! no 
problem ! 

il^JI al-basita the earth, the world 

JajLj basa'it 2 elements; simple rem- 
edies, medicinal plants; basic facts 

<1»Lj basdta simplicity, plainness | &L»w 
merely, only, simply, easily, without 
further ado 

O ^>- J I ubsuta pi. !*~-IjI abasif rim, 
felly (of a wheel) 

J*~jI absat 2 simpler; wider, more ex- 

Jaj-ijj tabstf simplification 

Ja**u tabassup candor, frankness, ease 
((j-bii toward people) 

J»l~ul ivbisdt (n. vie. 0) extensity, ex- 
tensiveness, extension; expansion, ex- 
panse; joy, delight, happiness, gaiety, 
cheerfulness; extroversion (psych.) 

SL-U «JLie 'adala basita extensor (anat.) 

S>j~a* mabsut extended, outstretched; 
spread out; flat, open (hand); extensive, 
large, sizeable; detailed, elaborate (book); 
broadly treated; cheerful, happy, gay; 
feeling well, in good health; (tun.) well- 

ig*oi* munbasit extending, spreading; 
gay, happy, cheerful; being in a merry 
mood; extroverted (psych.) 

k ■■■»'■' munbasat level or flat surface 

**J*-> (Turk.) basturma a kind of jerked, 
salted meat (eg.) 

j^i-Jl al-busfur the Bosporus 

J~j basaqa u (3j~j busuq) to be high, tall, 
lofty, towering; to excel, surpass (a or 
J* s.o.) 

j^-Lj basiq high, tall, lofty, towering 

J-*^ mubsiq high, tall, lofty, towering 

t^l^L-j biskay Biscay 

C-iS^j (Ft. bicycktte) biskilet, baskilet f., pi. 
•at and (eg.) -uJSLj baskaletta pi. -a* 

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£jjsi~i (It. biscotto) baskut biscuit 

C-jjSv*j baskawii biscuit 

1 J~j basula u (*JLj basdla) to be brave, 
fearless, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to 
be reckless, defy death 

iJLj basdla courage, intrepidity 

jL~c-l istibsal death defiance 

J--L basil pi. *">L-j busald' 2 , J-I^j bawd* 
3 ll 2 brave, fearless, intrepid 

J— ai*~« mustabsil death -defying, heroic 
2 aLj bisilla peas 

p~i basama i (basm) and V to smile VIII do. ; 
to give s.o. (J) a friendly smile 

Iu-j basma pi. basamat smile 

pLj bassam smiling 

c~x* mabsim pi. f L. mabdsim 2 mouth ; 
mouthpiece (of a wind instrument); 
holder (for cigars, cigarettes, etc.) 

l»LJul ibtisam and (n. vie.) ^.UXj! pi. 
-at smile 

J«-~j basnwda to utter the formula ail -j 

jC*"J' o^ "* n tne name of God, the 
Benificent, the Merciful"; (among Chris- 
tians) to utter the formula l-j^I *«j 
j^oiJl t-jJ\j ^y^j "in the name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost" 

U«-~j basmala utterance of the above 
formulae; the respective formula itself 

i^-j busaina kitty 

L>-j}j5L~j psikolojiyd psychology 

^-jijZL^j psikoldji psychologic(al) 

^ij bassa a (bass, liLij basdsa) to display a 
friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile; 
to be friendly (j to s.o.), give s.o. (J) 
a smile 

^jJLj basus, (jilij bassds smiling, 
friendly, cheerful 

IMt) baMSa smile; happy mien 

jib baSti smiling, happy; friendly, kind 

cJui bust (Nejd, Bahr., Ir.) a kind of cloak, 
= «»Lp 'aba* a 

41JL) bista (eg.) woolen cloak worn by 
Egyptian peasants 

1 _ / ±j basara i, basira a to rejoice, be delighted, 
be happy (^ at II to announce 
(as good news; «-> ° to s.o.; to 
bring news (<-> » to s.o. of good) ; to 
forecast (<_> good), give good pros- 
pect (c-j of) ; to spread, propagate, preach 

(^ ; a religion, a doctrine) | <-> a aj^ 

(nafsahu) to indulge in the happy hope 
that ... IV to rejoice (at good news) X to 
rejoice, be delighted, be happy (<_j at, esp. at good news), welcome (<_-»; to take as a good omen (<-> | 
\j*- <u ^Lm\ (kairan) to regard as 

^ bisr joy 

jli busr glad tidings 

,SjXi busrd pi. c^\jjJ^ busrayat glad 
tidings, good news 

j^ti basir pi. ♦t^ij busard' 2 bringer of 
glad tidings, messenger, herald, har- 
binger, forerunner, precursor; evangelist 

SjLSj bisdra pi. -at, J{£j basair 2 good 
news, glad tidings; annunciation, proph- 
ecy; gospel; JIZj good omens, propitious 
signs | SjLiJl JUp 'idal-b. the Annunciation, 
the Day of Our Lady (Chr.) 

Ijltj bu$ara gift to a bringer of glad 

_sJjS tabsir announcement (of glad 
tidings); preaching of the Gospel; evan- 
gelization, missionary activity 

(Jj^jS tabslrl missionary 

^rwLj tabdsir* foretokens, prognostics, 
omens, first signs or indications, heralds 

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(fig.); beginnings, dawn | j>Jh\ _>ilJ t. 
al-fajr the first shimmer of aurora, the 
first glimpse of dawn 

jlx* mubassir pL -un announcer, mes- 
senger {of glad tidings) ; evangelist (Chr.); 
preacher; missionary (Chr.) 

j1u>jl~* mustabsir happy, cheerful 

2 j Jl> basara u to peel (a; to scrape off, 
shave off, scratch off (a; to grate, 
shred (a Ill to touch (a, 
be in direct contact (a with; to 
have sexual intercourse (« with s.o.); 
to attend, apply o.s. (a or <_j to, 
take up, take in hand, pursue, practice, 
carry out (a, a job, a task, etc.) 

j^i basar man, human being; men, 

(Sj-^i basari human; human being; 
epidermal, skin (adj.) | g^i* ^jul? der- 

Ijli basara outer skin, epidermis, cu- 
ticle; skin; complexion 

*Ij-Zj basarlya mankind, human race 

tjJj^ mibsara pi. ^ L» mabdsir 2 scraper, 

S^L* mubasara pursuit, practice; di- 
rect, physical cause (Isl. Law) ; mubd* 
saratan immediately, directly 


mabsur : 

oj^Z,x* 4~ k^- 


shredded cheese 

jiL» mubdHr direct; immediate; — 
(pi. -un) practitioner, pursuer, operator; 
director; manager (Eg.); court usher 
(Syr.) | j*L* j± indirect; SyJSU* ^UL*I 
(isabat) direct hits; JlUI jl^ULl ("aqd) 
the two partners of an agreement or 
contract; S^SL* Zp\*\ (idd'a) live trans- 
mission (radio, TV) 

J^jj^i basariis flamingo 

^JL) baSi'a a (Jtlij basd f a) to be ugly, loath- 
some II to make ugly, disfigure, distort 

(a; to disparage, run down (a 
X to regard as ugly, find ugly or re- 
pugnant (a 

*JLj basi r ugly; offensive, disgusting, 
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant 

£JLj basi r ugly; offensive, disgusting, 
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant 

apUj basa'a ugliness 

*£jl absa' 2 uglier; more repulsive 

\jiLt look up alphabetically 

2 <u-Sj (eg.; Turk. baska; invar.) different 

lilij VIII to lie, prevaricate 
fJltj bassdk liar 
iJliJui ibtisdk lie, deceit, trickery 

1 jjSjLi baskur pi. jS'lLs basdkir 2 poker, fire 

2 jSJl> baskir pi. jxTUj basdkir* towel 

aIl> (It.) bisilla pi. -at bacillus 

^Sj basima a (basam) to feel nauseated, be 
disgusted (j* by, be fed up (& 
with) IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust 
(. s.o.) 

pti basam surfeit, satiety, loathing, 

jL-Ij basmdr (tun.) lacework, trimmings 

i£j*\Xi basdmirl (tun.) laceworker, lace- 

J*ij basmaq slipper (worn by fuqahd' and 

£l*j basna (magr.) sorghum, millet 

( _ r J-£j basans the ninth month of the Coptic 

ISjLti basnuqa pi. JJLi) basdniq 2 kerchief 
tied under the chin (pal.) 

t>xij basnln lotus 

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jj-aj bassa i {bass, l jA T ^ f basis) to glow, 
sparkle, glitter, shine; — (eg.) u to look 

4**2j bassa embers 

jj^sdo basis glow, shine; glimpse, ray 
{e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining 

^Laj basso's lustrous, shining; (eg.) 
spy, detective 

basbasa) to wag (v-4 
bi-danabihi its tail); (egr.) to ogle, make 
sheep's eyes, cast amorous glances 

baska see 4i«~j 

«aj basura u, basira a (basar) to look, see ; to 
realize, understand, comprehend, grasp 
(i~* II to make (» s.o.) see, under- 
stand or realize (a or l-», make 
(o s.o.) aware {a or cj of; to en- 
lighten (* » or u » s.o. on or as to; 
to tell, inform (a s or »_-• o s.o. about) 
IV to see, catch sight of, behold, discern, 
perceive {a, © or ^ s.o.,; to notice, 
observe (a, * oru s.o.,, *JUij <u s.o. 
doing; to make out, recognize (a, 
cj; to try to discern or perceive 
(a, c-» V to envisage, regard (J ; 
to try to get an insight {J into); to con- 
sider, ponder (J, reflect (<j on); to 
gain or have a keen insight (J into) X to 
have the faculty of visual perception, 
be able to see; to be endowed with 
reason, be rational, reasonable, in- 
telligent; to reflect (<j on, ponder 

j^eo basar pi. jUajl absar vision, eye- 
sight; glance, look; insight; sight, dis- 
cernment, perception [ j^\ juaJi short- 
sighted, myopic; ^^aJi «Jl lamh at-b. 
glance of the eye; j*aJ\ *JT, j^S\ «Jl j, 
j^aJI ««1 bj* (duna), j^aJ] .J (> JJl j 
(o^aZfo) in the twinkling of an eye, in 
a moment, in a flash, instantly; ^Ji. Jp 
j^aJl (morfa) within sight; <_-> ^-^j «J he 
is knowledgeable in, he is familiar with; 
jLaj^l jij\ ulu l-a. people of deep insight 

iSj^ai basarl optic (al), visual, ocular 

iijUj^ai basrlyat optics 

SjUaj basdra perception, discernment; 
perspicacity, acuteness of the mind, 
sharp -wittedness 

jvsaj basir pi. *\j^o bttsard* 2 endowed 
with eyesight; acutely aware (<-* of), 
having insight (c-> into) ; possessing knowl- 
edge or understanding (o> of), dis- 
cerning, discriminating, versed, knowl- 
edgeable, proficient (<_j in), acquainted 
(<_j with 

Zj^ai basira pi. yU^j basd'ir^ (keen) 
insight, penetration, discernment, under- 
standing, {power of) mental perception, 
mental vision | Ijuai ^ deliberately, 
knowingly; j* ojuai Jp olT to have 
insight into, be informed about; S^waJl AsU discerning, clear-sighted, 
perspicacious, sharp-witted; i^+*J\ SUl 
nafddal.-b. sharp discernment, perspicac- 

j**zi\ absar 2 more discerning 

~*j^ tabsira enlightenment; instruc- 
tion, information 

jLajl ibsdr vision, sight, visual per- 
ception j O rj^j* J^^) (muzdawij) di- 
plopia (med.) 

^jUajl ibsdn optic(al) 

j^3 tabassur reflection, consideration ; 
penetration, clear-sightedness, perspicac- 

jUa-I-! istibsdr insight (psych.) 

S^b basira pi. _ r ^\y m bawdsir 2 eye 

2 S^aJI al-basra Basra (port in S Iraq) 

3 SjLaJ bisdra, busdra (eg.) a kind of porridge 
made of green beans, boiled with onions, 
garlic, parsley, etc. 

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J^aj basaqa u to spit (J* on s.o.); to spit out 

IjLm basqa (n. vie.) expectoration; 
(expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva 

JUaj busdq spit, spittle, saliva 

mib$aqa spittoon, cuspidor 

J-^j ba$al (coll.; n. un. S) onion(s); bulb(s) | 
jUJl J-a) b. al-fa'r sea onion (Scilla verna) 

J«-aj basali bulbous 

<Lm4J busaila pi. -of, ^^Jl IL^j 
6. aS-Sa'r bulb of the hair (anat.) 

r* <2j basama u (basm) to print, imprint (a; to stamp (a; to make, or 
leave, an imprint (a on) 

iw*j basma pi. basamdt imprint, im- 
pression | jJ-M i^aj 6. al-katm stamp im- 
print, stamp; *jL*»V1 <*~*li fingerprint 

Sj^aj ba§wa embers 

^Jo ba4d tender- skinned 

«-^aj badefa a (bad*) to cut, slash or slit open 
(a; to cut up, carve up, dissect, 
anatomize (a; to amputate (surg.) 
II to cut up, carve up, dissect, anato- 
mize III to sleep (U with a woman) 
IV to invest capital (a) profitably in a 
commercial enterprise V pass, of II; to 
trade; to shop, make purchases X to 

*-^aj bad' amputation 

«-aj bid' (commonly, with genit. pi. 
of f, nouns, 2*^ with genit. pi. of m. 

nouns ; in classical Arabic 


with both 

genders) some, a few, several 
bid'ata r asara m., S^-U a~a> bid' a "aSrata f. 
(invar.) some and ten ( — 11 — 19); Jl^k 
Liy jJlc i*Jb (tiwala, qarnan) during more 
than ten centuries 

4*Mi> bid" a pi. *-Jti bidcf piece (of 
meat); meat; see also bit}' above 

£Uj bud r vulva 

"ULJli bida r a pi. *JLsj badd'i' 2 goods, 
merchandise, wares, commodities; that 
which s.o. has to offer, which he has to 
show, with which he is endowed (also 
attributes, qualities) | «*LiJI jlLS freight 
train; S^Li) j^» o-Le U rj*-\ he said 
what he had intended to say 

^Jua mibda" pi. a-^L. mabddi' 2 dissect- 
ing knife, scalpel 

£U*jI ibdd r mandate for the manage- 
ment of affairs (Id. Law) ; partnership 
in a limited company, capital investment 

m** mubdV pi. -un limited partner 

^JLju~» mustabdi* manager, managing 
agent (Isl. Law) 

io bait (n. un. I) duck; %*> batta leather 
flask | JUi Uu calf (of the leg) 
SauA miboM lancet, scalpel 

jkj batu'a u (»Jaj bvi\ *LLj Utd\ *»lkj 
bataa) to be slow; to be slowgoing, 
slow-footed, slow-paced; to tarry, linger, 
wait, hesitate II to retard, slow down, 
delay, hold up ( v J* s.o. in IV to 
slow down, decelerate, retard, delay, hold 
up (a; to be slow, go or drive 
slowly, slow down; to be late (^ for, 
in meeting s.o.), keep s.o. {^) waiting 
V to be slow, tardy ( j in) VI to be slow, 
leisurely, unhurried; to go, drive, act or 
proceed slowly, leisurely; to be slow- 
going, slow-footed, slow-paced; to slow 
down X to find slow (*, » s.o.,; to 
have to wait a long time (e for s.o.), 
be kept waiting (• by s.o.) 

»i*j but' slowness, tardiness | »J*.j 
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly 

t^Joi bati pi. *lkj bita* slow, unhurried; 
slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced; tar- 
dy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual, 
imperceptible | O •» j*N *J*> b. at-taraddud 
of low frequency (el.) 

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tUil abla n slower | ry vL/^ «> "*^ 
(gurdbi nuh) tardier than Noah's raven, 
i.e., slower than a ten years' itch {pro- 
verbially of s.o. who is very tardy) 

#ILjI ibtd* slowing down, retardation, 
deceleration, reduction of speed; tarry- 
ing, delay; slowness | »lk)l dj* without 

jLL> tabdtu' slowness; slowing down, 
retardation | jl»LJl v'^ *$™ 6 a * - *- 8 ^ ow * 
down strike 

Ajjllij battdrlya pi. -at battery (el. and mil.) 

LLUaj batata, &lk> ftafczfa sweet potato, yam 

j^ILj tatqfM potatoes | lj*£- j-kU** (muham- 
mara) fried potatoes 

■ «UaJ see jLaJ 

I' iaJaj batbata ( ^a Jaj bafbata) to quack (duck) 

«Lj bafaAa a (&<#) to prostrate, lay low, 
fell, throw to the ground, throw down 
{*, * s.o., V and VII to be pros- 
trated, be laid low; to lie prostrate, 
sprawl, stretch out; to extend, stretch; 
to lie 

M abtah 2 flat, level; (pi. jJ»M aba* 
tih 2 ) basin-shaped valley, wide bed of a 

►Ui*j bathd' 2 pi. £-U*> btiah, oljUitj 
bathawat basin-shaped valley; plain, 
level land, flatland, open country; (tun.) 
public square 

4^Joj batiha pi. ^U»j bat&'ih? wide bed 
of a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow 
and broad body of water 

-Ja.^. munbatik prostrate ; flat, level ; 
level land, plain 

i^ai bittik, battik (n. un. I) melon, water- 
melon; battik hub (of a wheel; syr.) 
t^k** mabtaka melon patch 

1 Jai batira a (batar) to be wild, wanton, 
reckless; to be proud, vain; to be dis- 

contented (a with; to disregard 
(a IV to make reckless; to make {« 
s.o.) proud, haughty, vain 

Jm batar wantonness, cockiness, arro- 
gance, hubris, pride, vanity 

lj?\t\ abatira (pi.) bons vivants, play- 
boys, epicures 

2 AJ*J\ aUbatra* Petra (ancient city of Edom- 
ites and Nabataeans ; ruins now in SW 

3 4jjlL) look up alphabetically 

rja* batrak pi. £jlU> batdrik 2 roe (of fish); 
caviar (esp. the Egyptian sort from the 
gray mullet) 

^yjai butrus Peter 

J~-Jaj batrasll and &"Jte bafrasin stole (Chr.) 

Jjjoj bitriq pi. iSjlkj batdriqa, JjjUaJ batdriq 2 
patrician; Romaean general; penguin 

iSJaj batrak, dL^ batrlk, 'SjJm. batriyark 
pi, SSjUaj batdrika Patriarch (as an eccle- 
siastic title, Chr.) 

~<>Sjai batrakxya, "kSj Jk> batriyarkiya 
patriarchate (Chr.) 

Zi^Sja) batrakkdna seat of authority or 
administrative post of a patriarchate 

(J £kj batasa i u (bat$) to attack with violence ; 
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. (v or j); 
to knock out (* s.o.); to hit, strike (^, land with a thud (u on) 

J&o bats strength, power, force, 
violence, outrage; ruthless action; opres- 
sion, tyranny | j&IoJI tSj* quwd l~b* 
squads of thugs, goon squads 

XiJaj batfa impact 

45Lkj bitdqa pi. -at, JjLLj bataiq 2 slip (of 
paper), tag; card, calling card; ticket; la- 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° < (IHJ- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 



bel j »jL»^Jl oLLj calling card; "^a^ SSUaj 
($aksiya) and cju^l 4*lkj identity card; 
ILjlAiJI ji^il AaUaj b. al-mawadd al-gidd'iya, 
j£j*=JI ^Lkj food ration card; SjuUJlI ^LLj 
b. al~mu r dyada greeting card; <$ijJ> «»U*> 
(darlblya) tax card; <ilLp 4«ilkj family 
identity card 

x Jk) batala u (bull, u^ILj butldn) to be or 
become null, void, invalid, false, un- 
tenable, vain, futile, worthless; to be 
abolished,, fall into disuse, become 
obsolete; to cease, stop, be discontinued; 
to be inactive, be out of work II to 
thwart, foil, frustrate, make ineffective, 
counteract, neutralize, nullify, invalidate 
(a; to abolish, cancel, annul, 
suppress (a IV = II; to talk idly, 
prattle; to paralyze, immobilize, hold 
down, pin down (« the opponent) 

Jkj bull nullity; uselessness, futility, 
vanity; falsity, falseness, untruth 

SJlk) bitala and batata idleness, in- 
activity; free time, time off, holidays, 
vacations; unemployment 

lSILj battal pi. -un idle, inactive; un- 
employed, out of work 

j^Jaj butldn nullity; uselessness, futility, 
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity 

Jliajt ibtal thwarting, frustration, in- 
validation; ruin, destruction; abolition, 

JLb bdtil nugatory, vain, futile; false, 
untrue; absurd, groundless, baseless; 
worthless; invalid, null, void; deception, 
lie, falsehood; JkUb and ^i»b bdtilan 
falsely; futilely, in vain; pi. JJ*LI abdtil 2 
vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle 
talk, prattle | iikb t^ (tuhma) false 

Jk^ mubtil prattler, windbag; liar 

Jk^* mubtal nugatory, futile, vain 

JkjX. mutabaitil unemployed 

2 JLj batula u (<JIW batala, HJai butula) to be J 
brave, be heroic, be a hero i 

Jkj batal pi. Jlkjl abtdl brave, heroic; j 
hero; champion, pioneer; hero, protag- J 
onist (of a narrative, etc.), lead, star 
(of a play); champion (athlet.); (in \ 
compounds) championship-, champion- ! 
(sport) | iUl Jiaj b. aVdlam world cham- 
pion; itHJI ajAJVI (andiya) championship 
clubs (sport) 

aILj batala heroine (of a narrative), 
female lead, star (of a play); woman 
champion (athlet.) 

yUaj bafala bravery, valor, heroism 

iJjitj butula bravery, heroism; — (pi. 
-at) leading role, starring role (theater, 
film); championship {athlet,) | UUI HjLJl 
{'alamiya) and iUI tijki b. al-'alam 
world championship (athlet.) ; ~4J*J\ jj* 
the part or role of the hero, leading role 

Jjk) butuli heroic 
<JlkJI al-batdlisa the Ptolemies 

e/W^ batlaimus 2 (also ^-j-JUai batlami* 
yus 2 ) Ptolemy 

^j+JLi batlaimusi Ptolemaic 

l^Jt^ batalyaus 2 Badajoz (city in Spain) 

£*> butm, butum terebinth (bot) 

1 j f Lj batana u (batn, oj^ butun) to be 
hidden, concealed, to hide; — batuna u 
<<5Uaj batana) to be paunchy II to line 
(a a garment, <_> a with); to cover 
the inside (<_j a of with), hang, face, 
fill (^ a with) IV to hide, conceal, 
harbor (a V to be lined, have a 
lining (garment); to penetrate, delve 
{a into), become absorbed, engrossed 
(a in) X to penetrate, delve (a into), 
become absorbed, engrossed (a in); to 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-09-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


try to fathom (a; to fathom (a, get to the bottom of (a); to have 
profound knowledge (a of, know 
thoroughly, know inside out (a 

jLj batn m. and f., pi. djLi butun, jk>l 
abtun belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; 
interior, inside, inner portion; depth |jLj 
pXiJI b. al-qadam sole of the foot; JsQ\ jkj 
b, al-kaff palm of the hand ; jLJt ^j and 
jjkJI ^y&j raqs al-b. belly dance; JaJ j 
(batni) in, within, in the midst of; jjki J 
inside, within, in; l-b-lj UJssj ^aJj (waladat 
she gave birth only once; _^iaJ Ulaj (£i- 
zahrin) upside down 

lS Lj 6a£tn ventral, abdominal, belly (in 
compounds) | Jaj JSo (takallum) ventril- 
oquism ; Jkj i*^ belly landing 

jUj feafiw paunchy 

4ik) bitna gluttony; overeating, in- 

ulkj bitan pi. iJaji abtina girth (of a 

4JLLj bitdna pi. ^UaJ batain 2 inside, 
inner side; lining (of a garment) ; retinue, 
suite, entourage J Julkj j among, amidst; 

,^laj batln pi. ulk> bitan and uUa^. 
mibtan paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout; 

(>kj butain ventricle (of the heart; 

oUaJ battdniya pi. -af, ^UILj batdtin 2 
cover; blanket; quilt 

O J^ tabattun subjectivation (psych.) 

O uLkJu-l istibtdn introspection (psych.) 

jkb batin pi. J^l^ bawdtin 2 inner, 
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden, 
secret; SiUI coastal plain of E Oman; 
U»l* batinan inwardly, secretly | (J»£jl jkL 
6. al-kaff palm of the hand; fJLSJl jLU 6. 
al-qadam sole of the foot; j^VI jkb (3 

at bottom, after all, really; ^Vi ^^ the 
factors, circumstances or reasons at the 
bottom of; J>j^\ jLijj b. al-ard 
the secret depths of the earth ; ^ j^ I 
jULJI (ajjara) to sublet, sublease (a a 
rented room, etc.) 

^L fiottnt internal; adherent of the 
batiniya, see below | O ^k J*" (taam- 
mul) introspection (psych.) ; ^Lb ^^ 
(marad) internal disease; ^Ul i_JaJl 
(&66) internal medicine 

AjJ^jLJI al-bdtinlya name of a school of 
thought in Islam, characterized by 
divining a hidden, secret meaning in the 
revealed tests 

bj*~* mabtun affected with a gastric or 
intestinal ailment 

Ja*. mubattan lined; filled (^ with, e.g., 
with anger, bitterness, cynicism; of words, 

y*j II (tun.) to full {a 

jlkL (Span, batdn) bdtdn fulling mill 

d-As-L; bdtiya pi. J*l^ bawdtin pitcher, jug 

Ji; bazza u to spout, gush out, well out 

Jui bazr pi. jj& buzur clitoris (anat.) 

*jjo bu r bu' pi. £>Lj ba'dbi' 2 bugaboo, bogey 

d*w ba'ata a (ba't) to send, send out, dispatch 
(Jl *-» or a, o s.o. or to); to forward 
(Jl u or * to); to delegate (lj or * 
Jl s.o. to) ; to emit (t-> or a ; to evoke, 
arouse, call forth, awaken (a; to 
stir up, provoke, bring on (a; to 
revive, resuscitate (a; to resurrect 
(a s.o., ^->jii <y* from death); to incite, 
induce (J* to, instigate (Jp; 
to cause (J*; e.g., astonishment) | 
cijJ-'l «J* 4-JI ii-*j [hazzat al-kauj) to 
fill s.o. with trembling fear; ^-jj ii**j 
j SLA. I (ruhal-hayah) to breathe life into or s.o.. revive VII to be sent out, 

xw&o jjV jl Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ijJJJLo^ p^^Xo < j^j-o cr **» j-oljJjj Jj^i ^Svpwo 


be emitted, be dispatched, be delegated; 
to be triggered, be caused, be provoked; 
to be resurrected (CjjI\ ^ from death); 
to rise (j- from, out of), get up; to orig- 
inate (^ in), come (j- from), be caused 
d> by); to emanate (fragrance); to es- 
cape (gas, ^ or ^ from) ; to arise, spring, 
proceed, develop (^ from), grow out of 
(,y); to set out to do (with foil, 
imperf.) VIII to send, dispatch (o s.o.) 

<i-*j ba't sending out, emission, dis- 
patching, delegation; resurrection; awak- 
ening, revival, arousal, evocation; pi. 
£>j*i bu'ut delegations, deputations j 
yt*J\ *_j^~ hizb al-b. the Baath party 

{poL); L.JJ*. 

b. suriyd the Syrian 

Baath party; d-*JI pj Day of Resurrec- 
tion (from the dead) 

^ ba'ti belonging to the Baath party 

ii«u ba r ta (also bita) pi. ba'atat delega- 
tion, deputation, mission; dispatched 
group; group of select students sent to 
foreign universities; expedition; revival, 
rebirth, renaissance, rise | Js^i &u b. 
§amf a dispatched escort of honor; *i*j 
i^Swi { r a$karlya) military mission; iiu 
1— -l^JLo diplomatic mission; hj\ a£*j (ata* 
rlya) archaeological expedition; &JI ^JSj 
ra*is al-b. chief of mission (dipt.) 

<t>j*{* bd f ut Easter (Chr.) 

£^~. Tnab'at sending, forwarding, dis- 
patch; emission; awakening, arousal; 
— (pi. £j>L» maba'it 2 ) cause; factor 

d^-U bd'it pi. <i-pt_jj bawd* it 2 incentive, 
inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, 

«i>j*~« mab'ut dispatched, delegated; 
envoy, delegate; representative, deputy 
(in the Ottoman Empire) 

d^« munbcfat source, point of origin 

j^i ba'tara {*jvj bcftara) to scatter, strew 
around, fling about (a; to disarrange, 

throw into disorder (a,) ; to squander, 
waste, dissipate (a II taba'tara pass. 

j-ucjj. muba'tar scattered, widespread; 
tousled (hair) 

o ba'aja a {ba f j) to slit open (a the belly); 
to groove, dent, notch (a VII to 
have indentations or notches; to be 
bruised, dented, bumpy; to get battered 

£*-i* munbcfij notched, indented 

j ba f uda u (bu'd) to be distant, far away, 
far off; to be away (,jp from, <-> a dis- 
tance) ; to keep away, keep one's distance 
(jp from); to go far beyond (jp), exceed 
by far (^ ; to be remote, improbable, 
unlikely | jp <u Am he kept him away 
from; i>\ a*-j V it is not unlikely that ... 
II to remove (» s.o.); to banish, exile, 
expatriate (* s.o.) Ill to cause a sep- 
aration (,jm between) | o^\* >j -ul> 
»^tJl ^jj to prevent s.o. from attaining; <uU>-l Jo apb (ajfdnihi) to stare 
wide-eyed IV to remove (a, also « 
s.o., jp from, out of); to take away 
(a, to elimininate (a,), do 
away with (a); to send away, dismiss 
(« s.o.); to expatriate, banish, exile (« 
s.o.); to exclude, make unlikely, improb- 
able, impossible (a; to go or move 
far away; to go very far (j in or with; to exaggerate, go too far VI to 
be separated, lie apart, lie at some 
distance from one another; to separate, 
part company, become estranged; to 
move away, go away, withdraw, depart 
(jp from); to keep away, keep one's 
distance (jp from); to quit, leave, avoid 
(jp; to follow in regular intervals 
VIII to move or go away; to keep away, 
withdraw (jp from); to quit, leave, avoid 
(jp; to leave out of consideration, 
disregard (jp X to single out, set 
aside (a; to discard, sort out, reject 
(a useless, old or rotten) ; to exclude, 

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remove (o s.o., a; to exempt (^ « 
s.o. from military service); to think re- 
mote, farfetched (a; to regard as 
unlikely (a; to disqualify (e s.o.); 
pass, ustuif'tda to be eliminated, drop out 
(in sport competition) | JUJLj V (yustab* 
e adu) it is not inconceivable, not im- 

JUj bu e d remoteness, farnesa; — (pi. ->lol 
ab'dd) distance; dimension (also fig.); 
interval (mus.); pi. jLu! dimensions, pro- 
portions (e.g., of a catastrophe or a 
disaster) | -bu Jp and JuJI Jji in the dis- 
tance, far off ; >* At. JUj Jp at a distance 
of 100 meters; -Uj je and JUj y* from a 
distance, from afar; ibol aj'^j jj three- 
dimensional; jLjVI ^r-U giyas aha. linear 
measure; <uA1 Jbo 6. al-himma high aspi- 
rations, loftiness of purpose; aJLSJI juj 
6. aS-Siqqa wide interval, wide gap; JU> 
CouaJI 6. as-sif renown, fame, celebrity; 
Oj-*aJI JUj 6. as-§aut do.; jkJI .Uj 6. an- 
nazar farsightedness, foresight; J I-Uj 
bu f dan li away with . . . ! 

Am bcfdu then, thereupon; afterwards, 
later, after that, in the following; still, 
yet | JUj IJ afterwards, later; -Uj LI see 
1 LI; j^» ju> jA he is only a small boy, 
he is still young; -Uj oL J (ya'ti) he 
hasn't come yet 

.Uj 6a f rfa (prep.) after; in addition to, 
beside; aside from | . . . a^jT JUj (kau* 
nihi) aside from the fact that he is ... ; 
*illi ju» afterwards, after that, later 
(on); besides, moreover; fjlj Au besides, 
moreover; ol JUj bcfda an (conj.) after; 
il JUi (id), L. -Uj and U -Uj ^ (ba f di) do.; 
<»L- sJuo U <uL- (safahun) the height of 
stupidity; yaT »jUj U j£ (kufr) an un- 
equaled blasphemy; UjUj Uj ... ^ 
page . . .ff. (in citations) 

Ju-Uj bcfda'idin then, thereafter, there- 
upon, after that, afterwards 

O ^-Uj ba'di a posteriori (as attrib.) 

ju*j bald pi. -un, #I-Uj bu'add 2 , JUj bu'ud, 
(jlJUj bu r ddn t jLu 6i r oi distant, far away, 
far (jt from); remote, outlying, out-of- 
the-way; distant in time, long past, re- 
mote, bygone ; far-reaching, extensive ; far- 
fetched, improbable, unlikely; unusual, 
strange, odd, queer; incompatible, in- 
consistent (jp with) | JU*j j* from afar, 
from a distance; SJwo ,jc*- jc. (sinlna) 
for many years ; wL*> Jv$p Alt ( e ahd) a long 
time ago; j-VI JU*j 6. abator of far-reach- 
ing consequence; J*- VI -V^ &• al-ajal long- 
lasting, of incalculable length; £jUJl -L*j 
remote in time, going way back in history, 
ancient ; jLtJl -Uj b. as-sa'w high-minded, 
bold; <fl-iJi JLaj 6. aS-siqqa far apart; JLaj 
j^aJI 6. al-gaur deep; profound, unfath- 
omable; ^Jlil JLaj 6. al-madd long-dis- 
tance, long-range; extensive, far-reach- 
ing; ^jX\ *Ju« o^L-»l>* (muwdgaldt) tele- 
communications; JkJ\ jl*j 6. an-nazar 
farsighted; farseeing; JUL I JL*j 6. o/- 
manal hardly attainable, hard to get at; 
IjLaj ^-jhi to go far away, go to distant 
lands; Ju*j Jl -JLUj to look off into the 

Xjo bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon 

JUj I ab'ad 2 pi. JU^Ljl aba'id 2 farther, 
remoter, more distant; more extensive; 
less likely, more improbable; pi. JLtLI 
aba'id^ very distant relatives | JUj VI j^-iJI 
(Sarq) the Far East; -UjVI the absent one 
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who 
is being criticized or blamed for; 
also when referring to the 1st and 2nd 
persons); obUJI JUj I Jl to the n th degree 

4jjUjI ab'ddlya pi. -at country estate 

ju*J tab r id banishment 

iUj bi r dd distance 

cOpL. mubd'ada sowing of dissension, 
estrangement, alienation 

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jU;I ib'ad removal, separation, isola- 
tion; elimination; expatriation, banish- 
ment, deportation 

ApLJ tabd r ttd interdistance; mutual es- 

jLuIJ istib'ad exclusion, removal, keep- 
ing at a distance 

J^a mub'id: So*-* *JLi* ( r adala) abductor 

Aa*. mub'ad deported; deportee 

ApLu mutaba* id separate | «ApLu lL>\J\»jJ 
(fatardt) in wide intervals; CjIj^j <j 
,yj\ j* Z-uLu (zamcm) at infrequent inter- 
vals, from time to time 

■U J L »* mustab'ad improbable, unlikely 
^*j 6aV, 6aW droppings, dung (of animals) 

2 j rvo &a'*r pi. S^l ab'ira, jlj^u bifrdn, je-\j\ 
aba r ir 2 , ^ jl»o Ja'arm 2 camel 

JijAj ba'zaqa {"&_}*> fta'sa^a) to scatter, dis- 
sipate, squander, waste (* 

J^^ mubcfziq squanderer, spendthrift, 

^^Lo II to divide into parts or portions (a V to be divided, be divisible 

(j^axj ba'd part, portion; one; some, a 
few; a little of, some of; ,j-a*JI several (of 
a number or of a crowd), some people | 
»y*II ^ b. cU- r ulamd' one (or some) of 
the scholars; ,jJvo Jy &<**{ ^*i> {fafa'^ 
nd) we have exalted some of them above 
the others; j*-*i\ u*W — o^W some — ' 

some, a few — others; La*j 


another, each other, mutually, recipro- 
cally; ^^u j <wi>u one in the other, 
within one another; » tS iJI ,_^i*j &» f da £-&»' 
to some extent, somewhat, a little, rather; 
(jS^aJl ^^*j 6. al-qirs less than a piaster, 
a few pennies; Jj^I (j^u j on the way, 
after passing a certain stretch of the way; 
jlfJi {J ojo t j (6. an-nahdr) at a certain 

time of day, sometime or other during 
the day; C-ijJI ^k^ j (b. cd-waqt) some- 
times; itiUl jj^aj <djL (6a*da J-m.) he 
resembled him somewhat, to some extent ; 
oj iJ J^ij oj Xj* {qarn) for the last 
hundred years and more; ^^ ^ j* 
<uio»- (b. kuddamihi) he is one of his 
servants; flc*- U ( _ r iw <y I a* that is 
proof of your goodness, very kind of you 

Qsjti bcfud (n. un. S) gnats, mosquitoes 

^yijAj tab" id division, partition, por- 

4Tj£*j bu'kuka club, society 

Jaj ba'l the god Baal; land or plants thriv- 
ing on natural water supply; — (pi. 
Jj*j bu'ul, *}jaj bu'ula) lord; husband 

iLu ba'la wife 

J*j ba'U unirrigated (land, plants) 

tilJLu ba'labakk 2 Baalbek (ancient Heliop- 
olis, village in E Lebanon) 

£Sj bagata, a (bagt, hk> bagta) to surprise (* 
s.o.); to come unexpectedly, descend un- 
awares (* upon s.o.) Ill do. VII to be 
taken by surprise; to be taken aback, 
be aghast, be nonplused 

hiu bagta surprising event, surprise; 
bagtatan, SxAj Jp- r ald bagtatin all of a 
sudden, suddenly, surprisingly 

i&L. mubdgata sudden arrival, sur- 
prising incident or event, surprise; sudden 
attack, raid 

iT-iLj bagit sudden, unexpected 

£jUj bugdt pi. ol*Jo bigtdn small birds 

oU> see IbU^j 

jl*j see JU^j 

■>-Uj II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's 
weight around, be fresh (properly, to 
behave like one from Baghdad) 

iloij bagddd 2 Baghdad 

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^aljtfj bagdadi pi. -fin, SjoUo bagddida 
a native of Baghdad 

1 (> ^ij bagaSaa: »\J\ cJUj (aama'w) there was 
a light shower 

iiJo feo^sa light rain shower 

8 iiUj (e^.) bugdSa stuffed pastry made of 
flour, eggs and butter 

(jrfiAj bagida a, bagvda u (bugd, 1J\Sj bagdda) 
to be hated, hateful, odious II to make 
(6 s.o.) hateful (Jl to s.o.) Ill to loathe, 
detest, hate (• s.o.) IV to loathe, detest, 
hate (a s.o.) VI to hate each other 

(J Jtij bugd, 'uaJo bigda and »Laij bagda 2 
hatred, hate 

u JlJo bagld hateful, odious (Jl to s.o.), 
loathsome, abominable 

jj^plJ tabdgud mutual hatred 

^ji^ mabgud detested, hateful, odious 

u ^ r * mubgid pi. ~un hater; — mw6- 
gad detested, hateful, odious 

Jjo bagl pi. JU) bigal, Jbul abgal mule; 
iJUu bagla pi. bagaldt female mule | JUj 
SjU'.aJI b. al-qantara the piers of the bridge 

JUj baggal pi. -tin mule driver, muleteer 

J* baga i (»Uu bugd*) to seek, desire, covet, 
seek to attain (a, wish for 
(a); — (bagy) to wrong, treat unjustly 
(J* s.o.); to oppress (J* s.o.), commit 
outrage (J* upon); to whore, fornicate 
VII ( yJu it is desirable, necessary; it is 
proper, appropriate, seemly; it ought to 
be, should be; with <d: it behooves him; 
it is incumbent upon him ; with <uU : he 
must, he should, he ought to | jl J t _ 5 v4 
I must . . . VIII to seek, desire (a, 
aspire (a to, strive (a for) [ y ( yXj} 
41 i J*ai to strive for God's grace 

^ bagy infringement, outrage, injus- 
tice, wrong 

^yo bagiy pi. UUj bagdyd whore, pros- 

4J0 bugya, bigya object of desire; wish, 
desire; bttgyata (prep.) with the aim of, 
for the purpose of 

»Uj bigd' prostitution 
*Uj bugd* wish(ing), desire, endeavor, 

i j^ mabgan pi. j-L. mabdgin brothel 

'9 L» mabdgin coveted things, desiderata, 
wishes, desires 

>\k^\ ibtiga desire, wish; ibtigafa (prep.) 
for the purpose of 

Mj bdgin pi. Sbu bugdh desiring, cov- 
eting, striving; committing outrages, 
oppressive, unjust; oppressor, tyrant 

-fc^j* mubtagan aspired goal; aspiration, 
desire, endeavor, effort 

h bafta calico, Indian cotton cloth 
j biftek beefsteak 

\>i baqi ( n * un. 3) bedbug, chinch | jJl ly? 
elm {bot.) 

*3i baqqa u (baqq) to give off in abundance 

JSUj baqqdq garrulous, loquacious; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

JJb baqbaqa {^h baqbaqa) to gurgle, bubble, 
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle 

JjLij baqbaq garrulous, loquacious; chat- 
terbox, prattler 

ujJu baqbwqa blister (of the skin) 

*>Ji) buqja pi. r>i buqaj bundle, pack, pack- 

(jJjJLaj baqdunis, baqdunas parsley 

jit baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open 
(a IV do. 

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Jo* baqar (coll.; n. un. 5) pi. j\ju\ abqdr, 
jja> buqur bovines, cattle, cows 

Ijki baqara pi. -at cow 

iSjii baqarl bovine, cattle-, cow- (in 
compounds); (eg.) beef | ,jjh ^ (lahm) 

j\li baqqdr pi. 3 cowhand, cowboy 

^\Jto buqrat 2 Hippocrates 

iJ Jii bags box, boxwood (bot.) 

^Ij-Jij buqsumdt rusk, zwieback; biscuit 

iiij bvqsa Yemenite copper coin 

L ri^. baq$i$ pi. JUZ\h baqdSU 2 present of 
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh 

£ju II to spot, stain, smudge (a V to 
become stained, get smudged; to be 
spotted, stained 

<*JL buq'a pi. *Ju buqa\ ?[h biqd T 
spot, blot, smudge, stain; place, spot, 
site; plot; spot or patch (of the earth) 

gUJl al-biqd e the Bekaa (name of a 
region in Lebanon) 

£*jl abqa* 2 spotted, speckled 

4** U bdqi'a pi. *s\j> bawdqi' 2 sly dog, 
shrewd fellow 

Jaj baqakb u (baql) to sprout (plant) 

Jju baql (coll.; n. un. S) pi. Jjh buqul, 
JUjJ a&gaZ herbs, potherbs, greens, her- 
baceous plants; specif., legumes | «JUJ1 
ojUl hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.); 
»UJ-I UaJl (hamqa) purslane (bot); ^UJI 
4~aoJI (dahabiya) garden orach (bot.); 
(JuLlkA.*! iiij celandine (bot); dHJJ Uaj 
6. al-malik common fumitory (bot.) 

Ji; fcagZi: iJULJl iL^aiJi the Legumino- 
sae (bot) 

JUj baqqal pi. -im, iJUj baqqala green- 
grocer; grocer 

iJLu biqala the grocery business; gro- 
cery store, shop for foodstuffs 

Ij*£aj baqldwa, Ij^Uj a kind of Turkish de- 
light, pastry made of puff paste with 
honey and almonds or pistachios 

Jb baqqam brazilwood 

Jj baqiya a (»Uj baqa y ) to remain, stay, 
continue to be (J* in a state or con- 
dition); to keep up, maintain (J* a state 
or condition); to be left behind, be left 
over; to last, continue, go on; (with foil, 
imperf. or part.) to continue to do, 
keep doing ; to become | ^Lil» J-j i 
(yabqa tiflan) he is no longer a child II to 
leave, leave over, leave behind (a 
IV to make (* s.o.) stay; to retain, 
leave unchanged, leave as it is, preserve, 
maintain, keep up (a; to leave, 
leave over, leave behind (a, « s.o.); 
to leave untouched, save, spare ( Jc s.o.,, e.g., s.o.'s life) V to remain, stay, 
continue to be (Jt in a state or condition) ; 
to be left, be left over X to make stay, 
ask to stay, hold back, detain (a s.o.); 
to spare, save, protect (a s.o., a; to 
preserve (a; to retain, keep (a; to store, put away (a 

SJL baqiya pi. LUj baqdyd remainder, 
rest; remnant, residue; continuation and 
conclusion (of an article, etc.) | Jj-di IJj 
b. ad'duwal the remaining countries, the 
rest of the countries; 1JJLJI 3JLJI (baqiya) 
the last remnant 

»Uj baqd' remaining, staying, lingering, 
abiding; continuation, continuance, du- 
ration; survival, continuation of ex- 
istence after life; immortality, eternal 
life; existence; permanence | »LSJI jb 
the hereafter 

Jjl abqd more lasting, more durable, 
more permanent; better preserving; con- 
ducive to longer wear, better protecting 

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»UjI ibqa continuation, retention ; main- 
tenance, conservation, preservation | »ULil 
aAct cJlT U J* ilLLI maintenance of the 
status quo 

»UJL-! istibqc? continuation, retention; 
maintenance, conservation, preservation 

JLj baqin staying; remaining; left; 
remainder (arith.); lasting, continuing, 
permanent, unending; surviving; living 
on; everlasting, eternal (God) | oUUI 
oUUaJl the good works 

J~l. mutabaqqin residue, remnant, re- 
mainder, rest 

il (Turk.) be {eg.) pi. ol^ bakawdt, ol^ 
bahawat bey; see also «uj 

4j jSo bakawlya rank of a bey 

a£j bakka 2 (by-form of «SC in the Koran) 

*S+ baki pi. »Ixj &i&a* having or giving 
little, sparing (e.g., of words) 

j^-KLt bikdsin becassine, snipe (zooL) 

ljj^)tSvj (Fr. baccalaur&at) bakdloriyd bacca- 
laureate, bachelor's degree; (Magr.) sec- 
ondary school diploma 

o"juJ™ bakaloriyus bachelor (aca- 
demic degree) | fjL ^-^j^ISC Bachelor 
of Science; up ^juj^-i Bachelor of 

^LS^j (Turk. binba$i) bimbdsi, bikbdsi pi. -lya 
lieutenant colonel (formerly, Eg., Sudan; 

1 cS^> II to censure, blame (o s.o.) 

C~S^* tabhlt blame, reproach j £~£L5 
j^^a\\ remorse 

2 <So (It.) baketta pi. -at pack(et) 

iSjcS^j bakteri bacterial, caused by bacteria 
L^fcSo bakteriyd bacteria 

^So bakara u (jj& bukur) to set out early in 
the morning, get up early; to come early 
(J) to), be early ( jl at) II do., S J^i and 
t-j JSj with foil, verbal noun: to do 
early, prematurely, ahead of its time | 
**J^ d* j& {marfid) to come earlier 
than the appointed time III to be ahead 
of s.o. (*), anticipate, forestall (o s.o.) 
IV = I; VIII to be the first to take 
(a, be the first to embark (a on; to deflower (U a girl); to invent 
(a; to create, originate, start (a; to think up, think out (a e.g., 
a ruse, a story) 

j£j bakr pi. J&\ abkur, o\^L bukrdn 
young camel 

j£j bikrjjL jKjI abkdr first-born, eldest; 
firstling; unprecedented, novel, new; 
virgin; virginal 

(£j& bikrl first-born, first 

4jjSC» bikrlya primogeniture 

S^SC bakra and bakara pi. Jsj bakar : 
-at reel; pulley {mech.); spool, coil; winch, 
windlass | Zj& 3^ kait b. thread 

S^Sj bakra: .^j\ S^SC Jp r ald bakrati abi* 
him, -fj! »j£j jt and ^Snj ^y> all 
without exception, all of them, all to- 
gether; If^j &> jf y.1 C^-j>~ the crowd 
went forth as one man 

IjSit bukra pi. j£j bukar early morning; 
bukratan early in the morning; to- 
morrow; on the following day, next day 

j\So bakir coming early; early, pre- 
mature; precocious 

j^Ssj bakur and jj5~L> bakur coming 
early; early, premature; precocious 

jjSsj bukur earliness, prematureness, 
premature arrival; early morning, day- 
break | jjjl j <jjj& (*aud) my early 

SjlSo bakara virginity 

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SjtSo bakkdra pulley (mech.) | Sjl£j 
*Sj* {murahkaba) set of pulleys, block 
and tackle 

h^H bukura and aj jJs* bukuriya pri- 

SjjTLj bdkura pi. _/i5"[^ bawakir 2 first- 
lings; first results, first fruits; first work 
(of an author); beginning, rise, dawn; 
(with foil, genit.) initial, early, first; pi. 
jf\n first signs or indications; initial 
symptoms; heralds, harbingers (fig.) | 
S\jj]\ »j>Tb early fruit; aJL^I SjjTIj iSC 
the first thing he did was . . . 

jSol abkar 2 rising earlier; earlier 

jl£~. mibkar precocious 

JSol ihiikar pi. -a< novelty, inno- 
vation; creation; invention; origination, 
first production; initiative; (also Sy 
jISIxj^I quwwat al-i.) creativity, original- 
ity; pi. o[)l$ol specif., creations of 
fashion, fashion designs 

t£jl5o! ibtikdri original 

^jjlSoi ibtikdrlya originality 

jfl> bdkir early; premature; \jT\i bd* 
kiran in the morning; early (adv.) | 
_^5 Ul ^-L^aJ! <_$ (sabah) early in the morn- 
ing; J*\j J I till tomorrow 

S^TLj bdkira pi. ^\ji bawakir 2 first- 
lings, first produce, early fruits, early 
vegetables; pi. first indications or symp- 
toms, heralds, harbingers 

J$L* mubakkir doing early; early; \£~i* 
mubakkiran early in the morning, early | 
S^Sw apU J at an early hour 

_^~* mubtakir creator; creative; inven- 
tor; — mubtakar newly created, novel, 
new; original; (pi. -at) creation, specif, 
fashion creation, invention | ^fi<~* ^Jt 
{taub) original design, model, dress crea- 

gj&s bakraj pi. ^j&j bakdrif kettle, coffee 

j^-5o, J^lp-Sj see olf-i 

JC II to buckle, buckle up, button up 
(jb; to fold, cross (a the arms) 

SJSvi bukla pi. JSvj bukal t -at buckle 
a*i&o (It. baccald) bakaldh codfish 

bj^lSCj and ^jtjjiSit see lijjJl£j and 

^ bakima a to be dumb; — bakuma u 
to be silent, hold one's tongue IV to 
silence (« s.o,) Y to become silent; to be- 
come dumb 

^ bakam dumbness 

£jl abkam 2 , f. p\& bakmd' 2 , pi. C 
bukm dumb 

o|^£j and 4ij& see til; 

£j baled % (»BCj bukd', Jo bukan) to cry, weep 
(J* over); to bemoan, lament, bewail 
(« s.o.), mourn (0 for) II and IV to make 
(» s.o.) cry X to move (» s.o.) to tears, 
make (0 s.o.) cry 

»LSo buka crying, weeping (n.) 

#15sj bakkd' given to weeping fre- 
quently, tearful, lachrymose 

Jill iajU- ha it al-mabkd the Wailing 
Wall (in Jerusalem) 

iXb bdkiya pi. -at wailing-woman, 
hired mourner; — (pi. 6\j\ bawdkin; eg.) 
arch, arcade 

iSb bakin pi. SISCj bukdh weeping, cry- 
ing; weeper, wailer, mourner 

dL. mubkin, mubakkin causing tears, 
tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable 

(>£j bikin, pikln Peking 

1 Jj bat (also with foil, j wa-) nay, — rather. . . ; 
(and) even; but, however, yet 

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2 Jj hallo, u (ball) to moisten, wet, make wet 
(*, 6 s.o.) ; — balla i to recover (^j* &> 
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make 
wet (a, « s.o.) IV to recover {^y j* 
from an illness) V and VIII to be mois- 
tened, be wetted; to become wet 

Jj ball moistening, wetting; moisture 

Jj bill recovery, convalescence, re- 

iL billa moisture, humidity | jlj L. 
5L (>.LJI ma zdda t-tlna billatan what 
made things even worse . . . 

JJL balal moisture, humidity; moist- 
ness, dampness, wetness 

JJj balll a moist, cool wind 

aLL balila (eg.) porridge made of wheat 
or maize with milk and sugar 

J^bl iblal recovery, convalescence, re- 

JLj* iaballul moistness, dampness, hu- 

JJL* mabliil, JL. mub allot, Ji^ mub* 
tall moist, damp, wet; drenched (by rain) 

3 J, biUi (from Fr. 
ball bearing 

^j bi-ld (prep.) without 

Jj ^f (hursl) 

«jj*>b (Fr.) blatoh pi. oUjj*>b plateau; stage, 
boards (theat.) 

<>j^> ^^ blatln, pldtin platinum 
^h (Fr. plage) bldz pi. -at beach 

Ij**^. toU&gra pellagra 

rS^i baldraj stork 

tii-JU^i (Fr. plastique) bldstik, blastik plastic 

^•^i (dial.; < *^ "&) balds free, gratis 

J=>:Aj see JJj 

ii^j (Engl.) fcZa^ pi. -at spark plug (ir.) 

j:>b, iitAi see jL 

iaJj balhata to gurgle 

1 JJL balbala to disquiet, make uneasy or 
restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble, 
confuse (a s.o., a II tabalbala to feel 
uneasy, be anxious; to be or become con- 
fused, get all mixed up 

UJL balbala pi. Jj^ baldbil 2 anxiety, 
uneasiness, concern; confusion, muddle, 
jumble, chaos 

JUL balbal anxiety, uneasiness, concern 

Jj*^ baldbil 2 anxieties, apprehensions 

JJLj tabalbul muddle, confusion | 
i-J*y i JJLj t. al-alsina confusion of tongues 
(at the tower of Babel) 

2 JJL; bulbul pi. Jj^j baldbil 2 nightingale 

1 £jJLi balaja u (rjh buluj) to shine; to dawn 
(morning, aurora); — balija a (balaj) to 
be happy, be glad (*_-» about), be de- 
lighted (,_-. at) IV to shine (sun) V and 
VII = balaja 

«Jjl ablaf gay, serene, bright, clear, 
fair, nice, beautiful 

j>Jd\ 5t*>Lj1 inbildj al-fajr daybreak 

2 r^k> look up alphabetically 

ISL>JL) beljlka Belgium 

£~*Jo beljiki Belgian (adj. and n.) 

*Aj balah (coll.; n. un. S) dates (hot.) 

■AJLj baluda u (o^j baldda) to be stupid, idiot- 
ic, dull-witted II to acclimatize, ha- 
bituate (a, to a country or region) 
V pass, of II; to become stupid, besotted, 
lapse into a state of idiocy; to show o.s. 
from the stupid side VI to feign stupidity 

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jULj balad m. and f., pi. .s^ bildd 
country; town, city; place, community, 
village; pi. -s"^ country; countries (form- 
ing a whole); pi. jIaL buldan countries | 
,jiAi-! -i^J b. al-habas Ethiopia; &*d\ ^^h 
fc. as-sln China; x^\ $*&> b. al-hind India; 
4*jjjJI i*>Ul the Arab countries 

SaL 6aMa town, city; place, commu- 
nity, village; rural community; township 

^jSj baladi native, indigenous, home 
(as opposed to foreign, alien); (fellow) 
citizen, compatriot, countryman; a na- 
tive; communal, municipal; popular, 
national, folk (in compounds) | ^Aj ^^f 
(majlis) city council, local council; ^j 
^jJL; (raqs) folk dance; ^aL <^j (ziyy) 
national costume; ^aJL) <_-!> (tibb) folk 
medicine; ^aL l^i {qahwa) local coffee 
shop; (egr.); SjaL j^y* (musiqa) folk music 

ajaL baladiya pi. -af township, com- 
munity, rural community; ward, dis- 
trict (of a city) ; municipality, municipal 
council, local authority 

aJj balld and aLI ablad 2 stupid, dolt- 
ish, dull-witted, idiotic ; obtuse, spiritless, 
apathetic (person) 

o"^l; balada stupidity, silliness; apathy 

aLj taballud idiocy, dullness, obtuse - 
ness, apathy 

4JL1* mutaballid besotted, dull, stupid; 
spiritless, apathetic, dull (feeling) 

jjL , ojjL , ijjjb look up alphabetically 

>Li look up alphabetically 

^-Jjl pi. aJII look up alphabetically 

oUL balasdn balm; garden balm (Melissa 
officinalis; bot.); balm-tree; elder, elder 
tree (bot.) 

-JL> balsam pi. --^ baldsim 2 balsam, balm 
^ I; batsaml balsamic, balmy 

Jjitli baUaja to Bolshevize II tabalsafa to 
be Bolshevized 

SitL baUafa Bolshevization 

^tL bulsifi pi, *a£>^ baldsifa Bol- 
shevistic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist 

*ujl£-Lj bttlsiftya Bolshevism balaSun heron (200?.) 

1 Lr aL balasa u (bals) and II to extort, wring 
forcibly (j* » from s.o.; to black- 
mail (» s.o.) 

ijAj bals extortion, blackmail; for- 
cible imposition of taxes 

2 ^"^j ballas pi. ^^JtAj balalis 2 {eg.) earthen- 
ware jar 

1 J«L II to pave (.», with flagstones or 

i?^b balat pavement, tiled floor; floor 
tiles; palace; court (of a prince); pi. aULjI 
ablita floor tiles | jpUtl A*:AJi (malahl) the 
royal court; i»*>Ul jIa>- hidad al-b. court 

&:>b baldta floor tile; flagstone, slab- 
stone; paving stone 

JaJL-J tablit paving, tile -laying 

]aL» muballat paved, tiled 

2 Js^JLj ballut oak; acorn 

3 iiLL feafta pi. -a(, JaL frttZai ax 

j^Jalj baltajl pi. -lya sapper, pioneer 
(mil.); — (eg.) baltaql pi. -iya gangster; 
rowdy, bully, ruffian; bouncer; bruiser 
(in urban underworld) 

4 iklj batata balata gum 

^laL (Fr. paletot) balto pi. -at, ,J^ bal&ti 
paletot, overcoat 

6 ( JaL iwfti bolti (Tilapia nilotica), a food fish 
of the Nile 

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jJaJLJi al-baltiq the Baltic countries | ^ 
jJaLii bahr al-b. the Baltic Sea 

&jlL bdluza hand press; {eg.) a kind of cream 
made of cornstarch, lemon juice and 
honey, or the like 

As bala'a and ball a a {baV) to swallow, 
swallow up (a; to gulp down (a; to put up (a with, swallow, 
stomach, brook (a | <ujj Jb (rlqahu) 
lit.: to swallow one's saliva, i.e., to catch 
one's breath, take a little rest, have a 
break; to restrain o.s., hold back {said 
of one in a rage) II and IV to make (o s.o.) 
swallow (a | <ujj <ulj (riqaka) to 
grant s.o. a short rest YII to be swallowed ; 
capable of being swallowed VIII = I 

hL baVa large bite, big gulp 

it^ balWa, 4p^JL» ballua pi. -at, ^J^j 
baldli' 2 sink, drain 

Itji L balua pi. -at, *J \js bawdli 2 sewer, 
drain; sink (in a kitchen) 

As buVum pi. ^p^j bald'im 2 and fj*L> buU 
'urn pi. ***$j bald'lm 2 pharynx (anat.); 
l»j*L gullet, esophagus (anat.) 

l iL balaga u (f jL bulug) to reach {o s.o., a, get (a, o to), arrive (a at); to come, 
amount (a to), be worth (a so and so 
much); to come to s.o.'s {*) ears; to 
attain puberty (boy); to ripen, mature 
(fruit, or the like); to come of age; to 
exhaust, wear out (^ s.o.); to act (j* 
upon s.o.), have its effect (,y on), affect 
(^ s.o.); to go far (,j, j* in, 
attain a high degree (j, ^ of | iL 
J! Ai to make s.o. or get to or arrive 
at, lead or take s.o. or to, get s.o. or to the point where; o\ 2,j^X\ <u £\j 
(juhudu) his ingratitude went so far that 
he . . .; jl f-j^\ <u As (tarannuh) he 
began to reel so violently that . . . ; »Jj 
<>-j\ (aujahu) to reach its peak, attain its 
climax; OjU 'A^ j^j\ iL (mablaga l- 

jidd) the matter became serious; J-Ji iJL 
Jjil b. s-sailu z-zuba the matter reached a 
climax, things came to a head; iL. iij 
JU-jJI (mablaga r-rijdl) to be sexually 
mature, attain manhood, come of age ; iij 
Syull iJL* (m. aUjutuwa) to attain the 
age of a young man; axil ii> (amddahu) 
to attain full maturity, come of age; 
to reach its climax; UL* #^tjl j ib 
(♦^ill j» or) (mablagan) to attain a high 
degree of; iLlI IJ> JL^TX cjJj t>»- 
(hlna, dikrayati, mablaga) when I had 
come to this point in my reminiscences; 
iL. Jf 41* ib (kulla mablagin) to work 
havoc on s.o.; oL^ «Jb (muntahdhu) to 
reach its climax, come to a head; ~^iJI 
^UJL J I alldhumma inni balagtu in any 
case, I have fulfilled my task, done or 
said everything I could II to make 
(ft s.o.) reach or attain (a,); to take, 
bring (Jf a to s.o.), see that 
(a) gets (JI to); to convey, transmit, 
impart, communicate, report (a » to s.o.; to inform, notify (a » s.o. of, 
tell, let know (a * s.o. about); to report 
(jp about), give an account of (^f); to 
inform <^p against s.o.}, report, denounce 
(^ s.o.) | <JUj iL to fulfill a mission; 
l/*>L- Aili ballighu salami give him my best 
regards! Ill to exaggerate (<j in; to 
overdo, do too long (J; to go to 
greatest lengths, do one's utmost (J in) ; 
to intensify ( j IV to make (a, a 
s.o., reach or attain (JI; 
to make (a amount (JI to), raise 
(a an amount, a salary, JI to); to in- 
form, notify (t-> or ^ » s.o. of, 
tell, let know (<_> or ^p 6 s.o. about); to 
announce, state, disclose (a; to 
inform ( j& against s.o.), report, denounce 
(jp s.o.) | c_* ^t-jJ^JI A>\ to report 
to the police; UjJlp <u~ij ibl (nafsahu 
"udraha) he did his utmost, but without 
success V to content o.s., be content 
(l^ with); to eke out an existence; to 
still one's hunger (<~> with), eat (^; 

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to be delivered, be transmitted; to be 
informed (a about 

UL V L^f sam'an la balganf may it be 
heard but not fulfilled, i.e., God forbid! 
(used at the mention of unpleasant) 

liL bulga and Wj balag sufficiency, 
competency, adequacy (see also 2 ^lL be- 

9yh balag pi. -at communication, in- 
formation, message, report; announce- 
ment, proclamation; communique; state- 
ment; notification {of the police), charge, 
complaint | ^1 ^k> ultimatum; j^> 
iSJsL^p i^askarl) armed forces' report, 
military communique 

*Jj ballg pi. »UJL» bulaga' 2 eloquent; in- 
tense, lasting, deep, profound (e.g., an 
impression); serious, grave (e.g., an in- 

9jL bulug reaching, attainment, arrival 
(at) ; maturity, legal majority 

ittAj baldga eloquence; art of good 
style, art of composition; literature | 

APtAJI J* Him al-b. rhetoric, rhetorical art 
of the Arabs 

iL 1 ablag 2 more emphatic, farther reach- 
ing, deeper ; more intense, stronger ; more 
serious, graver; rhetorically superior, of 
higher stylistic value (expression; rhet.) 

il-. mablag pi. iJL. mabdlig 2 amount, 
sum of money; extent, scope, range; 
(see also examples under iJL I) | ^yfl ^L* 
(ismi) nominal par; ap^II ilLU (muda'a) 
the deposits (at a bank); Jy iL. ^JJ 
-U-l ,y (li-yatabayyana, qauli, jidd) in 
order to find, out to what extent my 
words were meant seriously 

iJj tablig pi. -at conveyance, trans- 
mission, delivefy (Jl to s.o.); conveyance 
or revelation of a message (by a prophet) ; 
information (^ about); report, notifica- 
tion (jp of); communication, announce- 
ment, notice / -^LJ' V^ Credentials 

iAJL. mubdlaga pi. -at exaggeration; 
intensification, strengthening (of an ex- 

jo\j1 ibldg conveyance, transmission 

iJL bdUg extensive, far-reaching; con- 
siderable; serious (wound), deep, pro- 
found, violent, vehement (feelings), 
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally 

iJL. muballig bearer (of news), messen- 
ger; informer, denouncer; detective 

2 iiL bulga, balga pi. -at, butag slipper of 
yellow leather 

jUUI al-bulgdr the Bulgarians 

jjIaL bulgari Bulgarian (adj. and n.) 

\±j\jSj bulgdriyd Bulgaria 

Jjj balgam phlegm; (pi. i"^j baldgim 2 ) ex- 
pectoration, sputum 

i jjh balgami phlegmatic; phlegmy, 

(Jii> balafa i (balf) to bluff II do. 
.JiL balf, lib balfa bluff 

jU ablaq 2 piebald 

^-juiL bilql8 2 Muslim name of the Queen of 

jUJLJI al-balqdn the Balkans 
JUL balqdni Balkan 

*JaL balqa r and 4*iL balqa'a pi. «J>t>b baldqi' 2 

dlLj see i\jit 

jjSCL balkon and {eg.) ^J^SX balakona pi. -at 

1 Jb balam anchovy 

2 ^i balam pi. **& 1 abldm sailing barge (if.) 

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3 ±> IV to be silent, hold one's tongue 

jjo balmara to polymerize (*; chem.) 
II tabalmara to be polymerized 

IjJj balmara polymerization | ljJJ\ 
iJu^-jjJL^Jl (hidrojeniya) hydrocracking 
(process in oil refining) 

jtAj baUdn bathhouse attendant; name of a 
plant growing near stagnant waters 

ij^j balldna female bathhouse attend- 
ant; lady's maid 

4,...«U,i balansiya 2 Valencia (region and city 
in E Spain) 

jJL pi. (jJ^i look up alphabetically 

*L baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded 
VI to feign foolishness, pretend to be 
stupid X to deem (» s.o.) stupid or 

*L balah and It*^ balaha stupidity, 
foolishness, simple-mindedness; feeble- 
mindedness | SjSvLi hrj^ (mubakkira) de- 
mentia praecox 

4L balha (with foil. ace. or genit.) let 
alone, not to speak of, not to mention 

*Ll ablah 2 , f. >l*L balha 2 , pi. <tl bulh 
stupid, doltish, dull-witted; simple-mind- 
ed; feeble-minded 

Ujl$L bilharsiyd bilharziasis, schistosomiasis 

i-X$lj bulahniya abundance, wealth, variety 
(of earthly possessions) 

1 ui_j^ij see oijJL^ 

! D Oj^ bulhon pi. ^^ baldhin 2 (— 6j^y) ', 
eg.) sphinx 

(jL and Jj) ^ bald u (balw, #^ bald') to 
test, try, put to the test (o s.o., *; 
to know from long experience (*; 
to afflict (* s.o.) ; — Jj baliya a (J* bilan, 
»*^j bala) to be or become old, worn, 

shabby (clothes); to dwindle away, van- 
ish; to deteriorate, decline, become de- 
crepit; to disintegrate (a corpse), decay, 
rot, spoil III to care, be concerned (<~> 
or a, t> about), be mindful (<_> or a, « 
of s.o., of; to pay attention (l-> or 
a to), mind, heed, take into consideration, 
take into account (e-> or a; to take 
notice (cj of) | Jbl U ma vJbdli, JL>i V 
I don't care! I don't mind! it's all 
right with me! JLj V (as a relat. clause) 
unconcerned, heedless, careless, reckless 
IV to try, test, put to the test (* s.o.); 
to make experienced, harden, inure (« 
s.o. ; said of trials, experiences) ; to work 
havoc (a on; to wear out (a | 
L«*- **&> Jjf (bald* an hasanan) to stand 
the test; to prove o.s. brave (in war) 
VIII to try, tempt, put to the test (* s.o.) ; 
to afflict («_j o s.o. with), visit (o » on 
s.o.; pass, ubtuliya to become or be 
afflicted (^> with, by), suffer (<-> from) 

Jj Mian decline, deterioration; decay, 
putrefaction, decomposition; worn con- 
dition; wear; shabbiness 

Jj bally worn, old, ^.abby, thread- 
bare; decrepit, dilapidated, decaying, 
decomposed, rotten 

SJj baliya pi. U">b baldyd trial, tribula- 
tion, visitation, affliction, distress, mis- 
fortune, calamity 

#*^j bald' trial, tribulation, visitation, 
affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge, 
plague; creditable performance, bravery, 
gallantry, heroic action | ( y~*- ^ (ha* 
san) favor, blessing, grace (of God) ; good 

^jL balwd trial; tribulation, visitation, 
affliction, distress, misfortune, calamity; 
necessity, need | <u t£>LJi O ('ammat) it 
has become a general necessity 

»VL. mubdldh consideration, regard, 
heed, attention | SVL*V Id-mvbaldh in- 
difference, unconcern, carelessness 

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*^ki\ ibtila trial, tribulation, affliction, 

jlj bdlin old, worn, worn out; shabby, 
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit, 
dilapidated; decayed, rotten; obsolete, 

JL* mubalin observant, heedful, mind- 
ful (y of) [ ^ JL* jji heedless of 

Ji*. mubtalan (less correctly Jx^ m«6* 
talin) afflicted (^ with, by), suffering 
(<_; from) 

ji-*-_>ij (Engl.) blujlnz and u^jb j>Uaij (6a»* 
talon) blue jeans 

j^L balwara to crystallize out (a; to 
visualize (a future goals, objectives); to 
zero-in on (a, e.g., an idea) II tribal* 
warn to crystallize; to be crystallized; to 
be covered with crystals; to crystallize 

jjb billaur, (colloq.) bailor pi. -at crystal; 
crystal glass, flint glass, glass | ^Js* jjL 
{§akrl) rock crystal, transparent quartz 

ijjb billaura, ballora (n. un.) pi. -at 
crystal; crystal glass, flint glass, glass; 
tube (radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a 
detector; radio); negative (phot) | »jjL 
4jxi»- (jalidiya) ice crystal 

<£jjh bilkturi, ballorl crystalline; crys- 
tal (adj.) 

*iJjk hillaurlya, ballorlya pi. -at lense 

jjL* mubalwar: *jjL* 45"!^* candied 

jjl~» mutabalwir crystalline 

jjk> °Jj^ (Fr. blouse) bdluz, bdluza pi. -at 

^>jh bluto Pluto (planet) 

jjj (Engl.) Mover pi. blovrat {eg.) pullover 

tljlj (Turk, bbluk) buluk pi. -at company 
(formerly, Eg.; mil) | ^ 4A b - amtn 
quartermaster, paymaster (formerly, Eg., 
Sudan; mil.) 

OjL baton pi. -at balloon 

x Jj bald (after a negation) oh yes! but of 
course! certainly! 

2 Jj baliya etc., see^Jb 

3 J> (Fr. bille) bily {eg.) marbles | JJI <*) kfbat 
al-b. game of marbles 

jZ3\\i (It. pagtiaccio) palyaUo clown, buffoon 

J^J^ik (It- higliardo) bilyardo billiards 

j>L (Engl.) blezer pi. blezrdt {eg.) blazer 

<u~jIj biliaeh pliss£, pleating 

1 i r L brilUn pi. j^J^j baldlin 2 pallium, liturgical 
vestment of a bishop worn over the 
chasuble (Chr.); monk's robe {Copt.-Chr.) 

2 o J A i bilyon {eg.), bilyun (leb.-syr.) pi. ^h 
baldyin 2 billion (U.S.: 1000 millions, 
G.B.: a million millions) 

f <_> see <-> 

£ bamm lowest string of a musical instru- 

^Lc bimbdsi see ^\Si) 

^Lx bumbdg, i^Le bumbdga bow tie 

t^Lr bombdy Bombay 

iw.1 look up alphabetically 

1 (>. ^ tie to&awwfl to adopt as son (a s.o.}; 
to adopt, embrace (a 

(j;i i&n- pi. »L>I abnd\ djii banun son 
(written j, after the personal name, before 
the father's name, e.g., jjt-\ j, „u j); des- 
cendant, scion ; offspring, son (of a nation 
or people); pi. ,U (with genit.) inhabit- 

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ants (of a place); pi. oyj boys; children 
(of a family, including girls) | i-^fl ^\ 
(C-*-^l) nephew; ,oT ^1 pi. *jl _^j (son 
of Adam) man, human being; ,jjT ^.1 #>» 
aw jackal; JlLJI ^ I t"6» al-balad local 
inhabitant, native; iiUI *L>1 natives, 
native population; v>^"' i>' ^ ft al-harb 
warrior, soldier; warlike, bellicose; *bji 
^J-l a. al-hayy the inhabitants of a city 
ward; (4»-jjJl) ^jjl j»l i. az-zauj stepson; 
J-o-JI j<l wayfarer, wanderer; {/~J- j>\ 
<~* 50 years old; «cpU j»I *6w sa'atihi 
temporal, transient, passing; *JL? ^1 ibn 
sulbihl his own son; ^jt- ^1 i£m %Vs 
weasel; ~*JI j^l i. aVamm cousin on the 
father's side; periphrastically for hus- 
band; j-lTl j»l person from a respected 
family, coming from a good family; ^ 
*\J\ »U 6owil ma' as-samd* the Arabs; 
^^^ ii^ Beni Suef (city in Egypt, S of 
Cairo); j>^\ o"^ JuJI Mr. So-and-so, Jr. 

ijl ibna and CJj Mnf pi. cJza bandt 
daughter; cJu girl | (c^-Vl) rillol niece; 
(^rjjM) ryjfl <oi *. az-zauj stepdaughter; 
jJI ijl i. al-amm and jJI £JJ female 
cousin on the father's side; periphrastic- 
ally for wife: <il^ ol your wife; <J^aj 
^^SCiJl 6. al-fikr pi. jl&VI obj thought, 
idea; jf\ cjj fern, of _/lTI ^i; £*->, 
\£j$ 6. al-hawa a prostitute; ^jVi obj 
6. al-ard insects and worms; lJ JJ oL» 
6. bis calamities, adversities, misfortunes ; 
2LU ob 6. al-hayah and y>Jdl olit &. 
ad-dahr afflictions, sufferings, sorrows 
bestowed by fate; »l_p- ob 6. hawwa 
daughters of Eve, women; 4JL&JI cJj 6. 
ai-Safa word;j-UoII oLj 6. as-sadr wor- 
ries, fears, anxieties; d>l.ijj oL> 6. war- 
dana earthworms, rainworms 

^j bunaiya my little son 

«Jj bunaiya little girl 

Syj bunuwa sonship, filiation 

t^j^j banawl filial 

4>j tabannin adoption (also fig., e.g., 
of ideas, principles, etc.) 

2 j> bunn coffee beans, (unground) coffee | 
^Ji ~<>j>JS> Sajarat al-b. coffee tree, coffee 
shrub (bot.) 

^1 bunni coffee- colored, brown 

3 jlis banan finger tips | <jL-j <l1p jIAj {yu* 
saru) lit.: he is pointed at with fingers, 
i.e., he is a famous man; viiJbj fjb \j\ and 
tau'a bandnika I am at your disposal, I 
am at your service 

•jjaLi banddora {syr.; from It. pomodoro) 
tomato (es) 

j^-jUj bandris 2 Banaras or Benares (the Holy 
City of the Hindus, in N India) 

^LJu see ^LJsj 

^Ju bintu napoleon, louis d'or (gold coin of 
20 francs) 

pO II to dope, narcoticize (with banj; s.o.); 
to anesthetize (» s.o.) 

tJj banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger; 
bot.); an anesthetic, a narcotic 

i_>l^Ji al-banjdb the Punjab (region, NW 
Indian subcontinent) 

j>*l> banjar beet, sugar beet; red beet (e^.) 

J^i^^^j banglades (Eg. spelling) Bangladesh 

Xj band pi. ^i> bunud article, clause, para- 
graph (of a law, contract, etc.); point (of 
an explanation, presentation, etc.); ban- 
ner; large body of troops | 4-—"^ iyJl 
the main points 

*jXj bandar pi. j^bj banddir 2 seaport; com- 
mercial center; district capital {Eg.); jsbj 
see also under ojXj below | ^Le- j-Uj b. 
'abbas Bandar Abbas (seaport in S Iran) 

2 »jjJCj look up alphabetically 

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J-Cj bunduq (coll.; n. un, ») pi. J^bj banddiq 2 
hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree; 
4*jlj hazelnut, filbert; bullet 

jjuj bunduqv Venetian sequin 

V*^ bunduqiya pi, Jblj banddiq 2 
rifle, gun J ^ij SJ-Uj 6. rass shotgun ; iJ^. 
vU* (hawd'iya) air gun 

L5jlJI al-bunduqlya Venice 

(jUai; bunduqdni pi. -wn, £>ib 6and=* 
rfiga a Venitian 

JjXj bunduq pi. JjoLj banadiq 2 bastard 

SjjJLLj banadora (syr.; from It. pomodoro) 

^jj-Cj y ' o^mar 2 banadori tomato-red 

JjAX> (Er. pendule) bandul pendulum 

S^JCJ {Span, bandera) bandera pi. j^Uj band" 
dir 2 pennon, flag, banner 

jCj, bannur (= jju ballur) glass 

j&ju banzahir bezoar, bezoar stone 

Jj>j binzol benzol 

{jjj banzin, benzln gasoline, benzine 

^Ju (Engl.) bens pi. -at pence 

J^LJj benisilln penicillin 

*-*Ju (Fr. pensee) banseh pansy (bot.) 

dj~»h bansiyon pi. -a( boardinghouse; board- 
ing school 

j^j binsir f., pi. ^L> banasir 2 ring finger 

.kj frwn£ pi. J*jl) Jwnw* point (stock market) 

Ucj (It. punta) bunta pL Jaij bunat (eg.) 
drill bit 

Jlkj bantdl trousers, pants 

jjlkj bantalon (It. pantaloni) pi. -af trousers, 

(^jUi; 6on^a2i Bengasi (city in NE Libya) 

JUU1 al~bangdl Bengal (region, NE Indian 

^ij^'iUij bangladeS (Leb.-Syr. spelling) Ban- 

^->i^ banafsaj (coll.; n. un. !) violet (bot.) 

,j*~ji^ banafsaji violetlike, violetish; 
violet (adj.) | ^^^^iJi Jy or ^y^-iJl »ijj 

J^> banfas, banafs amethyst (min.) 

<JCj binaqa and iSJu baniqa gore, gusset (of 
a shirt or garment) 

1 £Li bunk root, core, heart, best part | «£JLj 
j^JI 6. al-umr the prime of life, the best 

2 dJb tanfc pi. iiyj bunuk bank, banking 
house J J~>-j3l ilij transfer bank; ^fJb 
jl-L^VI 6. al-isddr bank of issue; tfJLj 
<JuLlJi credit bank; ^jUaJI cJuLlJi <iL> 
('agar!) mortgage bank; jjyd\ db de- 
posit bank; >>aJl <fJL> 6. ad-dam blood 
bank; Jj-aJI dUi (<ZauZi) the World Bank; 
^jiJl viJb fe. al-qard (Tun.) loan bank 

^jj 6cmfc£ bank (in compounds) | 
^jj oLwi (daman) bank guarantee 

3 ( ^Jb r * mubannak stranded 

4 dL r » iLrf. muhannak mubannak shrewd, 
sly, astute 

OySo (Engl.) banknot banknote 

Ljj banamd Panama 

IfO ftcmfca Benha (town in N Egypt) 

o^lj and i£jj see 1 l j. 

j[_^ (Fr. baignoire) banwdr baignoire, theater 
box of the lowest tier 

: Jj band i (»b &wi<f , jUu bunydn) and VIII 
to build, erect, construct, set up (a,}; 

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to build, establish, rest (J* a on); 
to consummate the marriage (If- and LfJL 
with a woman); pass, buniya, ubtuniya 
to be based, be built, rest (J* on) | * j*Jl ^ 
J* ('azma) and J*- «u^ ^ ^azmahu) to 
determine or be firmly determined to do; Jt iUS" ^ (kalimcUan) to give a 
word an indeclinable ending in (a certain 
vowel or a vowelless consonant; gram.) 
V see ^ VII to be built 

»Uj feind' building, construction, erection, 
setting up; structure (also, e.g., of an 
organism), setup, make-up; masonry; 
(pi. -at) construction work; (pi. out ab- 
niya, alg. also -at) building, structure, 
edifice | *Lj J,U construction worker; 
»UI oUi i'adat al-b. reconstruction ; »UJI 
J~\ (hurr) Freemasonry; Jp »b bind* an 
r ald according to, in accordance with, on 
the basis of, by virtue of, on the strength 
of; 1 4* Jt »b accordingly, thus 

l*Uj fctnd'i constructional, building 
(used attributively); architectural ; struc- 

Xm binya, bunya pi, ^j binan, bunan 
structure, setup, make-up; &in#a build, 
frame, physique, physical constitution | 
ULiJI >_Jljw» of delicate constitution; ^^ 
SJLJ1 and 5JUI ^JL- of sound constitution, 
healthy; LiJl ^5 qawly al-b. husky, 

iSj^-i binyawi, bunyawl structural; 

\j^\ binyawiya, bunyawiya structural- 

^ bunaiy and SJu bunaiya see ^ 

#Lj 6a»na* pi. -wn builder; mason, 
bricklayer; — constructive (e.g., action, 
plan) \jp- #b (hurr) Freemason 

oL) bindya pi. -a* building, structure, 

oLJj bunydn building, construction, 
erection, setting up; building, structure, 
edifice; physique, stature 

^~» mabnan pi. oL. mabdnin building, 
construction, erection, setting up; build- 
ing, structure, edifice; form; foundation, 
fundament, basis | JJLlj ,j\j\ (ra'y) con- 
tent and form 

,>? tabannin see 1 ( j- 

jL bdnin pi. SL> 6wiaA builder 

j^* mabniy built, set up, erected; 
founded, based, resting (J* on); fixed, 
established; indeclinable; ending in- 
declinably (J* in; gram.) 

\rj (Engl.) penny 

jJj (It. bagno) banyo bath, bathtub 

CUf- bahita a, bahuta u and pass, buhita (baht) 
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered, 
startled, perplexed, flabbergasted, speech- 
less; — bahita to be or become pale, fade 
(color) ; — bahata a to astonish, amaze, be- 
wilder, startle, stagger, flabbergast (» s.o.) ; 
(jbv buhtdn) to slander, defame (o s.o.) 
Ill to come or descend unexpectedly (» 
upon s.o.) ; to startle, stagger, flabbergast 
(» s.o.) IV to surprise, astonis 1 amaze {» 
s.o.) VII = I 

£~r buht and oU^- buhtdn slider, false 
accusation; lie, untruth 

Cj- bahta perplexity, amazement, be- 
wilderment, stupefaction 

£j*L bahit pale, pallid, faded (color); 
wan, lusterless, mat; perplexed, aghast 

Ctj^ mabkut perplexed, astonished, 
amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast 

£t- bahija a to be glad, be happy (^ about), 
be delighted (^ at); — bahuja u to be 
beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden, 
delight, make happy (» s.o.) VIII to be 
glad, be happy (^ about), be delighted 

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h^r bahja splendor, magnificence, beau- 
ty, resplendence; joy, delight | jUiiVl '^r 
delight of the eyes, welcome sight 

pr bahij, p^ bahij magnificent, splen- 
did, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful 

4»n~» Tnabhaja a moment of happiness 
and joy 

£*L. mabahij 2 joys, delights; pleasures, 
amusements, diversions; splendid things; 
splendor, pomp, magnificence 

r-l^ol ibtihaj joy, rejoicing, delight («->at) 

«^. mubhij pleasant, charming, delight- 

rt-fL* mubiahij happy, glad, delighted 

i]Xf bahdala to insult {* s.o.); to treat con- 
temptuously, meanly (e s.o.); to expose 
(« s.o.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock 
(o of s.o.); bring into disorder (a 
II tabahdala pass, of I 

SJ-Lr bahdala insult, affront, abuse, out- 
rage; meanness; triteness, insipidity 

Jjl^ mvbahdal maltreated, oppressed, 
miserable; disorderly, neglected 

jr bahara a {bahr) and IV to glitter, shine; to 
dazzle, overwhelm (* s.o., * s.o.'s eyes) | 
jUaj^I jri >& a dazzling, overwhelming 
thing; — pass, buhira to be out of breath, 
to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be 
smitten with blindness; to be out of 
breath VIII to flaunt, parade, show off, 
present in a dazzling light («_-> 

j^ bahr deception, dazzlement (<_j by) 

j^ buhr difficult respiration, labored 

Ijr bakra (n. vie.) being dazzled, dazzle- 

*j^- buhra middle, center j . . . lj^ ,3 

_^\ abhar 2 more brilliant, more magnif- 

j4-\ abhar 2 aorta (anat.) 

jtf. bahdr pi. -at Bpice 

jLfLl ibtihdr dazzling display, show (cj 

^L» bahir dazzling, brilliant, splendid 

jjr* mabhur breathless, out of breath, 

rjf^ bahraja (i>-^f* bahraja) to adorn, deck 
out, dress up showily; to give a deceptive 
brightness (* to); to glamorize (*; 
to reject as false {» a witness); to fake, 
counterfeit (a II tabahraja to 
adorn o.s., spruce o.s. up, dress up; to be 

■r^ bahraj false, spurious, fake, sham, 
worthless, bad; counterfeit money; tinsel, 
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff 

*>rjv bahraja empty show, hollow pomp 

jU^ bahrajan tinsel, frippery 

£^» mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy, 
ornate, ostentatious; trashy, rubbishy, 
cheap, inartistic 

j j^ bahriz {eg.) a soup 

j^- bahaza a (bahz) to push or drive away 
* (. s.o.) 

5>t- bahza (n. vie.) rejection, repulsion 

]k^ bahaza a (bahz) to oppress, weigh down 
(a s.o.; a load, work), weigh heavily (• 
on s.o.) IV do. 

J*aL bahiz heavy, oppressive, trying; 
excessive, exorbitant, enormous; ex- 
pensive, costly 

j^. bahaq a kind of lichen (bot.); herpetic 
eruption, tetter; vitiligo alba, a mild 
form of leprosy (med.) 

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J^ bahala a (bahl) to curse (♦ s.o.) V and VI 
to curse one another VIII to supplicate, 
pray humbly (to God); to implore, be- 
seech (*ul J I God) 

J^-l abhal savin (Juniperus sabina; 

JL^LI ibtihdl pi. -at supplication, prayer 

J»b bahil pi. J^ 6«AZ, 6«fcAaZ free, 

J^ buhM, bahlul pi. JJl^ bahdiil 2 buffoon, 
jester, clown, fool 

C)\jLr> bahlawdn pi. -at, jJlf. bahdlin* acrobat, 
tumbler, equilibrist, ropedancer, tight- 
rope walker 

(jl^ baJUatvdni acrobatic | C>lTp- 
VlAr; (harakdt) acrobatics; antics, capers 
of a tumbler; ji^JLf- b\ jb (fayardn) aerial 
acrobatics, stunt flying 

^ IV to make obscure, dubious, unintel- 
ligible (a V and X to be obscure, 
ambiguous, unintelligible ( Jp to s.o.) 
i«-t« bahma lamb, sheep 
£*- bahlm pi. ^ buhum jet-black 

<***- bahima pi. ^ bahdHm 2 beast, 
animal, quadruped; pi. livestock, cattle, 
(large) domestic animals 

LS *~r t bahlml animal, bestial, brutish 

i-**^ bahlmlya brutishness, bestiaUty, 

flj-l ibham obscurity; vagueness, am- 

j-lf.1 ibham f., pi. ^*LI abdhim 2 thumb; 
big toe 

-*L bdhtm big toe 

p** mubham obscure, dark, cryptic, 
doubtful, vague, ambiguous; unintelli- 
gible | ^ jap ( f adad) abstract number 

(math.); Q ^X\ ^^\ ('asab) the vagus 

(amti.); ^1 p,y\ (i S m) the demonstrative 
pronoun (gram.) 

1 (>r) W; bahd u, bahuwa u and ^ bahiya a 
(•Lf- 6aAo') to be beautiful III to vie, 
compete <l-> » with s.o. in ; to pride 
o.s. ( v on), be proud ( v of), boast (^ of, 
<-* « to s.o. of VI to compete with 
one another; to be proud ( v of), pride 
o.s, (^ on) 

jr t bahw pi. >[ r \ abhd' hall; parlor, 
drawing room, reception hall 

^ r baMy beautiful, magnificent, splen- 
did; brilliant, radiant, shining 

•L(- bahd' beauty, magnificence, splen- 
dor; brilliancy 

til,- baM% Bahai (adj.); (pi. -un) an 
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai 

yifJl al-bdhSlya the Bahai sect; 
Bahai sm 

^-t-! abhd more splendid, more bril- 

«UL. mubdhdh and oLJ tabdhin pride, 
vainglory, boastfulness 

oLu mutabdhin proud, boastful 

*tl*(>f see iL 

(*jO »^J W<* ^ to come again, return; to 
come back ( v with, bring back, 
yield, bring in ( v |^J-'L ,L or JJLAJL 
(kaiba, fatal) to fail II to provide ac- 
commodations (J and » for s.o., a at a 
place), put up (J or • s.o., a at) | Ut£. \ M 
(makdnan) to take a place, settle down, 
live or stay at a place; UISC* •[# to put 
s.o. in a place, make s.o. take a position 
or place IV to provide accommodations 
(» for s.o., * at a place); to settle down, 
reside, live ( v at a place) V to settle down 
(a at a place), occupy ([£, markazan a 
place), hold (LU. maqdman a position) | 
Ul£- ]jj (makdnan) to gain ground, 
become generally accepted; ^i^Jl f^J 

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( r ars) to ascend the throne; Js-U l^J 
(Mt&m) to come to power, take over 
power; Ls^- Tj-j (mansiban) to take on 
a position, take over a post; to fill an 

•Cjj fci'a pi. -di milieu, surroundings; 
environment; situation (in which s.o. 
lives); place where s.o. feels at home; 
home, habitat 

Jjj bii conditioned by the milieu, 
environmental | ~<l!u J^I^c environmental 

1*La mabd'a place to which comes; 
abode, dwelling, habitation 

*jj tabavnmi : <J>j>& *j^ t. al- f ar§ acces- 
sion to the throne 

^\jt (Fr. baits) pi. -at (eg.) tin, can, box 

^>ji II to divide into chapters or sections (a; to arrange in groups, arrange 
systematically, class, classify (a 

L-»b bab pi. <~>\ji) abwab, uLu bibdn 
door; gate; opening, gateway; entrance; 
chapter, section, column, rubric; group, 
class, category; field, domain (fig.) | ^Ul 
JbJ! the Sublime Porte; -aiil ^>l 
6. al-mandab Bab el Mandeb (strait 
between SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.); 
vLn*^ J* near, imminent; IjljJL^- L»Ij ^i 
to open up a new way, a new possibility; 
i_jb *ci futiha bdbu ... was (were) begun, under way; * t? iJI ^b Ji* (qafala) 
to put an end to, terminate, close; J-^l v^ a* (&• *2-/°#0 as a favor; 
Jjl yb <>• (a«Zd) with all the more 
reason, the more so; *-jUi \h> J about 
this matter, about this; jl lj Jr J^\ ul,}. 
(b. id-datura) it is necessary that ... ; ^J 
iaJUaJi u->b ^>. I A* (6- is-sudfa) that's no 
coincidence; t-jb ,y oK" or ^b j J^-j 
(with foil, genit.) to belong to, fall under; 
<ob j Jby unique of its kind; Xul <-jb Jp ^1U 
to pursue one's livelihood, oarn one's 

ijb &d&a pi. -df kind, sort, class, category 
<~j\ji bawwab pi. -un doorman, gate* 

lt\ji biwaba office of gatekeeper 

li\ji bawwaba pi. -at (large) gate, por- 
tal j S^kLaJI ~o}j\ b. al-qantara lock gate I 

<— j^-j tabwib division into chapters, [ 
sectioning, classification, systematic ar- \ 
rangement, grouping I 

^>j~* mubawwab arranged in groups, f 
classed, classified \ 

(>L_jj boblin poplin \ 

Iwjj (Fr. bobine) boblna spool, reel I 

C*ij m buwait see C^> 1 

JU-ITjj butdgdz pi. -d£ (eg.) gas stove 

UIj^j, ^I^j (It. potassa) butdsa, butds potash j 

iij^j butaqa (usually pronounced bautaqa) I 
crucible, melting pot | OUjJl Ujjj j i 
(zamdn) in the melting pot of time 

dLJjj (Fr.) fcitfefc pi. -at (eg.) boutique 
<^ji (Fr. bougie) buzik pi. -df spark plug 

(-^j) _b fcd^a w (fcemA.) to become known, 
be revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret); 
to reveal, disclose, divulge (*oru, 
a secret; Jl and J to s.o.) IV to disclose, 
reveal (a or <_j,, J to s.o.); to release, 
abandon, make public property, declare 
ownerless (a; to permit, allow, leave 
(a, <j to s.o.) X to reveal (a; to 
regard as public property, as ownerless, 
as fair game; to deem permissible, lawful 
(a; to hurt (*z*j*~ hurmataku s.o.'s 
honor); to take possession (a of), ap- 
propriate, take as booty (a; to 
seize, confiscate (a; to give over 
(a, for pillage, appropriation, etc); 
to plunder (a | <uj ^-Ll-i (damdhu) 
to proscribe, outlaw s.o. 

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rjt bauh divulgence, disclosure (of a 
secret); confession 

£jt buh wide, open space; courtyard; 

3b- Ij bdha pi. -at wide, open space; 
open place, square, plaza; courtyard; 

3b-ll ibaha divulgence, disclosure (of 
a secret); permission, authorization; li- 

j*-L»I ibahl licentious, unrestrained, un- 
inhibited; anarchist; freethinker 

Xf\t\ ibahiya freethinking, libertinism; 

3U-LjL-l istibdha appropriation, capture, 
seizure; spoliation, confiscation 

*-L. mubdh permitted, allowed, permis- 
sible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate; open 
to everyone, permitted for all, free; 
ownerless {Isl. Law); indifferent (said 
of actions for which neither reward nor 
punishment is to be expected, but which 
are permissible, pi. oU-L* indifferent, 
permissible actions, Isl. Law) 

(r-jj) i>\j bdka u to abate, subside, let up, 
decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade, 
bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to 
spoil (a 

i-\jt buwak evaporation, exhalation, 
vapor, steam 

£_jj tabwlk : <5cJl fiy*} t. an-nukta, the 
spoiling of the point of a story 

□ £l> bdyik spoiled, bad; vapid, in- 
sipid, stale (also, e.g., of a joke) 

OjUjj bukdrest Bucharest 

Jjijj (Fr. povdre) budra powder 

oajj budaqa pi. 3*\j» bawddiq 2 crucible, melt- 
ing pot 

I j^* budd Buddha 

<3*ji budi Buddhistic; Buddhist 
Xi)>ji budiya Buddhism 

{jjt) Jj bdra u (baur, j\j» bawdr) to perish; to 
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be 
futile, unsuccessful, unprofitable, lead 
to nothing (work); to be unsalable, be 
dead stock (merchandise) | £*jJ\ OjU 
(bint) the girl could not get a husband 
II to let lie fallow (a land); to make un- 
profitable, useless (a IV to destroy 

jji bur uncultivated, fallow \jji ^^ 
(ard), pi. j j> ^b' {aradin) fallow land, 

iSJji and *uji see below alphabetically 

j\jj bawdr perdition, ruin | j\jJ\ jb 
J\j bd'ir uncultivated, fallow (land) 

iib>> burdni [eg.) a vegetable stew 

jl*u- jy m bur sa'id Port Said (seaport in NE 

b\$j*>> jy t bur suddn Port Sudan (seaport in 

NE Sudan) 

jlji jji bur fu'dd Port Euad (seaport in NE 
Egypt, opposite Port Said) 

*iJJJi (-^ r -) i>ortreh pi. -at portrait 

^jjjijji burturiku Puerto Rico 

JU^jjjj burlugdl -- JUjjJI Portugal 

iSJ^j^-jy. (Fr.) burjuwdzi bourgeois (adj.); 
(pi. -un) member of the bourgeoisie, bour- 
geois | <£J\j>rJj^\ >*^' (mujtamcf) mid- 
dle-class society; j^> <£j\yrJy. petit 

4j j)yrjji burjuwdzlya bourgeoisie, mid- 
dle classes | v«**jl 4j j^j^JI petty bour- 

3u«>jjj bursa pi. -at stock exchange 

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<3jji bmiraq, boraq borax 

[»jji burma Burma 

iS-ijjji and (JJIojjj burundi Burundi (country 
in Africa) 

1 i£jji (Turk, boru) burl pi. -at bugle; signal 
horn (esp. mil.) 

ijrjjy. buruji pi. -iya bugler 

2 iJjy. burl P 1 - □ <Sj\m bawarl gray mullet 
(zool.) | j**-\ iSJji (ohmtf) red mullet 

*<ijj> (Fr.) bureh puree 

l jjj II to pout, sulk, look glum, sullen 

Jji buz pi. j\ji\ abwaz muzzle, snout 

I j jZ tabwiza sullen mien 

jj~* mubawwiz sullen, glum 
% jjt buz, «J^j burn ice cream 
z "*6ji buza a beerlike beverage 
^JU bdz pi. Jl^jl abwaz, u!>j blzdn falcon 
1 i S'ji bus bus 
2 (o M J i .) tr*^ bd&a u {baus) to kiss (d s.o.) 

4*-jj bausa, busa kiss 

jL-^ (Engl.) bostar poster 
j^ji (It. ftiwfo) bustu corset 

iLjj , i>^j (It. posta) busta, busta post, mail 
j»St~>ji bustagl pi. -it/a (eg.) mailman 

jja^jJ\ al-busfur the Bosporus 

(J'ji) lT^. ba$<*> v> {baus) to be boisterous, 
shout, roar (crowd) II do. 

^ji baus pi. ^l>jl aubd§ (for ^^J) 
mob, rabble 

1 ( >»>» ^ (coll,; n. un. S) reed 
<~*ji busa pi. -af inch 

z *j> bus pi. ,j^i>J 06 was linen or silk fabric 

*L*>j» (It. fcitssoZa) &o#fo, bausala pi. -df com- 

i*aJ>; see under ^> 

±>\ji see alphabetically 

&ji btya crucible, melting pot 

&J* buza a beerlike beverage; (sijr.) ice cream 

l 9j\ bu r metatarsal bone (anat.) j p^Jl i-Jj*i *^ 
?v^JI <y he wouldn't know his knee from 
his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid per- 

2 rh bd f pi. ?\y} abtod r the span of the out- 
spread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4 
dird' mi'mariya — 3 m | f LJl Jjk tvl al~b. 
power, mastery; capability, ability; know- 
ledge; generosity; f-LH Jj_j1» mighty, 
powerful; capable, able; knowledgeable; 
generous, liberal, openhanded; f-UI j^a 
powerless, helpless, impotent, weak, in- 
capable; niggardly, stingy; f-LJI jj~*> im- 
potence, weakness; incapability (^p of); 
9-l;-Ulj ^-LJIj with might and main 

l 9_ji II to surprise 

2 ipL baga celluloid; tortoise shell 

olijj bugdda and 4j>\±ji bugdda potash, lye 

JUjj bugdz pi. >p \jt bawagiz 2 strait(s) ; harbor] 
Jjjjjjl jUjj the Dardanelles 

<us^j (Fr. buffet) biifeh buffet; bar; sideboard 

3jj II to blow the trumpet 

3y t buq pi. -at, Jl^l abwdq trumpet, 
bugle; fanfare; horn (of an automobile, 
of a gramophone); acoustic signaling 
device; megaphone; funnel (~ funnel- 
shaped opening); mouthpiece, spokes- 
man; duplicity, treachery, betrayal | 3y t 
O^Jl b. as-saut or^jil^Jl 3y t loudspeaker 
{radio); O ^J <$_>> (rahimi) oviduct, 

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Fallopian tube (ancrt.); 3y, JS^ Jp (SakHi 
6.) funnel-shaped, infundibular 

3\y m bawwdq trumpeter, bugler 

*5U &a^a bundle; bunch of flowers, 
nosegay, bouquet 

i2jb bd'iqa pi. jJi_^ bawaiq 2 misfortune, 

JlS^j 6«^di, aJLJ^j buqdla pi. JJil^ bawdqll 2 
vessel without handles, mug 

jSJj (Engl.) bokar, boker poker 

^^ &ofcs boxing 

ijji-5^j boksdford patrol wagon, paddy wag- 
on, Black Maria 

uX&jQt (Engl.) boksdkaf box calf 

'(Jjj) Jb &a£a m (&a«Z) and V to make water, 
urinate IV to be diuretic X to cause to 

Jjj baul pi. JIjjI a&«.'d7 urine | ^j* 
jjSUl JjJ! marad al-b. as-sukkarl diabetes 

Jjj &a«Ji uric, urinary, urinous | dJJL-il 
SJjJI the urinary passages; 4JjJ1 o^J*^ 
diseases of the kidney and urinary bladder ; 
dji |tf *-J (tasammum) uremia (med.) 

iLt bila: Q iJL*-! iL> {ahiniya) al- 
buminuria; O ^j^ *^j (damawiya) hem- 
aturia (med.) 

a31_jj bawwdla public lavatory 

SJj^ mabwala pi, JjL» mahawil 2 urinal; 
a diuretic ; — mibwala chamber pot ; toilet, 
water closet 

Jj-j tahawwuU tpljiV 4j?-> (Za-iYodi) 
enuresis, bed-wetting 

Jl^jlJ istibwdl: O /• -*Jl J 1^-1 *s£. cwi- 
(fem uremia (raerf.) 

a Jb &oi mind; frame of mind; attention, 
regard, mindfulness | JL> ji significant, no- 
table, considerable, important, serious, 

grave; JLJI f-iy fardg alb. leisure; J_^i-L. 
JLJI anxious, uneasy, concerned, worried; 
JUI Jj^ long-suffering, patient; ... «Jb U 
(with verb) why is it that he' (it) ...? 
why . . .? tiilb L how about you? what do 
you think? JL ^U- JfcaZa baluhu his mind 
is at rest, ho has no worries; aJLj ^L^ it 
occurred to him, it came to his mind; 
(J) Jl *Jb (J*r» J") J**' ( a '/*» a ^"> ja'ala) 
to turn one's mind to, give one's atten- 
tion to, pay attention to, take into ac- 
count, be mindful of, bear in mind, heed; Vb J^aJ jL i fam yw/^i li-qauli 
bdlan he didn't pay any attention to 
what I said; Vb <c* Ji V (yaqillu) no 
less significant than this 

3 J^j &wZ postage stamp 

4 Jb 6a? whale (zoo?.) 

5 *JU look up alphabetically 

Q iVy. biildd {■- 3>^) steel 

jUJ^j (Fr.) bulvdr boulevard 

cjV^j buldq 2 a district of Cairo 

SjuJ^j bulandd, bolandd and SjuJ^j Poland 

ijxJji buhindi, bolandi Polish; (pi. -un) 

jiji bold polo 

Lj>L^ (It. Polo i da) bolonyd Poland 

JjJ^j boloni Polish; (pi. -un) Pole 

l ( _ r Jjj (Fr. police) bulls police | cjIjVI <j»4y. 
vice squad; JU-1 ^-jJ^JI (jind'l) criminal 
police; ii^ 5 ^-.J^Jl (to&i) military po- 
lice; ijj-*^ cr^j^ {sirrl) secret police; 
jjji\ u *dji traffic police 

*z~i)ji "^}jj Tiwdya bulislya detective 

2 i«Jjj and \*Jj» (Fr. police) bulisa, buli$a 
pi. ^aJI^ bawdlis 2 , ( j*^\j-i bawdlis 2 
certificate of insurance, policy | 4-~jJ_^j 

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j>JlJi b. aS-Sdhn bill of lading; 4*aJ>j 
<>.uJl insurance policy 

LiJ^j bulifiyd Bolivia 

JJ>j 6ii(i/i Bolivian 

O^JW ^ da al-baulind uremia 

>jj 6«m (coll.; n.un. 1) pi. pl^jl abwdm owl 

1 0^j baun, bun interval, distance; difference 

2 l)L (coll.; n. Tin. 2) ben tree (Moringa; hot); 
horse-radish tree (Moringa olcifera; bot.); 
Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L.j 

ijji (Engl.) boni pi. Jt^j bawani pony 

jjjj buniqi Punic 

ftb 6aA coitus; sexual potency 

L^fcjj bohemiya, bohimiya Bohemia 

^^ji bohemi Bohemian (adj. and n.) 

S-^jj bohemiya Bohemianism, Bo- 
hemian life 

*jjji ba'una the tenth month of the Coptic 

~vji (Turk, boya) boya pi. -at paint; shoe 

JtJi> ^rkji b °y a P> ( e 9-) boyagi pi. 
-iya house painter, painter ; shoeshine, 

o"j) o^.Ji 

buwenos airis Buenos Aires 

i;j bayya = 4jL> look up alphabetically 
4io see *jj 

SjLj (Pers.) biydda infantry (formerly, Eg.) 
c^Ij biyadx infantryman, foot soldier 

^jLj biyano pi. oUjJLj , also uLj biyan pi. -at 

1 * r ^j (Fr.) bib pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout 
(of a reservoir or tank) 

2 ijj (It.) biba (Western) smoking pipe 

(C-aj) C>\j bdta i (C-ju-* mabit) to pass or 
spend the night; to stay overnight; to 
become, come to be, have become ; to get, 
have gotten (j into a situation or state), 
be (J in a situation, etc.); with foil, 
imperf. : to have now got to a point 
where . . . , have gotten so far that now. , . ; 
to go on, keep on doing | j* Cj\j 
jyii\ (muqarrar) it has become a sure 
thing, is now certain; a5jil £>- J ol 
(jl hukmi l-muakkad) it is now as good 
as certain II to brood (by night; a about; to contrive, hatch (» an evil plan, 
<J against s.o.), plot (J against s.o.); to 
put up for the night ( e s.o.) | <Ju*aJ1 J C*u 
{saff; eg.) to flunk, fail promotion (pupil) 
IV to put up for the night (« s.o.) 

C^j bait pi. &_}£ buyut, C ^j^> buyutdt 
house, building; tent (of nomads); room; 
apartment, fiat; (garden) bed; family; 
case, box, covering, sheath; pi. £j1^j 
large, respectable houses ; respectable fam- 
ilies; (pi. oUl abyat) verse | Sj^l c^> (navigator's) compass; c-Jl Jal 
ahl al-b. family, specif., the family of the 
Prophet; ol^JI J*1 people from good, 
respectable families; *jjU^ &^j£ (Ufa 
rlya) commercial houses; <j^Vl ^-jJI 
(abyad) the White House (in Washing- 
ton); fl/U c-jJI (hardm) the Kaaba; 
oU-l i^ou b. al-kald' and «— o^l Coj b. al~ 
adab toilet, water closet; *IjJI c^j origin 
or seat of the disease; jjj c-aj (rift) 
country house; ^LJtJl c*w b. as-$abab 
youth hostel; ^-Jjiil c*ju b. al-maqdis 
Jerusalem; SJLwaJaJI Cju and Ju^axJl £*u 
(the essential, principal verse of the ka- 
sida, i.e.) the quintessence; the gist, the 
essentials, the hit of ; that stands 
out from the rest, the right thing; J- £ju 
bet lahm, ^-Jbu baitalahm Bethlehem; 
vii!UI *ioJI the ruling house; Jill c^ treas- 
ure house; fisc, treasury, exchequer {1st. 
Law); (Tun.) administration of vacant 

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Muslim estates; »lil c-ju toilet, water 

JLa baitl domestic, private, home, of the 
house, house- (in compounds); domes- 
ticated (animals) ; homemade 

C*iji buwait pi. -at small house; small 

CjL> bayat: (£y£ oLj (satawi) hiber- 
nation (of animals) 

oL> bayydt pi. -wn and oU bayydta 
boarder (student); (pi. -w«) pupil of a 
boarding school {tun.) 

£jj-j bayyut stale, old 

uUju* mo&if overnight stop, overnight 
stay; shelter for the night 

CJ\j ba'it stale, old; {eg.) not promoted, 
<~j~d\ J (? a j(D m school 

£*$*» mubayyit plotter, schemer, intri- 

bu beta: bw S*-il asi"at b. beta rays {phys.) 

LUfcj bijdma and ^b^j bijdma pi. -a£ pa jama 

x (Xj) jb &<Ma t to perish, die, pass away, 
become extinct IV to destroy, extermi- 
nate, extirpate (a, » s.o., 

i>\ -Li baida anna although, whereas; 
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet, how- 
ever, but, ... though 

»Ijuj baida' 2 pi. Xj bid, oSjIjlj bai* 
ddwdt desert, steppe, wilderness 

SiUl i&ada annihilation, extermination, 
eradication, extirpation 

alb ia'ii passing, transitory, temporal ; 
past, bygone | 5-VjLJI t-yJI the genuine 
Arabs of the past (who have become 

JL-* mubld destructive, annihilative ; 
(pi. -at) means of extermination | oIju* 
~<*ij£>- (hasariya) insecticides; \j~>- "— >ix«* 
{hayawlya) antibiotics (biol., med.) 

2 <oLj look up alphabetically 

^^Ijuj bidajdji {tun., alg.) pedagogical 

jJU baidar pi. j^Lj bayMir 2 threshing floor 

Jju baidaq {and J-L^) pi. JiLj bayddiq* 
pawn (in chess) 

obfJu see u'^Sb alphabetically 

J Q SjLj bayydra pi. -a( (^>a?.) irrigation 
wheel; plantation 

a ljo, S_/u (It. wra) 6ira, fora beer j Ij-JI «i^ 
mama" al-b. brewer) 7 " 

Jju bairaq pi. JjL baydriq 2 flag, banner, 

jlol^ru bairaqddr color-bearer, standard- 

4J_rJl JL»- (1'r. Pyrenees) jibdl al-birineh the 

1 j jf u 6ertt Peru 

2 j^j (Ft, bureau) biro pi. -af office, bureau 

Oj^u bairuf Beirut (capital of Lebanon) 

Jjju bairutl pi. ^i^j baw&rita, «j;L> 
baydrita a native or inhabitant of Beirut 

J»lj5jjy biriiqrdtl bureaucratic; (pi. -mot.) 


blruqratlya bureaucracy; red 

Uaj>j bizantlyd Byzantium 

l-jjru bizanti Byzantine 

j^-jo &i5ow bison 

(^jrfjuj) ;J ^b 6a^a i to lay eggs (also a); to stay, 
settle down, be or become resident {<~> at 
a place) | f-Jfj jlSvLb ^b (wa-farraka) to 
be born and grow up in a place; to 
establish itself and spread (plague) II to 
make white, paint white, whitewash, 
whiten (a; to bleach, blanch {» 

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104, textiles, laundry, rice, etc.) ; to tin, 
tinplate (a; to make a fair copy (a 
of | <&-j (jaj (wajhahu) to make 
s.o. appear blameless, in a favorable 
light, to whitewash, exculpate, vindi- 
cate, justify s.o., play s.o. up, make much 
of s.o.; to honor s.o., show honor to s.o.; 
<&- j ts\ ^^suj may God make him happy! 
«cjL**» ^ o*-£i V this doesn't show him in 
a favorable light V pass, of II; IX to be 
or become white 

^Ji^ baid pi. (j^-jsj buyud eggs | u Jl : j 
Ji. {maqliy) fried eggs; ^>jj^-* ^^ 
scrambled eggs 

ILjLj baida (n. un.) pi. -at egg; testicle; 
helmet; main part, substance, essence | 
viLjJI i-Ao 6. ad-dik (the egg of a rooster 
i.e.) an impossible or extraordinary 
thing; jlLJI HJLj a man held 
in high esteem in his community; ZJuj ,3 
jLfJl (b. in-nahdr) in broad daylight; 
<Ju«aJl a-^Lj b. a$-saif the hottest part 
of the summer; p^V' ^ULj the territory 
or pale of Islam; ^jS\ a^j jp {MiJJl, j^ 
^^Jl <^j (6. id-din, b, il-walan) defense 
of the faith, of the country- jj£-\ Z^j 
b. al-hidr a woman secluded from the 
outside world, a chaste, respectable 

j^Lj baidi, ij^a^j baidawi and ^ji^j 
baidawi egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate 

<u*Lu buyaida and A^a-iji buwaida pi. 
-at small egg, ovule; ovum (biol.) 

^Lj baydd white, whiteness; white- 
wash; — (pi. -at) bairen, desolate, un- 
cultivated land, wasteland; gap, blank 
space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma 
(med.); linen, pi. oL*Lj white goods, 
linens; (syr.) milk, butter, and eggs j 
^^Lj! ^Lj b. al-baid white of egg, al- 
bumen; (>JI ,j^Lj b.aVain the white of 
the eye; jL^I ^U 6. an-nafidr daylight, 
(ace.) by day, during the daytime; ^L* 
«dLJ s\j<*>j <u^j bayada yaumihi wa-sawada 
lailihi by day and by night; 4>-_jJI ^Lj 

6. al-wajh fine character, good reputation; 
^Lj jir* samak b. a Nile fish (eg.); Jp 
,j^U blank, free from writing, printing 
or marks, uninscribed; (^-tfjt or) ^J 
^LJi (labisa, irtada) to dress in white 

u^jzi bay-ad pi. (j^ buyud, bid (egg-) 

^^LjI abyad 2 , f. ^Li^ baida" 2 , pi. j,*j 
6id white; a white, a member of the white 
race; bright; clean, shiny, polished; 
blameless, noble, sincere (character); 
empty, blank (sheet of paper) ; pi. ^iJI 
and JLLJI al-biddn the white race; ^ajVI 
white of egg, albumen | »U^j ^jl (ard) 
barren, uncultivated land, wasteland; SjjJ 
•L^j (taura) peaceful, bloodless revolu- 
tion ; (j-a-j V I Ja^iJ I (Am?) first light of dawn ; 
^^j^I i^jbJUl {dafiab) platinum; w^UL 
(j^jVi with cold steel; »Ua-j <^& (sahi* 
fatuhu) his reputation is good; he has 
noble deeds to his credit, he has a noble 
character; »LjLi Jas? {suhuf) noble, glo- 
rious deeds; »Uo-j ijjATl (wMwfca) white 
lie, fib; 'Lio UJ (laila) a sleepless night, 
a night spent awake; lJ -a = jVl C>_jil (maaf) 
natural death; *LLj Jj (#ad) beneficent 
hand, benefaction; ^^J .^- Lj (coUoq., 
euphemistically instead of 3^-1 ^^ L j/a 
fcafcar aswad) oh what terrible news ! what' 
a misfortune ! a fine thing ! 

*UiJl al-baida* (short for *Ui— Jl jUI) 

j^jUi-j baidawi (from ^UaJl _jl jJl) from 
Casablanca, a resident of Casablanca 

4 _ r ,i- r * mabid, mibyad ovary (arta/.) 

i^aj tabylda fair copy 

O ^Uauji ibyitfad leukemia (med.) 

(j-ajb id'td pi. c^l^ bawd'id 2 (egg-) 

ji-** mubayyid pi, -£?i whitewasher; 
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of 
fair copy) 

u^. mubayyada fair copy 

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jkj baifara to practice veterinary science; 
to shoe (a a horse) 

jILj batyar pi. S^U baydpira veteri- 
narian; farrier 

fjj*~t baitarl veterinary | ^J^\ «-JJl 
(#&&) veterinary medicine; <£j*~>, vte^ 

S^^kj baitara veterinary science; farriery, * or J to s.o,, <~> for a price) III to 
make a contract (• with s.o,); to pay 
homage (<> to s.o.); to acknowledge as 
sovereign or leader (* s.o.), pledge alle- 
giance (» to) | S^jU-b 4 Mji (buy? a) he 
was acknowledged with homage as 
Caliph IV to offer for sale (a VI to 
agree on the terms of a sale, conclude a 
bargain VII to be sold, be for sale VIII to 
buy, purchase (<> a from s.o. and 
* « from s.o. | 4*-j1 Vj <c-» 9-UjI V 
[abtd'u, abVuhu) I don't trust him 

£j bai' pi. Pj*j buyu\ oIpjj buyu'at 
sale | J for sale; iij* (^b^ or) 9^3 
(jabrlya) forced sales, compulsory sale 
by auction; SU-b «^j {jumla) wholesale 
sale; jlJ-*b *j (kiydr) optional sale (/si. 
Law); »_i-lj ^V ^J (U-dkiri rdgibin) sale 
to the highest bidder; iu*Jl £j 6. aZ-'Sna 
credit operation {1st. Law) 

ouj bai'a conclusion of a bargain; busi- 
ness deal, commercial transaction, bar- 
gain; sale; homage, profession of loyalty, 
pledge of allegiance (to a ruler or head of 
state) | *a~JI J* into the bargain 

pL* bayya* salesman, merchant, dealer, 
commission agent, middleman 

ioL. mubaya r a pi. -at conclusion of 
contract; homage, profession of loyalty, 
pledge of allegiance (to a ruler or head of 
state) ; transaction 

£• Lul ibtiya* purchase 

£jlj 6aT pi. -un, *c\t bd r a seller, vendor ; 
dealer, merchant; salesman 

i*jl) baia saleswoman 

•^uk mab i'and pL* mubW sold; pi. oL- * 
sales | oUJJj ob jJLil (muStaraydt) buy- 
ing and selling (esp. stock market); Sjtai 
oUJ.1 iddrat at-m. sales management 

f- Li-* miibta' buyer, purchaser 

2 ^j b\a pi. -atf, ^j biya* (Chr.) church; 

jii-j biftek beefsteak 

ciJLj (Turk.) beg, bek pi. C;\jSLt begawat (syr.), 
be pi. behiwat (eg.) bey; see also *uj 

ij^S^o hekawiya (eg.) rank of bey 

*-*! liJL (Engl.) bik-ab pickup; record player, 

jl^j 6^Hr compass, (pair of) dividers 


> <^b£j 

«i£Lj (Fr.) 6i/;eA pique (fabric) 

tjSLt bekin, pekin Peking 

^Jj (Fr. fo'ZZe) &SZ ball | J^ ^^ &wm 6. ball 

2 4JLj blla see J^j 

(1)L-Lj bailasdn elder, elder tree (6of.) 

L-jL^Lj bilharsiyd bilharziasis, schistosomia- 
sis (med.) 

aJL (Fr. billc) bllya pi. -a< little ball, marble 

oU-j^j blmaristdn hospital; lunatic asylum 

HCfii) *jb 6awx i (OLj baydn) to be or be- 
come plain, evident, come out, come to 
light; to be clear (J to s.o.); d>j 6ctm, 
ijjija bainuna) to part, be separated 
(j- from) II to make clear, plain, visible, 
evident (a; to announce (a; 
to state (a; to show, demonstrate 
(a; to explain, expound, elucidate 
(a, throw light (a on); to separate, 

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clearly differentiate, set apart (^ a 
from) III to part, go away (» from), leave 
(* s.o.); to differ, be different (a, a from), 
be unlike (a); to contradict (a, 
be contrary (a to); to conflict, be at 
variance, be inconsistent (a with 

IV to explain, expound, elucidate (J a to s.o.); to separate, sift, distinguish 
(^ * from); to be clear, plain, 
evident; to speak clearly, understandably; 
to speak out, express distinctly (jt ) 

V to be or become clear, intelligible (J to 
s.o.) ; to turn out, prove in the end, appear, 
become evident; to follow (^» from), be 
explained (<y* by); to be olearly dis- 
tinguished (j- from); to seek to ascertain 
(a, try to get at the facts {* of); 
to eye or examine critical!}', scrutinize 
(a, « s.o.,; to look, peer (a at); 
to see through (a), see clearly, 
perceive, notice, discover, find out (a; 
to distinguish (<>* * from) VI to 
differ, be different, be opposed, be 
contrary; to vary greatly, ditfer widely; 
to vary, differ, fluctuate (^j between two 
amounts or limits) X to be or become 
clear, plain, evident, understandable; to 
make clear, clear up (a; to see, 
know, perceive, notice (a; pass. 
ustubina to follow clearly, be clearly seen 
(£* from) | oi J jLZ-l it became clear 
to him that . . . 

jv bain separation, division; interval; 
difference | ,>Ji olj enmity, disunion, 
discord; jJI J in the meantime, mean- 

(>j baina (prep.) or ,>> U, jy ^'s fi-ma 
b. between; among, amidst \j — &> either 
— or, partly — partly, e.g., >j j^xJI jS"* 
iSd-j CU*U? (samitin xva-mntakaUimin) 
some of the group were silent and some 
were talking; 4jJj Jo {yadaihi) in front 
of him, before him; in his presence; with 
him, on him, in his possession, e.g., oL* V 
4j0j <ju (silaha) he hasn't got a weapon 

on him, he is unarmed ; lilta ^ \~ t mean- 
while, in the meantime; iS J& jruj ^ ^ 
in my heart, at heart, inwardly; <uplji ju 
in his arms; Jjj ,y min bainihim from 
among them, from their midst; <>u ju 
something between, a cross, a mixture, 
a combination; neither good nor bad, 
medium, tolerable; <ju ^ ♦^ something 
between, a cross, a mixture, a combina- 
tion; {f*~J u^~ <jh (hlnin) and cSj Ju 
j^\j (waqtin wa-akara), <sjl-\j *j& ju 
(fatra, ukrd) at times, from time to time; 
*Wj rji Crt ^ {yaumin wa-lailatin) over- 
night, suddenly; j^-Tj #jj ^ L (iw- 
a&ara) from one day to the next, sudden- 
ly; ^Y 4pU1j <\ kUl i>i Lt between 9 
and 12 o'clock; ^^t o^i ^ {nahrain) 

joL. ma-bain look up alphabetically 

Ujj baina, \^x> bainamd (conj.) while; 

(jo bay y in clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; (pi. ►UjuI abyina 2 ) eloquent 

OIj bayan pi. -at clearness, plainness, 
patency, obviousness; statement, infor- 
mation (also, e.g., in a questionnaire, ^ 
about); declaration, announcement; man- 
ifestation; explanation, elucidation, illus- 
tration; expose; demonstration (of tech- 
nical devices, equipments, etc.); (official) 
report, (official) statement; communique, 
official bulletin (of a government); enu- 
meration, index, list; eloquence; jLJI the 
Koran; pi. oliLj data | 4JLJU-! oLj cor- 
rection (journ.); £JLl» oLj (mustarah) 
joint communique; (j*w oL> {suhujl) 
press release; 4*jLa>-! ^LjLj (ihm'iya) 
statistical data; IJj ^LjLj (raqmlya) 
numerical data; jLJI j* ^ (ganly) self- 
explanatory, self-evident; uLJl le 'ilm 
al-b. branch of Arab rhetoric, dealing 
with metaphorical language; (in general) 
rhetorical art of the Arabs; OLJ! JJst 
r atf alb. explicative apposition (gram,) 




jL; bayani explanatory, illustrative; 
rhetorical | 4JLj V>ia>- graphical repre- 
sentation (with lines, curves) 

iju bayyina pi. -at clear proof, indis- 
putable evidence; evidence (1st. Law); 
a document serving as evidence | <lu 
LSjU (zarfiya) circumstantial evidence; 
tUi J* as has been proved; ^ Ou J* o&~ 
to be fully aware of; to be well-informed, 
well-posted, up-to-date about 

O oL~» mibyan device for measurement 
and graphical representation (esp. of phys- 
ical events) j O <£•*& '-'W* (^M) psycho - 

(joi abyan 2 clearer, more distinct, more 

oUj tibydn exposition, demonstration, 
explanation, illustration 

(j^u tabytn and <uM *6awa exposition, 
demonstration, explanation, illustration 

^U tabdyun difference, unlikeness, dis- 
similarity, disparity 

^jLJ tabayuni different, differing, con- 

AJLJu-1 istibdna clarification, explanation 

oLJu-l istibydn poll, questioning or can- 
vassing of persons ; questionnaire 

£\s bain clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent; final, irrevocable (di- 
vorce ; Isl. Law) ; of great length | ^U 
<j_jk!i b. at-tul towering, of unusual 
height (person) 

iJL> baina bride's dowry 

Hjx* mabyuna distance 

J^ mubayyin pi. -at indicator | <y~* 
Sc^Jl m. as-sur'a speed indicator {techn.) 

^» mubln clear, plain, evident, ob- 
vious, patent | ^A\ c-jIiSOI the Koran 

^Lu wutabdyin dissimilar, unlike, dif- 
ferential, differing, varying 

8 oLj , ^jLj look up alphabetically 

^Luj see ^LSj 

j^j see j&i 

«uj (Turk.; = dL and <ilj) beh bey; (honorific 
address a ad title of courtesy) <uj b Sir! 
(after the name) <u* O^li Mr. So-and-so 

Ujj^ (Engl.) biyureh pur^e 

2 aj jjjj (Fr. pyorrhie) biyorek pyorrhea (med.) 

Wr^L^ biyolojiyd biology 

js-^Jj^ biyolojl biological 

a *j\ (j-J^j byunis airis Buenos Aires 

*£> abbreviation of Ojj&i telephone and ^j^J 
tisrln 2 (name of a month), \ o = L£s~* 
JjVi, r ^ = J^ 1 ^^" 

2 to (particle introducing oaths) by, *LU 
to-ZZaAt by God! 

»tt tS name of the letter £> 

tJJS (Fr. tableau) tabloh pi. -of painting; set 
(^eaf.); scene, number on a program 

C>ji\3 tdbut pi. Cju'jj tawdblt 2 box, case, 
chest, coffer; casket, coffin, sarcophagus | 
4^*J1 *^>*Ij t> al~ r ahd ark of the covenant; 
*LLI *ij CjjjU *. raf e al-miyah Archime- 
dean screw; !LSLJl Cj^jU t. as-sdqiya 
scoop wheel, Persian wheel 

ITj-jIj tabiyoka tapioca 

fct lata a to stammer (with fright) 


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^U see £jj 
ojj see j!j 
x jb IV j^J\ jtl (basara) to stare (* or J[ at 



! J> 

SjlJ tfaza (= »jll>; invar, for gender) fresh, 
tender, new 

jfa ta'q allergy (med.) 

il\3 tdha fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 
iilj ddka (dual nom. dijlj tdnika, genit., 
ace. <iJbu tainika) 

iS S\j taksi pi. -a£, (savd.-ar.) □ ^LSo 
takasi taxi 

j^Ij tambar see >J 

^LJl af-famtz the Thames 

Lj!>'U see Ulj^J 

(^U £% (magr.) tea |y-l ^U black tea 

jdjU and jJ^jU tailand Thailand 

^ bdi at-taimz the Thames 

j^jIj tat/oV and ^U fayer (Fr. tailleur) pi. -of 
ladies' tailored suit, tailleur 

c-J toftfo t {tabby ^j3 tabab, t^Lj ta6o"6) to 
perish, be destroyed X to stabilize, be 
stabilized, be or become stable; to be 
settled, established, well-ordered, regular, 
normal; to progress well | ^\ <d <_^X-I 
everything went well with him 

<d iJ tabban lahu! may evil befall him ! 
may he perish! 

^UJu-1 istitbdb normalcy, regularity, 
orderliness, order; stability; favorable 
course or development 

Cadi at-tibit Tibet 

^J tibiti Tibetan 

jy tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate (a 

jj tibr raw metal; gold dust, gold 
nuggets; ore 

jLJ tabar ruin, destruction 

hju tibriya dandruff 

y jJ tabriz 2 Tabriz (city in NW Iran, capital 
of Azerbaijan province) 

*^J tabi'a a (taba' t apLj taba'a) to follow, suc- 
ceed (e s.o., a, come after s.o. or (a, »); to trail, track (a, « s.o.,, 
go after s.o. or (a, a); to walk be- 
hind s.o. («); to pursue (a; to keep, 
adhere, stick (a to, observe (a; 
to follow, take (a a road), enter upon 
(a a road or course); to comply (a with; to belong, pertain (a to); to be 
subordinate, be attached (« to s.o.), be 
under s.o.'s (») authority or command, be 
under s.o. (*) | ^jjaJI *J (durusa) to 
attend classes regularly III to follow (a, 
« s.o.,; also = to keep one's mind 
or eyes on, e.g., on a development); to 
agree, concur (» with s.o., J* in, 
be in agreement or conformity (a, Jp 
with); to pursue, chase, follow up (» s.o., 
a; to continue (a; ej** sairahu 
on one's way), go on (a with or in) 
IV to cause to succeed or follow (in time, 
rank, etc.); to place (« s.o.) under s.o.'s 
(*) authority or command, subordinate 
(* 6 to s.o. s.o., a a to V to 
follow (a, esp. fig.: a topic, a devel- 
opment, the news, etc., = to watch, 
study); to pursue, trail, track (a, o s.o., ; to trace (a ; to be subordinate 
(a, o to), be attached (o to s.o.) VI to 
follow in succession, be successive or 
consecutive, come or happen successively; 
to form an uninterrupted sequence VIII to 
follow, succeed (* s.o., a, come 
after (a, o) ; to make (a be succeeded 
or followed ( <-> by else) ; to prosecute 
(« s.o.), take legal action (« against); to 
follow, obey, heed, observe, bear in 
mind (a; to pursue (a; to 




examine, investigate, study (a; 
pass, uttubi'a to have or find followers, 
adherents ( Jp for, e.g., for an idea) [ 
HL*L* ^Ji (siydsatan) to pursue a policy; 
aljc *ji (yaminahu) to keep (to the) 
right X to make (o s.o.) follow, ask (o s.o.) 
to follow; to seduce (« s.o,); to have as 
its consequence, engender, entail (a; to subordinate to o.s., make 
subservient to o.s. (a 

*J taba r succession; subordinateness, 
dependency; following, followers; sub- 
ordinate, subservient (J to; ^fJij 
successively, consecutively; J UJ taba'an 
U according to, in accordance with, 
pursuant to, in observance of; due to, in 
consequence of, as the result of; — 
{pi. 9-LJi atba*} follower, companion, 
adherent, partisan; subject, national, 
citizen; appertaining, appurtenant, per- 
tinent, incident 

L ^J taba'i: j^S ~>uJa£, ( e uquba) in- 
cidental punishment {jur.) 

a*J tabi" a pi. -at consequence; respon- 
sibility, responsibleness | J* **~JI Jil (alqd) 
to make s.o. or responsible 

ajaj tabi* pi. f\Z tiba following attach- 
ed, attending, adjunct; — (pi. >jLj ta* 
6aY 2 ) follower, adherent, partisan; aide, 
help, assistant, attendant, servant 

4-h-j taba'foja pi. -at subordination, 
subjection; subordinateness, dependency; 
state of being subject, of pertaining or 
belonging to (e.g., a group, class, 
country), affiliation; citizenship, nation- 
ality; v^Jb subsequently, afterwards; 
consequently, hence, therefore, accord- 

ULJ tiba' an in succession, successively, 
consecutively, one after the other, one 
by one 

4<o bu mutdba r a following, pursuing, pur- 
suit, prosecution; tracking; continuation | 

«_^jj-uJi Imjl* continuation training; iU^. 
a*jLu mahattat m, tracking station (for 

5-LjI ithd* {gram.) intensification by 
repeating a word with its initial con- 
sonant changed, such as katir batlr 

*Ju tatabbu* following (esp. fig., of an 
argument, of a development, see V 
above); pursuit; prosecution; succession, 
course | ^jbJl *JcJl the course of history; 
ZJaz Cj\jJJ Cadliya) legal action, pros- 

ajUj tatdbif succession; relay (athlet); 
a»IsJL consecutively, successively, in 
succession; serially, in serialized form [ 
£jlzJI UjL^ relay race (sport) 

f-Ljl ittibd* following; pursuit (e.g., of 
a policy); adherence (to), compliance 
(with), observance (of); J UlJl ittibd'an 
U according to, in accordance or conform- 
ity with, pursuant to, in observance of 

O j_^y ittibd' I classical 

O V^Lji ittibd' iy a classicism 

*>lJ tabi' pi. 4*J taba'a, pLT tubbd" fol- 
lowing, succeeding, subsequent; subsidi- 
ary, dependent; minor, secondary; sub- 
ordinate (J to s.o.), under s.o. (J); be- 
longing (J to); subject to s.o.'s (J) au- 
thority or competence; adherent (J to), 
following (J s.o. or; — (pi. f-Lj! 
atbd') adherent, follower, partisan; sub- 
ject, citizen, national; subordinate, serv- 
ant; factotum; (pi. £*)y) appositive 
(gram.); appendix, addendum, supple- 
ment; O function (math.) | 4*jtxJl Jj-Jl 
(duival) the satellite countries 

IUjIj tabi' a pi. ajI^j tawdbi'* female 
attendant, woman servant; a female de- 
mon who accompanies women; appurte- 
nance, dependency; consequence, effect, 
result; responsibility; — pi. *t\y depend- 
encies, dependent territories; Q satellites 
(pol.) f ™ .*j\jd\ Jj^Ji (duwal) the satellite 

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countries ; things of minor importance be- 
longing to; 4*jJjjj and t very thing else 
that belongs to it 

LajIj tdbi'iya nationality, citizenship 

9j~j* matbu r followed, succeeded (<-> 
by) ; one to whom service or obedience is 
rendered, a leader, a principal (as distin- 
guished from *»U subordinate) 

£jl£u mutatdbi f successive, consecutive; 
pi. olwbu sequence of pieces (nms.) 

*+z* muttaba' observed, adhered to, 
complied with (e.g., regulation, custom) ; 
followed, traveled (road, course) 

x Jd\ at-tatar and jtdl at-tatdr the Tatars 

ij tibg pi. 9jJ tubug tobacco 

JJ tabala i to consume, waste, make sick 
(*. s.o.; said of love) II, III and Jj_^j 
taubala to spice, season (a 

JjU tabal, tdbil pi. Jji^J iawdbil 2 cori- 
ander (bot.); spice, condiment, seasoning 

aijJ tabbula (syr., leb.) a kind of salad 
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion, 
lemon juice, spices, and oil 

J^. matbul (love-)sick, weak, ravaged, 

Jji* mutahbal spiced, seasoned, flavored; 
(syr., leb.) stuffed with a mixture of 
rice, chopped meat and various spices, 
e.g., J-j-X™. oL^iU (bddlnjdn) stuffed 

ojLS see *>1jIj 

(ju tibn chopped straw, chaff (for feed and 
building material) 

JJ tibni straw-colored, tlaxen 

jLJ tdbban straw vendor 

iiLxJl t^jj darb at-tabbuna the Milky 

^z^ maiban pi. ^bu v>atdbin 2 straw- 

tf^J tabiyokd tapioca 

(^^J tatarl Tatarian; Tatar 

2 ^jJ tatrd (from Jj) one after the other, 
successively, in succession 

jJbj titik trigger 

jZ tutun tobacco 

^yJu tetanus tetanus (med.) 

j*~ tajara u to carry on commerce III to do 
business, trade (* with s.o.) VIII to do 
business; to trade, deal (j or ^ in 

Zj\J. tijdra commerce; traffic, trade; 
merchandise | S^U- IjJ- a losing business 

<3j\£- tijdrl commercial, mercantile 
trade, trading, business (used attributive- 
ly); commercialized; commercially pro- 
fitable or productive; pi. Ojij^jf mer- 
chants, vendors, business people | £*u 
iSj^- (bait) commercial house, business 
house; ajjUjJI ifjL\ (haraha) trade, 
traffic; «jjb£ ^5 (sirha) trading com- 
pany; iSj^- 3\-£\ (ittifaq) trade agree- 

j>c* mat jar pi. j>-\z* matajir 2 business, 
transaction, dealing; merchandise; store, 

fjj^j* matjari commercial, trade, trad- 
ing, business (used attributively) 

«^>-U* mutajara commerce 

jljf I ittijdr trade, business (J or uin 

jj^-Ij tdjir pi. j\£ tujjdr, tijar merchant, 
trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman | 
SJU-I j3?\j t. al-jumla wholesale dealer; 
*jj>^}\ _^l> t. at-tajzia and -plk2JI j>-\j t. 
alqitd'% retailer 

«jj»-1j ipUaj bidd'a tdjira salable, market- 
able merchandise 

aLsi tujdha (prep.) in front of, opposite, face 
to face with, facing 

ss*C&*a jj^ j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° i Oi.J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


cJ- tahta (prep.) under; below, beneath, 
underneath | «j/>-sJI cJ- (tajriba) on 
probation; in an experimental state; 
j^k^\ c^- in preparation; iLU-1 £*£■ 
(hifz) in custody, under guard; ^Ij-Jl a^ 
(saddd), OjJUJdl c*£- due, outstanding, 
unsettled, unpaid (com.); ^KJ\ c^- 
under arms; -$*s* cJL (samihim) in 
their hearing, for them to hear; h j— Ul c-^ 
(taswiya) outstanding, unpaid, unsettled 
(com.); J»\j£\ £*J- (isrdfi) under the 
patronage or superintendence of; c*£- 
jyJiil subconscious; ^j^3 c*£- (tasar* 
rufiM) at his disposal; *JJi C*& (tob') in 
press; <I)lji* £*£■ ( r uniodni) under the title 
of; LJLc-1 c*& (afyunina) before our eyes; 
It j+£\ c^- in training; jJI c^ (yad) 
in hand, at hand, available, handy; cJ- 
eJU in his power; c*& y min tahti from 
under, from beneath; under 

£*£• tahtu (adv.) below, beneath, 

J^ tahti under- (in compounds) | »Lj 
^ infra -structure 

Jb£ tahtdni lower, under- (in com- 
pounds) | 4-Jb£ ^tiU underwear 

tuhutmis 2 Thutmose (king of Egypt) 

Ja£ IV to present ( j » 01 a t s.o. with 

\a£ tuhfa pi. jji^ tuhaf gift, present; 
gem (fig.), curiosity, rarity, article of 
virtu, objet d'art; work of art | ^Lii airf- 
{fanniya) unique work of art 

muthaf (also pronounced mathaf) 

pi. ci»-lu malahif 2 museum | **iJl 
m. as-sam* wax museum, waxworks 

£ fafc&a u to become sour, ferment (dough) 

ck takt pi, o^£ f^wf bedstead, bedframe; 
wooden sola, couchlike wooden bench; 
throne; dais, platform; (oriental) band, 
orchestra | cjLill *^ *■ at-tiyab ward- 
robe; dJiii LUs^ f. al-mulk throne; royal 

residence, capital; SSCLil cj£- t. al-mam* 
laka capital (of a country) 

h£ takta pi. cJ& tukat board; desk; 

fc£ taktaka to rot, decay 

b\jj^ taktarawan pi. -at sedan chair, palan- 
quin (litter for one person, borne on poles 
by two men or mules) 

1 'J- takima a to suffer from indigestion, feel 

sick from overeating IV to surfeit, satiate 
(e s.o.); to give (» s.o.) indigestion, make 
sick (* s.o.); to overstuff, cloy (* the 
stomach) VIII = I 

<j£ tukama, tukwa (also pronounced 
takma) pi. Jd tukam, >at indigestion, dys- 
pepsia; illness from overeating 

p^ju matkum suffering from indigestion, 

2 'J- takama i to fix the limits of (*), delimit, 

limit, confine, bound (* Ill to 
border (* on), be adjacent (* to 

'J- takm, tukm pi. *j£ tukum bound- 
ary, border, borderline, limit 

^-bi* mutakim neighboring, adjacent 

r-j-G tadrup, <>-jaj tadruja pheasant 

jaJ>$ tadmur 2 , usually pronounced tudmur 2 
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a 
small village) 

tjj*Si tadmuri, usually pronounced 
tudmurl anyone | tSj*^ V nobody, not 
a living soul 

lju\j (eg.; tarabeza) pi. -at table 

L>JU*-lJ trajediya, (eg.) tragediyd pi. -at tragedy 

jljju^'y (Ft. trage'dien) tragedydn (eg.) 
tragedian, tragic actor 

l»j>-\j trakoma trachoma (med.) 

\aj£~\j trdkoma = U^-ly 

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^\J (Ft. terrasse) ieras terrace 

fl/» iS^j*\j tram, tramway pi. -at tramway 

J^j\J tranzistar and jj^j\j tranzistor pi. 
-at transistor 

j-jjjLJIj'" transform pi. -at transformer (el.) 

<~>J tariba a to be or become dusty, covered 
with dust II and IV to cover with dust 
or earth (» s.o., a Ill to be s.o.'s 
(») mate or comrade, be of the same age 
(« as s.o.) Y to be dusty, be covered with 

t-V tirb pi. *-*\J\ atrdb person of the 
same age, contemporary, mate, com- 
panion, comrade 

<~>j tarib dusty, dust-covered 

as j turba pi. ^j turab dust; earth, 
dirt; ground (also fig.); soil; arable soil; 
grave, tomb; graveyard, cemetery, burial 

dkj turabl pi, ~iya (eg.) gravedigger 

u-ilj turab pi. *jj-"I atriba, diij" Urban 
dust, earth, dirt; ground, soil; (without 
pi.) home soil, territory (of a country) 

J>\J turabl dusty; dustlike, powdery; 
earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray; ter- 

l»)j turaba dust; O cement 

<~l J tariba pi. v-J'y tard'ib 2 chest, thorax 

<tj+ matraba poverty, misery, desti- 
tution; (pi. t->jli. matdrib 2 ) dirt quarry 

<->y. mutrib dusty, dust-covered 
^J tarbasa (= ^j-s) to bolt (a a door) 

^ybj tirbas pi. ,j*juiy tardbis*, ^ly" 
tardbis 2 bolt, latch (of a door or window) 

Cj^.J tarbantln turpentine 

tjuj ( e £7*) tarabeza table 

&ij turbin pi. -at turbine 

*t>\J see £>jj 

J J tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg'.) 

^■J tar jama to translate (a, ^ from 
one language J I to another) ; to interpret 
(a ; to treat (a of by way of 
explanation, expound (a; to write a 
biography (J of s.o., also •) 

i^y tarjama pi. ^\J tarajim 2 trans- 
lation; interpretation; biography (also 
• Li- 1 5>y); introduction, preface, fore- 
word (of a book) | IJU ,„JI 4j^J]\ (sab'lntya) 
the Septuagint; Sjli U»y (datlya) auto- 

jls^y turjumdn pi. <*;ly tarajima, 
f?r\j tarajim 2 translator, interpreter 

frS* nxutarjim translator, interpreter; 

frJZ> mutarjam translated | J* ^-JU 
^UJI (film) synchronized (film) 

h^J etc. see b-L»-iy 

£j tariha a (tarah) and V to grieve, be sad 
II and IV to grieve, distress (<> s.o.) 

^>J tarah pi. -lyl atrah grief, distress, 

£iJ^» £1j!> and (/^jIj see under £jl 

^jy" tarzi pi. 4j jy tor5!it/a (eg,) tailor 
4j jy tarziya tailoring 

\ - rb'" look up alphabetically 

*tj-7 H to provide with a shield or armor 

^5 turs pi. j-lyi a(m«, ^jy" ft«*u$ 
shield; disk of the sun; — firs pi. ftmw 
cogwheel, gear-wheel; pi. gear (techn.) \ 
o"J^ fjj* gearshift lever; ^-j^II J*U gear- 
shift ; ij*jjl\ 3jX~*> sunduq at-t. gearbox, 
transmission; ^yil tic* samak at-turs 
turbot (zool.) 

^y* matras, mitras pi. ^jbu mataris 2 
and ^\ j* mitras pi. ^jbu matdris 2 bolt, 

«w£o jjV j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj 01^3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° < CHy cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cP^ ^Svpwo 



door latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade; 

esp. pi. ^jli* barricades 

ILy tirsdna and tarsana (obs. SJlifJ" fetrs* 
Hwa) pi. -af arsenal; shipyard, dockyard 

jC-y {Fr. tricycle) tricycle 

j</ (It. term) terso (eg.) 3rd class (in trains); 
cheapest seats in movies or theater 

3^*/ (!*• terraszino) tarasina balcony 

fy" tari'a a to be or become full (vessel) 
IV to fill (a, esp. a .vessel) 

"**j tufa pi. fj tura', -at canal; 
artificial waterway j jI_/VI "*£>j t. al-irad 
feeder, irrigation canal; <Jai J ^\ a&J 
drainage canal (Eg.); lh mJ J$i\ 4£.Ji\ the 
Residence of the Sultan of Morocco 

Jyu mutra f filled (^ with), full (^ of) 

J* j , <U J" turgul, turgulla turtledove 

J$J tar if a a to live in opulence, in luxury 
IV to effeminate (* s.o.); to provide with 
opulent means, surround with luxury 
(. s.o.) V = I 

<J»y taraf and *»y turfa luxury, 
opulence, affluence; effemination 

J* J tarif opulent, sumptuous, luxu- 

<J»JU mutraf living in ease and luxury ; 
luxurious; luxuriously equipped {<_-» with) ; 
pi. oyJ^i\ the rich 

j*Uy tirfds (magr.) truffle [hot.) 

Jiy tarfala to strut 

•jiy tarquwa pi. <$\J tardqin collarbone, 

clavicle (anat) 

] ily taraka u (tark) to let be, leave, relinquish, 
renounce, give up, forswear (a; to 
desist, refrain, abstain (a from; 
to leave, quit (t s.o., a a place); to leave 
out, omit, drop, neglect, pass over, 
skip (jt; to leave (J or Jf a to); 

to leave behind, leave, bequeath, make 
over (a, J to s.o.; as a legacy) | 
J*jjj <&] to let s.o. do; Jl lil£- £jy 
to leave one place for (another) ; «c* j j Sj 
(fl dimmatihi) to leave in s.o.'s care, 
leave to s.o.; JU- J* aSj to leave or s.o. unchanged, leave or 
s.o. alone; 4JUj *Sj (wa-kCnahu) to 
leave s.o. alone, leave s.o. to his own 
devices; ^>j\A\ Jp JJ-i 6J (habla) to 
give free rein, impose no restraints, let 
things take their course; J* *L>- i\J 
<jjU to give free rein to s.o. or; *&J 
LJU- to leave aside III to leave 
(* s.o.); to leave alone (* s.o.); to leave off 
hostilities (o against s.o.) 

iSj tark omission, neglect; relinquish- 
ment, abandonment; leaving, leaving be- 

ify tarika pi. -at (also tirka) heritage, 
legacy, bequest 

&jy tarika pi. dUly tard'ik 2 old maid, 

SSjl^t mutaraka truce 

4j>. ruatruk pi. -a£ heritage, legacy 

2 iiy II to Turkify, Turkicize (• s.o.) X to 
become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt 
Turkish manners and customs 

iiyjl at4urk and illJVl al-atrdk the 

Jy* turki Turkish; Turk; <Sj^\ at-tur* 
klya theTurkish language 

\jfj turkiyd Turkey 

dXiJS tatrlk Turkification 

ySy trakta/r and jjS'j traktor pi. -at tractor 

b\s*Sj turkistdn 2 Turkistan 

0U5"yil at-titrkumdn the Turkmen 

-U-»y turumbet (syr.) pi. -af (Western) drum; 
ik~-.y tvrumbeta (eg.) pi. -a( do.; specif., 
bass drum 

xw&o jjV jl Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- c"* J^'j^i cPVa ^Svpwo 



^j^a^J turumbafgi (eg.) drummer; 
bandsman (mil.) 

{J ^J turmw, ^j*J turmus lupine (hot.) 

ji*j*j termumitr thermometer 

fij turunj see rj\ y £j\ 

tj tariha a to concern o.s. with trifles 

**j turraha pi. -at sham, mockery, 
farce ; He, humbug, hoax, fairy tale 

•*\jj (Ft. Troade) tirwdda Troy 

»_jj J (Engl, troop) squad, platoon ; squadron | 
i£j\j»* *~>jj (sawdrl) cavalry squadron 

^.ix^ajJ = ^Sh^aJ see under Ja-**./ above 

3\ij tirydq theriaca; antidote 

j&J (Ft.) tricot 

<**3 tis'a (f. «*J tis f ) nine 

jj& a**J tis'ata "aSara, f. IjZ* **J tis'a 
'oJrata nineteen 

*~J tus r pi. fLJl atea* one ninth, the 
ninth part 

j^-J Us'un ninety 

oLujwZJI at-tis'inat the nineties (decade 
of a century) 

£-bdl at-tasi the ninth 

iLU &sa<£ Chad (country in Africa) 

JjVl (>_r^ tiSrin 2 al-awwal October, {j j£ 
<JWI t. at-tani November (Syr., Ir., Leo., 

LS'lijL'jSiJiS isekoslovdkiyd Czechoslovakia 

^U^L-jSCjsJ tsekoslovdki Czechoslovak- 

^iS tslkl Czech (adj.) 

J-±J twK Chile; Chilean (adj.); (pi. -un) a 

oljU titwdn 2 Tetu6n (city in N Morocco) 

«j abbreviation of JUl, see ^1p 

._^J to'fta a (ta'ab) to work hard, toil, slave, 
drudge, wear o.s. out; to be or become 
tired, weary (j- of IV to trouble, 
inconvenience (» s.o.); to irk, bother, 
weary, tire, fatigue (« s.o.) 

»_^J ta'db pi. fcyiUI at* afe trouble, exertion, 
labor, toil, drudgery; burden, nuisance, 
inconvenience, discomfort, difficulty, 
hardship; tiredness, weariness, fatigue; 
pi. i_jUjI fees, honorarium 

<_***» ta'lb and uLjJ ta'bdn tired, weary, 

^li. matd'ib 2 troubles, pains, efforts; 
discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties, 
troubles; complaints, ailments, ills (at- 
tending disease) ; hardships, strains 

i_^cu mutfib troublesome, inconvenient, 
toilsome, laborious; burdensome, irk- 
some, annoying; wearisome, tiresome, 
tiring; tedious, dull, boring 

»_^cl» mufab tired, weary 

£i*j ta'ta'a to stammer; to shake (* s.o.); 
*r*jl itta r ta f a to move, stir 

^*j ta'izz 2 Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of 

^^ ta'asa a, ta'isa a to fall, perish; to 
become wretched, miserable; ta'asa and 
IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin 
(ft s.o.) 

^-^J ta's and *^Uj ta'dsa wretchedness, 

^^aj ta'is and ^^^J ta'ls pi. #LjJ 
tu'asd' 2 wretched, miserable, unfortunate, 

^^cu mat' us pi. (j-^b* mata'is 2 wretch- 
ed, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy 

Ju taffa to spit II to say "phew" 

tJJ tuff dirt under the fingernails; 

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<fi! Ltt tuff an laha phew ! fie on you I 
O *i^ taffafa spittoon, cuspidor 

bij tafetta. alsJu taffeta 

t\m tuff ah (coll.; n. un. 5) pi. -at, ^-JUj tafa= 
fih 2 apple (s) 

&u tfw/£a pi. ^La; (w/afc (ir.) gun, rifle 

Jij ta/aila u i {tafl) to spit 

Jij fw/Z and JU> £«/a£ spit, spittle, saliva 
Jij fa/iZ ill-smelling, malodorous 
Uiu mitfala spittoon, cuspidor 

*ij (o/tfta a {tafah, SaUJ tafdha, tyS tufuh) to 
be little, paltry, insignificant; to be flat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid 

am tafah and «jij tufuh paltriness, 
triviality, insignificance 

hXJH tafdha paltriness, triviality, in- 
significance; flatness, vapidity, insipidity, 
tastelessness ; inanity, stupidity, silliness 

<uS tafih and *ilJ tdfih little, paltry, 
trivial, trifling, insignificant; worthless; 
commonplace, common, mediocre; flat, 
tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal 

<uj1 atfah 2 more trivial, insignificant; 
commoner; more tasteless 

tp\5 tdfiha pi. 4a\jj tawdfih 2 worthless 
thing; triviality, trifle 

^jUj see ^y 

<1a> see JS 

J& IV to perfect, bring to perfection (a ; 
to master, know well (*, e.g., a 
language), be proficient, skillful, well- 
versed {> in 

Ju tiqn skillful, adroit 

J£ taqnl technical; (pi. -un) engineer, 

^Ljl> taqniya pi. -at technique {also 
artistic); perfection 

4JUJ taqdna firmness, solidity; per- 

^ySl atqan 2 more perfect, more thorough 

uUi'l itqan perfection; thoroughness, 
exactitude, precision; thorough skill, 
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of 
a special field, of a language) | iU J 
oU'Vl to greatest perfection; of excellent 

j^ mutqan perfect; exact, precise 

JJ taqa i to fear (esp. God) VIII see jj 

JJ taqiy pi. »Laj1 atqiya' 2 God-fearing, 
godly, devout, pious 

J3l atqd more pious 

JJ tuqan and <jj£ taqwd godliness, 
devoutness, piety 

X SS takka u to trample down, trample under- 
foot, crush (a; to intoxicate (o s.o.; 

2 <So tikka pi. jJSo tikak waistband (in the 
upper seam of the trousers) 

8 iiJ takka to tick (clock) 

& tikka pi. -at ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

4 i-So look up alphabetically 

OjSo tukilt pi. of Engl, ticket 

1 dk& taktaka to trample down, trample 
underfoot {a 

2 ciJb^J taktaka to bubble, simmer (boiling 

3 ^iJb^o taktaka to tick (clock) 

<££o taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a 
clock), ticking noise 

l di^3 taktlk tactics 

l JLx$J taktlkl tactical 
j^$J (Engl.) tilcarz tickers, teletype {techn.) 

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iLSo see JTj 

Jo! L»y>So tiknoqrat technocrat 

U-^Jj^j tiknolojiyd and ^-jJ^So tikndtojlya 

^jij^j tiknoldji technological 

*jjJL5o taknik pi. -at technique {also artistic) ; 
technical process 

iLSo takiya pi. UI& idk&yd monastery (of a 
Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum 
(for the invalided or needy) 

X J; taZJ pi. «J^J fiZa7, J^jI o^^» Jjij falul 
hill, elevation | ^jul J: t. abib Tel Aviv 
(city in W Israel) 

"Aj ialla heap 

2 Jj ta?Z tulle 

Jj^Hj taldtil 2 hardships, troubles, adversities 

juIj talid, oJtt ZaZtd!, ^^J tilM inherited, time- 
honored, old (possession, property) 

k^JSLJj tiliskub, teliskob pi. -at telescope 
Jj£-Jj tiliskubi, teliskobl telescopic 

J? IV to stretch one's neck; to crane (a the 

hti taVa pi. f-itt ffi' hill, hillside, 
mountainside; (torrential) stream 

*J^ ta£i e long, outstretched, extended; 
high, tall 

J>\jik tiligrdf, taligrdf pi. -af telegraph; 
telegram, wire, cable | J I li'yij J-jl to 
send a wire to 

ji^iij tiligrafl, taligrafi telegraphic 

Caki talifa a (talaf) to be annihilated, be 
destroyed; to be or become damaged or 
spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken, 
go to pieces II to ruin (a; to wear 
out, "finish" (* s.o.) IV to destroy, an- 
nihilate (a; to ruin, damage, spoil, 
break (a; to waste (a 

,Jiij talaf ruin, destruction; ruination, 
damage, injury, harm; loss; waste 

jUJ£ talfdn spoiled; useless, worthless, 

uJtbu matlaf, Siii. matlafa pi. (JJU* 
matdlif 2 desert 

o^l» mitldf wastrel; ruinous, harmful, 

Js^jl itldf pi. -&t annihilation, de- 
struction; damage, injury, harm 

<Jo)\j tdlif ruined, damaged, broken; out 
of order, kaput ; spoiled 

Js^JbL. matluf and ^Jbu mutlaf ruined, 
damaged, broken; out of order, kaput; 

JAia muilif annihilator, destroyer; 
injurer; damaging, ruinous, harmful, 
injurious, noxious 

_$5 talfaza to televise, transmit by television 
Sjilj talfaza television 

ijiij Splii ida'a talfazlya television 
broadcast, telecast 

O jLoAj tilfdz television set 

o^ijilj (Ft. UUvision) tilivizyon, tdevizym, 
talavizyon television, telecast; (pi, -at) 
television set, TV 

Jjj^iij tilivizyonl etc. TV- (in com- 
pounds) | <J>jJ^j icljl (ida'a) television 
broadcast, telecast 

l y\S talfana to telephone 

bjiki tili fun, telefon, tali f on and bjJtJj 
pi. -at telephone 

JjiJU tilifuni, telefoni and OjaJj tele- 

*UJ£ , JUJLj and aJ\j^ see under JJ 

iliij tilka fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 

,j-5IIj and ^-Syj te/efc* telex 

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^ tahm pi. **£)\ atldm (plow) furrow 

ijj talmada to take on as, or have for, a 
pupil or apprentice (« s.o.); to be or 
become a pupil or apprentice (J of s.o., 
also J*), receive one's schooling or 
training (Jp, J from) II tatalmada to be 
or become a pupil or apprentice (J or 
»^i J* of s.o.), work as an apprentice 
(J or »4j Jp under s.o.) 

»jUJ talmada school days, college 
years; apprenticeship; (time of) proba- 

JUL? tilmad learning, erudition 

•LJj tilmid pi. jL»^\J taldmid 2 , Siotf tald* 
mida pupil, student, apprentice; proba- 
tioner; trainee; disciple; cadet (Ir.; mil.) 

sljjj tilmida pi. at pupil (fern.) 

OLJLi tilimsdn 2 Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria) 

ijjj talmud Talmud 

& taWut a (talah) to be astonished, amazed, 
perplexed, at a loss 

<JU tdlih and <JLu mutallah at a loss, 
bewildered, perplexed | JJUI *}\3 t. aVaql 
absent-minded, distracted 

{jk) ^j laid u (Jj tuluw) to follow, succeed; 
to ensue; — (»y>tf tildwa) to read, read 
out loud (a, J* to s.o.); to recite 
(a VI to follow one another, be 
successive X to continue | J>Sj JiUl he 
went on saying, he continued with the 
words . . . 

jIj tilwa (prep.) after, upon | J-jl 
(_jbT JS bL3"to send letter after letter 

»j^ tildwa reading; public reading; 
recital, recitation (esp. of the Koran) 

JU tdlin following, succeeding, sub- 
sequent, next; JLxJb bi-t-tdli then, later, 
subsequently; consequently, hence, there- 
fore, accordingly 

Jlru mutatalin successive, consecutive 

J3 (Turk, tdli) talli (eg., tun.) glittering 
fabric with interwoven gold or silver 

JLij tilibatl telepathic 

(J *x1j tallis, tillis pi. ^-jJ^j talalis* sack 

itjjUj [Ft, UUf&rique) cableway, funicular 

OjiJaJj and JjjJ-^ see j^jiij 

OjiJS and Jji^ see dyiiS 

r tamma i to be or become complete, com- 
pleted, finished, done; to be performed, 
be accomplished (J by s.o.); to come to 
an end, be or become terminated; to 
come about, be brought about, be 
effected, be achieved, come to pass, come 
off, happen; to take place; to be or be- 
come a fact ; to come into being, be con- 
cluded (contract); to persist (Jp in); to 
continue (J* or to do II and 
IV to complete, finish, wind up, conclude, 
terminate (*; to make complete, 
supplement, round out, fill up (a; 
to carry out, execute, perform, accom- 
plish, achieve (a X to be complete, 
completed, finished 

l*U tamam completeness, wholeness, 
entirety, perfection; full, whole, entire, 
complete, perfect; separate, independent; 
L.U tamdman completely, entirely, whol- 
ly, perfectly, fully, quite; precisely, 
exactly | fle"j-U {badr) and flc" ^J (qamar) 
full moon ; ILoUi apUI /»U" j at 6 o'clock 
sharp; aJ&1 ^. *£,» {ma'na l-kalima) 
in the full sense of the word; flplj 
entirely, completely 

Z*-c" tamima pi. f U" tamd'im 2 amulet 

f 1 atamm 2 more complete, more per- 
fect | jl-ui^i <\ Jp perfectly prepared, 
totally readv 

^uij tatimma completion; supplementa- 
tion; — (pi. -at) supplement ; final episode, 
continuation and end (e.g., of an article 
or a serial) 

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,^i3 tatmlm completion; perfection; 
consummation, execution, fulfillment, re- 
alization, effectuation, accomplishment 

flc"! itmdm completion; perfection; ter- 
mination, conclusion; consummation, ex- 
ecution, fulfillment, realization, effectu- 
ation, accomplishment 

ft*-<1 istitmdm termination, conclu- 

fU tdmm complete, perfect, entire; con- 
summate; of full value; self-contained, 
needing no completion (gram.) 

liLc" tumbdk Persian tobacco (esp. for the 

j^c tambar and 

mutambar see _jCj, 

jjc" tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to 
recite under one's breath (<_> 

<*Tjc tamtama murmuring, babble 

j£ m tamr (coll.; n. un. 2, pi. tamardt, jjx" tu* 
mur) dates, esp. dried ones | <££** ^x 
(kindi) tamarind (bot.); tamarind juice 
(a refreshing drink) 

^jj? (eg. tamargi), ^jj£, ^jW* tfrj*y 
pi. -ya male nurse, hospital attendant; 
5-^-jX* pi. -at female nurse 

jjx look up alphabetically 

*\~j: timsdh pi. t^U" tamasih 2 crocodile 

lix' tamga stamp; stamp mark | <ix" 3jj 
waraq t stamped paper 

j* tumman rice 

Jjjc" tammuz 2 July (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.) 

y tunn tuna (zool.) 

%jcj tinnln pi. ^u\£ tandnin 2 dragon; Draco 
(astron.); waterspout (meteor.); see also 

*j\3 tani' pi. »Uj tunna resident 
,_j^J tannub (coll.; n. un. 5) fir (bot.) 

fJLu tunbdk (pronounced tumbdk) and dLu 
tumbak Persian tobacco (esp. for the 

JLju tiribal pi. J^bJ tandbll 2 short, of small 

jCj (Pr. timbre) tambar pi. ,/hj tandbir* 
(magr.) stamp; duty stamp; postage 

jCSjk mutambar (magr.) stamped, post- 
marked; postage paid (letter) 

JJu (Turk. Umbel) tambal pi. iLLS tandbih 
lazy; idler, lazy fellow 

^i^^S (Ft. tungstene) tongdsten tungsten 

1x1 (It. tenda) tanda awning; roofing, sun roof 

jj£ tannur pi. ^Uj tandnir 2 a kind of 
baking oven, a pit, usually clay-lined, 
for baking bread 

*jj£ tannura (syr. y leb.) (lady's) skirt 

Li |>j tanzdniyd Tanzania (country in E Africa) 
Jljv tanzdnl Tanzanian (adj. and n.) 

^Ju tenis tennis | SJjUaJI ^Ju (. at-tdumla table 
tennis, ping pong 

1 iikS tanak tin plate; (syr.-leb.) jerry cans 
made of tin plate 

«SoJ tanaka pi. -at tin container, can; 
tin pot; jerry can; (syr.-leb.) can made of 
tin plate; (eg.) (copper) coffee pot | &j 
jU (syr.-hb.) gasoline can 

j^Soj tanakjl pi. -lya tinsmith, white- 

2 ^iilJ tdnika see iJU alphabetically 

lj£ tanwa coffee dregs, grounds 

t r»Ju tennis 

^Xj tannin tannin, tannic acid 

■cuT tahtaha to stammer, stutter 

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1 !L^ tuhma pi. .^ tuham accusation, charge ; 
suspicion; insinuation 

r <Af tihama? Tihama, coastal plain along 
the southwestern and southern shores of 
the Arabian Peninsula 

\y tawwan right away, at once, immediately ; 
just (now), this very minute | yH\ li-t- 
tawwi at once, right away, also with pers. 
suffixes: ^yi H-tatowi, Uj=J li-tawwiha 
(I have, she has) just ... ; at once, pres- 
ently, immediately;^! J straight, directly 

cJl^j (Ft. toilette) tuwalet toilette 

Ay, **y tau'am, f. I, pi. *\jt tawaim? twin 
lAy imiama {Magr.) formation of a 
partnership (e.g., between two cities) 

Ay* mutau'am {Magr.) joined in part- 

{^y) <— jLj taba u {<~>y taub, <ty tauba, ^bu 
matdb) to repent, be penitent, do pen- 
ance; with ^: to turn from (sin), be 
converted from, renounce, forswear; (said of God) to restore to His 
grace, forgive (Jp s.o.) | Zi\ Jl <-jLj to 
turn to God in repentance II to induce 
to repentance or penitence, make repent 
(a s.o.) X to call on s.o. (o) to repent 

4iji tauba repentance, penitence, con- 
trition; penance 

<-j>\y tawwab doing penance; repentant, 
penitent, contrite; forgiving, merciful 

*_-jIj tcfib repentant, penitent, contrite 

^y see JJ 

^yyy tobografiyd topography 

x Ojj tut mulberry tree; mulberry | <^jl £>y 
(ardi) and ^jil £jy (ifranji) straw- 
berry; Jj^i Cjjj ($auki) and jJUJI c*>y 
t. al-ullaiq raspberry {syr.) ; ^Li Ojj mul- 
berry juice (a refreshing drink) 

2 Ojj tut the first month of the Coptic calendar 

Lj^j tutiya, A^y tvtiyd* > ^Jt tviiya zinc 

rjj II to crown (« s.o.; also fig. »-* * 
with) V to be crowned 

r-lJ taj pi. jU-J tijan crown; miter (of 
a bishop) | $y+*l\ r-Lj t. al-*amud capital 
(of a column or pilaster); ZJ&\ g\S t. al- 
kura calotte 

^U taj I coronal | »_JLaiI ,_j>-Ij d\jj£ 
[Bryan) coronary artery (anat.) 

«j^j tuwaij pi. -at little crown, coronet ; 
corolla (bof.) 

£y£ tatwij crowning, coronation 

y>-y togo (Eg. spelling) Togo (country in 
W Africa) 

xlyry togoland former designation of 

{f-Ji) ?»-Lj see jw-j 

SjLj taratan once; sometimes, at times | 
SjlJ— SjU, \jy* — »jLj (tauran), (£j>-* — »jLj 
(ukrd) sometimes — sometimes, at times 
— at other times 

2 \jy taurdh Torah, Pentateuch ; Old Testament 

JUj^, ^jy turpid, turbid torpedo (sub- 
marine missile) 

s>jjjj iurbin pi. -at turbine 

<>jy torta pi. -at pie, tart 

yiy togo = yrj> 

( Jjj) JU tdqa u (tauq, d\Zy tawaqdn) to long, 
yearn, wish (Jl for), hanker (Jl after), 
desire, crave, covet (Jl, strive 
(Jl for), aspire (Jl to) 

3y tauq, OU_y tawaqdn longing, yearn- 
ing, craving, desire 

3\y tawwdq longing, yearning, eager 
(Jl for), craving ( Jl 

y\3 td'iq longing, yearning, eager (Jl 
for), craving (Jl 

IL.LI 'Sy itoka amdmiya; eg . ) belt buckle {mil.) 

ss*c£*a jjV jl Cuio Jj&L&a jj OU-3-03-0 $y2Xa$ ^3-Uoo < (j^j-° cr* 4 ' 6t^'j*!5 cP^ ^Svpwo 


Jy tut tulle 

vS?j*y see ijrj* 

by tun and ijji tuna tuna (zool.) 

£ji (Turk. tun$) tunj bronze 

^Jjj taunasa to make Tunisian, Tunisify 
(a, o s.o., 

^Ji tunus 2 , tunis 2 Tunis; Tunisia 

^jj tunusi, tunisl pi. -im, LJljJ fowa* 
nisa Tunisian (adj. and n.) [ 4jjj+J~\ 
4+Jy$\ (jumhuriya) Republic of Tunisia 

aJJj tuniya pi. j\ji tawani alb of priests and 
deacons (Chr.) 

(>y) *U taha u and II = (v) »U fa^a t and II 

i*^j (£Aa daughter 
jj-"Lj (It. fea(ro) Uyatro theater 
D JxjJ taM pi. JSU see J^u 
^^jUju tltdnus tetanus (med.) 

(«J) ^U id&a i to be destined, be foreor- 
dained (by fate, by God; J to s.o.); to be 
granted, be given (J to s.o.) IV to destine, 
foreordain (* J to s.o.; to grant, 
afford, offer (a J s.o.; to vouchsafe, 
make possible (J * for s.o.); pass. 
utiha to be destined, be foreordained, be 
granted, be given ( j to s.o.) | jJyJI <*J ^jI 
(utiha) he met with success, he was 
successful; <^yi\ *J ry! (fursa) he was 
given the opportunity, he had the chance 
»-\u mutdh granted, given (J to s.o.); 
bestowed by nature (e.g., mineral re- 
sources, energy sources); available (e.g., 

jLJ tayyar pi. -a* flow, stream , course, current, 
flood ; fall (of a stream) ; movement, tend- 
ency, trend; draft (of air); (el.) current | 
O ^L* jLj (mvba&ir) and ^-^ jLJ 
(mustamirr) direct current; O *->j\x* jI~j 
(mutanawib) and O >*=■* jW> {muta* 
gayyir) alternating current; O v^** 5 * ->W* 

(mutadabdib) oscillating current (d.); 
O ^^ jV (ndbid) pulsating current; 
O iJj^l Ai^ jLj (sarif at-iaraddud) 
high-frequency current; O -"JJl * ( _ s l*; jLj 
(bats' at-taraddud) low -frequency current; 
O -U^ J^ jW C 5 ^ Z-?oM) high-ten- 
sion current; O M^ *J^J J^? ( w& ft 
al-jahd) low-tension current; O <j'i jU 
(daft) self- induced current 

Ojb mafar (syr.) dynamo, generator 

»>j (Turk. fe?/ze) feza maternal aunt 

^j-jJ (aw pi. (j-Ljl atyds, ^jJ tuyus billy goat 
{J .m\ atyas 1 foolish, crazy 

ijiji-Jl -J-l al-humma t-tifudiya typhoid fever 

^jiJ tljus typhus 

1 dLj (tfca fern, of the demonstrative pronoun 

2 tiiJ iifc teakwood 

1 jj II (from Turk, fe£) to cable, wire, tele- 
graph (syr.) 

2 JJ til (eg.) flax; linen 

4JL? ilia (eg.) fiber, staple (esp. of cotton) 

1 (^J) |»U Jama i (taim) to become enslaved', 
enthralled by love; to enslave, make 
blindly subservient ( * s.o. ; through 
love) II to enslave, enthral (love; * s.o.); 
to make blindly subservient, drive out 
of his mind, infatuate (e s.o.; love) 

-ju mutayyam enslaved, enthralled (by 
love), infatuated 

2 *\^ taima' 2 Taima (oasis in NW Arabia) 

^jV: see ^j£ 

^J tin (coll.; n. un. •) fig | Sj^ u? (*»«&) 
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficua 
indica Haw.) 

ijjbj tainika see ilU alphabetically 

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(«lj) i\j tdha i to get lost, wander about, lose 
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander 
(thoughts); to waver, vacillate (<>j be- 
tween two feelings); to escape (j* s.o.), 
slip (j* s.o.'s memory); to perish, be 
lost; to be perplexed, startled, as- 
tonished; to be haughty; to swagger, 
boast, brag (Jp tos.o.) j i.Uul <$>-j Jp «tJu 
a smile flits over his face II to mislead, 
lead astray (« s.o.); to distract, divert 
(* s.o.); to confuse, confound, bewilder 
(» s.o.) IV -= II 

4-j tih desert, trackless wilderness; 
maze, labyrinth; haughtiness, pride 

»LJ tayydh straying, stray, wandering; 

olfJ taikdii 2 straying, stray, wandering; 
perplexed, at a loss, bewildered; proud, 

♦L^J taiha 2 a trackless, desolate region 

i*b> matdha pi. -at maze, labyrinth; a 
trackless, desolate region 

<uU taih straying, stray, wandering, 
roving, errant ; lost in thought, distracted, 
absent-minded; lost, forlorn; haughty j 
O *JkJI w^a*Jl ( r asab) the vagus nerve 

^^jJ (Engl.) tulip 

ti abbreviation of 4~JtJ second (time unit) 

*\j td" name of the letter & 

lJj ta'iba a (i_jIj la'b) and VI to yawn 

•LjJ tuabd' 2 yawning, yawn; fatigue, 

jU ta'ara a {tar) to avenge the blood of 
(• or oj), take blood revenge («oru for 
s.o. killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. 
(u* « on s.o. for, also ,y» or J for) IV and 
VIII jUl ittcCara to get one's revenge, 
be avenged 

jU tar pi. -at, _>T}i at'dr, jUT dtfar re- 
venge, vengeance, blood revenge; re- 
taliation, reprisal | »Jj JU-I or jtsJb -JU-! 
to take revenge, avenge o.s.; jtiJI SijL. 
mubdrdt at4. return match (sports) 

J\j td*ir avenger 

JjJjJ tu'lul and SJ^Jj tu'ltUa pi. JJD ta'alil* 

<<t; to'a scars 

.u tabata u (oLJ tabdt, CjjJ tvbvi) to stand 
firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable, 
unshakable, firm, strong, stable; to hold 
out, hold one's ground (J against s.o. or, be firm, remain firm (<J toward s.o. 
or, withstand, resist, defy (J s.o. 
or; to be established, be proven 
(fact); to remain, stay {»-> at a place); 
to maintain (Jp, keep, stick, ad- 
here ( Jp to, abide or stand by 
(Jc; e.g., by an agreement); to insist 
(Jp on) | *4>-j J C-a? {f I wajhihi) to 
hold one's own against s.o., assert o.s. 
against s.o.; **j*rj C-uj (wujuduhu) to 
exist definitely, be certain, proven II to 
fasten, make fast, fix (a; to con- 
solidate, strengthen (*; to stabilize 
(a ; to fix (a a film or print ; phot.) ; to 
confirm, corroborate, substantiate (a; to appoint permanently (« s.o.; to 
an office) ; to prove, establish (a, de- 
monstrate, show (<l)b that) ; to prove 
guilty, convict (Jt a defendant); to con- 
firm {Ghr.) | 4j ip/su C~u {basarahu) to 

xw&o jjV j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- c"* J^'j^i cPVa ^Svpwo 


fix one's eyes on, gaze at; v 1 * ^ ($ a * 
datnaihi) to gain a foothold IV to estab- 
lish, determine (a; to pinpoint (a, 
e.g., a place) ; to assert as valid or authen- 
tic, affirm (a; to confirm, corrobo- 
rate, substantiate (a; to prove (Jp * to s.o.; J to s.o., <j1 that); to demon- 
strate, show (a; to furnish compe- 
tent evidence (a for); to bear witness, 
attest (a to); to acknowledge (a, 
e.g., a qualification, a quality, J in s.o.), 
concede (J a to s.o.) ; to prove guilty, 
convict (Jp a defendant); to enter, re- 
cord, register, list (<j a in a book, in 
a roster, etc.) | 3jJ\ J «$Ji (waraq) to 
put down in writing, get on 
paper; ( ja^tS\ <r~yl (saksa) to determine 
s.o.'s identity, identify s.o.; <^^ £*u\ 
(sakslyatahu) to identify o.s., prove one's 
identity; p^ASsJl c-j! (kalama) to fix the 
precise wording of a text V to ascertain, 
verify (<j, Ja if), make sure (J of,, Ja if); to consider carefully (J, 
proceed with caution (J in) X to show o.s. 
steadfast, persevering ; to seek to verify (a, try to make sure (a of), seek con- 
firmation of or reassurance with re- 
gard to (a); to ascertain, verify (a, 
make sure (a of; to find right, 
proven or true, see confirmed (a; 
to regard as authentic (a 

Cm tabt firm, fixed, established; stead- 
fast, unflinching; brave 

Cm tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible 

C*w tabat pi. £j\J\ atbat list, index, roster 

oLj tabat firmness; steadiness, con- 
stancy, permanence, stability; certainty, 
sureness; reliability (of statements, re- 
ports); perseverance, persistence, en- 
durance; continuance, maintenance, re- 
tention (Jp of, adherence (J*> to) 

aJIJ tabdtiya stability, static nature (of 

CjjJ tubut constancy, immutability, 
steadiness; permanence, durability; cer- 
tainty, sureness | ^ti\ C>jJ t as-sahr 
the official determination of the be- 
ginning of a lunar month 

JjJ tubutl (Syr.): aJjJ JjIjj documents 
of proof, evidence 

Cm\ atbat 2 more reliable, firmer, stead- 
ier, etc. 

C*xJu tat bit consolidation, strengthening ; 
stabilization; confirmation; corrobora- 
tion, substantiation | co-feJI ^ sirr at4. 
the Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.) 

oL?l itbdt establishment; assertion; 
confirmation; affirmation, attestation; 
demonstration; proof, evidence; regis- 
tration, entering, listing, recording; doc- 
umentation, authentication, verification | 
oLjI JaL£ witness for the prosecution; 
olJ^I *<~s. T ib* al-i. burden of proof (jur.); 
iliLxJ! oLjI i. at-tamalluk official confir- 
mation of property rights (by a religious 

Jul itbati affirmative, confirmatory, 
corroborative, positive 

£*J3 tatabbut ascertainment; verifi- 
cation, examination, check; careful, cau- 
tious procedure, circumspection; inter- 
ment (of the remains of a saint; Chr.) 

C*i)j tdbit firm, fixed, established; sta- 
tionary, immovable; standing on firm 
ground, unshaken; steady, invariable, 
constant, stable; permanent, lasting, du- 
rable, enduring; confirmed, proven; a 
constant (math., phys.); constant factor | 
^jiU-l CoL? t. al-ja?s undismayed, fear- 
less, staunch, steadfast; rj*Ji CjU J, 
al-azm firmly resolved, determined; 
oIj ibU and iotf J \j*\ immovable 
property, real estate, realty; O cJj 
abfV' t. al-ittijah unidirectional, recti- 
fied (el.); ijU ZJ& idee fixe; esjrj cJj 
(wujuduhu) definitely existing, proven 



&\j tdbita pi. C-jIjj tawdbit 2 fixed star 

Oj-i. matbut established, confirmed; 
certain, sure, positive, assured; proven 

C-i» mutabbit fixative, fixing fluid 

jv tahara, u to destroy, ruin (»s.o.); (jjJ tu* 
bur) to perish III to apply o.s. with zeal 
and perseverance ( Jp to, persevere, 
persist ( Jp in) 

jyj tubur ruin, destruction ] tpU 
jj-t)lj Jj^Ij (Uj or) nada {da'a) H-l-wail 
wa-t-t. to wail, burst into loud laments 

Sj-lii mutabara persistence, persever- 
ance, endurance; diligence, assiduity 

J**J tabata u and II to hold back, keep, pre- 
vent (jc o s,o. from doing; to 
hinder, handicap, impede, slow down, 
set back {a, » s.o.,; to bring about 
the failure (a of, frustrate (a 

Cu tubna pi. <>j tuban lap, fold of a garment 
(used as a receptacle) 

OL? tiban — <Lu tvbna 

JiaJ look up alphabetically 

£ toj'j'a tt to flow copiously 

r-Lf tajjaj copiously flowing, streaming 

j£ takuna u to be or become thick, thicken; 
to be firm, solid, compact IV to wear out, 
exhaust, weaken (« s.o.) | \jjJ <d£\ (darban) 
to wallop s.o., give s.o. a sound thrashing; 
j^aJI j > y£\ (*aduw) to massacre the 
enemy; r^-k *&\ to weaken s.o. by 
inflicting wounds 

y£ tikan, Z\J£ takdna, *jj£ tukuna 
thickness, density; consistency; compact- 

(>a£ takin pi. »LJc tujcana* 2 thick; 

jAj tody and tadan m. and f., pi. *l-tfl afofa* 
female breast; breast {also of a man); 

udder; du. uLaj breasts (of a woman), 
*Lj4j tadyd' 2 f. full-bosomed 

jaj tadyi: ^jAj ^-»U1^j- {hayawandt) 

y tarr abounding in water j **jU1 j* v (te f ) 
tear- wet, tear-blurred (eye) 

^fj tar aha i {tarb) and II to blame, censure 
(* and Jp s.o.) 
^j\j see also alphabetically 
^jj3 tatrlb blame, censure, reproof 

j j tartar a {*jj tartara) to chatter, 

jUj- tartar pi. -tin prattler, chatterbox; 
Sjtty tartara pi. -at do. (fem.) 
*jj farfara chatter, prattle 

*j tarada u to crumble and sop (a bread) 

JUy tarld a dish of sopped bread, meat 
and broth 

sjj* mitrad bowl 

*j tarama i {tarm) to knock s.o.'s (») tooth 
out; — tarima a {taram) to have a gap 
between two teeth 

(jJ and is)) t£ j tariya a to become wealthy 
IV to become or be rich, wealthy (lj or 
^ through; to make rich (* s.o.); 
to enrich (a, ^ by means of) 

^J taran moist earth; ground, soil | 
L»j^l t> i£jJ\ (>t aina t-U min at-turayyd 
(proverbially of things of disproportionate 
value) what has the ground to do with 
the Pleiades? a\j 4i>l ,^S (payyaba) 
appro x.: may God rest him in peace! 
f*-HH <S^ o*^ {yabisa) they became 

&j tariy pi. >\jJ\ atriya* 2 wealthy, 
rich ] y^l ,sj Lal-harb war profiteer, 
nouveau riche 

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oUj- tariydt plantations 

Ijj tarwa pl. -at and Aj tar a fortune, 
wealth, riches | ljj& JaI ahl at t. the rich, 
the wealthy; *L»jI Ijj (qaumiya) national 
wealth; yi* Ijj (md'iya) abundance of 
water, abundant supply of water (of a 
region); <u£*-* »jj (samaklya) abundance 
of fish; V^* *J-/ natural resources (of 
a country); \^>j £>\jj tarawat watanlya 
national resources 

\jj turayyd Pleiades; (also 
u\jJ turayydt chandelier 

j* mutrin wealthy, rich 

r) pl. 

oL*j tu'ban pl. >jI*j ta'dbin 2 snake | »UL1 OL*J 
£. al-ma and oL*J ^JL~* samak t, eel 

JL*j tu'bani snaky, snakelike, serpen- 
tine; eely 

<_^*i. mat'ab pl. i^-tli. matd'ib 2 drain 

<!Lo tu'ala fox 

«_JUJ to'Jaft pl. ^JUj ta'dlib 2 fox | i_~LiJl »b 
alopecia (mei.), 1° S3 of hair 

ti JLJ ta'labi foxy, foxlike 

4JL0 ta'laba vixen; O tetter (med.) 

j£ tagr pl. jjAj £wgwr front tooth; mouth; 
port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport 

lj£ tugra pl. ^ tugar, tugarat breach, 
crevasse, crack, rift, crevice; opening, 
gap; cavity, hollow; narrow mountain 

I»Uj tagam white, whiteness 

it? tagim white (adj.) 

(jjo) Uj fa^d tt (*Uu tuga) to bleat (sheep) 

#Uo tuga bleating, bleat 

Mj fa^w bleating | \?\j Vj v^ 4J L» 
(rdgiya) he has absolutely nothing, he 
is deprived of all resources, prop.: he 
has neither a bleating (sheep) nor a 
braying (camel) 

j£ tafar pl. jUJI atfdr crupper (of the 

Jij tufl dregs, lees, sediment; residues 

y£ III to associate (a with s.o.), frequent 
s.o.'s (ft) company; to pursue, practice 

'<cjj tafina pl. -dt t jxj tijan callus, 

ijul look up alphabetically 

<uj see Jjj 

^.JiS taqaba u (taqb) to bore, or drill, a hole 
(a in, pierce, puncture, perforate } 
(a II do. II and IV to light, kindle ! 
(a V and VII to be pierced, be 
punctured, be perforated 

i^Jutaqb piercing, boring, puncture, per. 
fbration; (also tuqb pl. <^jJj tuqtib, t^li'l \ 
atqdb) hole, puncture, borehole, drill \ 
hole I j^Jd\ i-sjju blasting holes; O <-*^ j 
^VU (ta<7&, t£w) acupuncture (med.) 

tJiS tvqba pl. i_j£ jugafc hole j 

t_jUij and i-jliiH 2j& 'ud at-tiqab match- 
stick; matches 

<~>jju tuqub keenness, acuteness (of the 

h\Ju taqqaba pl. -at drilling machine, 
drilling rig 

c-Jii- mitqab pl. «_Jli* matdqib 2 borer, 
drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble, 
perforator; drilling machine 

i-floi. mitqab drilling machine, drilling rig 

^\ju\ itqdb kindling, lighting 

^tf tdqib penetrating, piercing, sharp 
(mind, eyes) | J&\ <^Jtf t. an-nazar per- 
spicacity; sharp-eyed; _^iJI l-jIj |. aZ- 
^ifcr sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness; 
shrewd, sagacious, sharp-witted 

oLStf tdqibdt borers (zool.) 
ijnil taqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (a s.o.); — 

'wSs-o jj^ jT Colo JbOJuLo jj 01^3-03-0 ^j^-Lo^ P.5^° < lHJ-° c**' 6t^'j*!5 cP^ ^S^-o 



taqifa a and taqufa u to be skillful, smart, 
clever II to make straight, straighten 
(a; to correct, set right, straighten 
out (a; to train, form, teach, edu- 
cate (* s.o.); to arrest (o s.o.); to seize, 
confiscate (a Ill to fence (» with 
s.o.) V to be trained* be educated 

iiUj taqdfa culture, refinement; edu- 
cation; (pi, -at) culture, civilization 

jUu taqdjl educational; intellectual; 
cultural | JUj J>JL. (mulhaq) cultural 

1J1J& tatqif cultivation of the mind; 
training, education; instruction 

4jtfti. mutaqafa fencing, art or sport of 
fencing, swordplay, swordsmanship 

*Ju£j tataqquf culturedness, culture, re- 
finement, education 

oute* mutaqqaj educated; trained; cul- 
tured; pi. jjjwiil educated people, in- 
tellectuals, the intelligentsia, oUltll 
educated ladies, women intellectuals 

Ji* taqula u (tiql, ~<\ Uu taqdla) to be heavy ; 
with cj>: to load or burden, make heavy; to be hard to bear (J* for 
s.o.), weigh heavily (J* on), be burden- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive ( Jp to s.o.) ; 
to be heavy-handed, sluggish, doltish, 
dull-witted; to be too dull, too sluggish 
(jp for, to do, not to bother 
(jc about) II to make heavy, weight 
(a; to burden, encumber (J* s.o., 
a with, overburden (J* s.o.), over- 
tax s.o.'s (Jp) strength, ask too much 
(Jp of s.o.); to trouble, inconvenience, 
bother (J* s.o., ^ with, pester, 
molest {Jp s.o.) | ^i*S' Jij and <d*lT JiJI 
(kahilahu) to burden s.o. or ; JaK" Jl* 
jljJJ to burden the budget IV to 
burden (a, * s.o.,; to oppress, dis- 
tress (a s.o.), weigh heavily (* on); to be 
hard to bear (0 for s.o.) | «1aIT JJul 
{kahilahu) see II; VI to become or be 

heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome 

(Jp to s.o.), trouble, oppress (Jp s.o.); to 
be sluggish, doltish, slow; to be in a bad 
mood, be sullen; to be bored; to find 
burdensome and turn away (jp from; not to bother (j^ about); to be 
too dull, too sluggish (jp for, to do X to find heavy, hard, burdensome, 
troublesome (a, find annoying (a, 
« s.o., J <dk JJ&Ul (zillahu) to 
find s.o. unbearable, dislike s.o. 

Jij tiql pi. JUjI atqdl weight; burden, 
load; gravity; heaviness | JUu^I vj raf 
al-a. weight lifting (athlet.); ^^ Jj&l 
(nau'i) specific gravity 

JJu tiqal heaviness; sluggishness, dull- 

Jjj taqal pi. JUjI atqdl load, baggage 

O^JiiJl at-taqaldn the humans and the 

aIju taqla trouble, inconvenience, dis- 

iJUj taqaUi heaviness; sluggishness, 
doltishness; dullness 

Jjjj taqll pi. *~$Ju tuqald* 2 , JUj tiqal 
heavy; weighty, momentous, grave, se- 
rious, important; burdensome, trouble- 
some, cumbersome, oppressive; unpleas- 
ant, disagreeable, distasteful (person) | 
l»jjl J^xj L ad -dam insufferable, un- 
pleasant, disagreeable (person); t-jJ\ J~aj 
t. ar-ruh doltish, dull (person) ; a bore ; 
JfcJl JJij 1 t. az-zill disagreeable, in- 
sufferable (person); ^ill JJiJ t. al-fahm 
slow of understanding, slow-witted; JjJtJ 
**JI t. as-sam* hard of hearing; 4pL^» 
SJLaj (sind'a) heavy industry; JJii 1 »L 
heavy water (phys.); o'^\ JJu t. al-udn 
hard of hearing, deaf; ^Sp J-aj y> he is 
a burden to them 

Jjul atqal z heavier; more oppressive 

jUi* mitqfd pi. JJli* matdqil* weight 
(also placed as an equipoise on the 

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scales of a balance) ; miskal, a weight (in 
Egypt = 24 J,i j* = 4.68 g) | '•/* JUi* m. 
darra the weight of a dust speck, i.e., a 
tiny amount; a little bit; ^ Jlii. a little 
of, a little bit of 

JJ& tatqil weighting, burdening; mo- 

J5lij tataqul sluggishness, dullness 

Jj&» mutaqqal and mutqal burdened, 
encumbered; overloaded; weighted (<_> 
with; oppressed (lj by); heavy 

Jll±u mutatdqil sluggish, dull; sullen, 
grumpy; bored 

J£ takila a (takal) to lose a child (•) through 
death (esp. of a mother) ; to be bereaved 
of a loved one (*) by death IV fi\ J&1 
UaIj otkala l-umma waladaha to bereave 
a mother of her son 

JSo takal, tukl bereavement (esp. of a 
woman, by the death of her child); state 
of one who has lost a friend or relative; 
mourning over the loss of a loved one 

o^j takldn( 2 ) bereaved of a child or a 
loved one 

^JQ takld bereaved of a child (mother) 

aJTIj takila pi. J^'jj tawdkil % bereaved 
of a child (mother) 

<$S tukna (now also pronounced tahna) pi. 
J& tukan, -at, takandt barracks (mil,) 

Jj talla u (JJLj talal) to tear down, destroy, 
overthrow, subvert (a, esp. li^e 
'arsan to topple a throne) VII to be 
subverted, overthrown (throne) 

<lj tulla pi. JJj tulal troop, band, party, 
group (of people); military detachment 

uJj talaba i (talb) to criticize, run down (t> 
s.o,); to slander, defame (» s.o.) 

tJU talb slander, defamation 

iMm matlaba pi. «_Jli. matdlib 2 short- 
coming, defect, blemish, stain, disgrace 

cJtf talib slanderous, defamatory; 

\j II to triple, make threefold (a; to 
do three times (a 

iJb* tuU pi. iotfl atldt one third; tvlut 
a sprawling, decorative calligraphic style | 
dJW! Vi v wl 1*U\ (ilia t-tvlta) 20 min- 
utes to 2 o'clock 

4j^j taldta (f. i^? taldt) three; 1H* 
talatan three times, thrice 

J^j talati tertiary; Tertiary (geol.) \ 
jM JJ U pre-Tertiary 

_ / JU aj^ talatata e a$ara, f. IjZ* &it 
taldta 'afrata thirteen 

dJWl at-talit the third; liJtf talitan ? 
thirdly; UIj 1 / 60 of a second 

OjJ^j taldtun thirty 

oUjjtAiJl at-taldtinat the thirties (decade : 
of a century) 

•Li^sll at-tulata* and »tf^iJI rjj yawm ! 
at-t. Tuesday 

itj^ tuldt 2 and dii» matlat 2 three at a f 

J^Aj hi£a*t tripartite, consisting of three, j 

(gram.) triliteral, consisting of three J 

radicals; tri-; group of three, set of three j 

people ; trio (mus.) | L \jj\ <J*$i t. z-zawaya \ 

triangular; olfjjJI J'^j t. l-waraqdt tri- ; 

foliate; <J*>C uJ*U- (Mlf) tripartite pact; J 

tj-^ JaLit (niukattat) 3-year plan; iJj \ 

Lj^j (watba) hop-skip-and-jump (sport) \ 

*±jj5 \j tdlut Trinity ( Chr . ) ; trinity, triad ; - 
triplet | ijJliJI »/>J zdhrat at-t. pansy J 
(&*.) jj 

i—iij tatlit doctrine of the Trinity; f 
Trinity (Chr.) j 

J^iij tatliti trigonometric (al) 

dii. mviallat tripled, triple, threefold; \ 
having three diacritical dots (letter); I 
triangular; (pi. -at) triangle (geom.) \ 



b\JY\ 3iliU h\J\ {raya), iiiil ^Jl (alam) 
and iH! the tricolor; aUJ iiiil (Aadd) 
acute-angled triangle; Ulj^Jl ilii. t». as- 
zawaya triangular; ^ILJl (jjLlll dJiil 
{mutasdwl s-sdqain) isosceles triangle; 
f^Yl t^jLlil liiiil equilateral triangle ; 
f L5JI iHI right-angled triangle 

oUHl al-mutallatdt and oliliil ^Lj- 
Awafi a£-ra. trigonometry 

rJ; jaZa?a u: *\J\ ticJtf (samd'u) it snowed, 
was snowing ; — talija a to be delighted, 
be gladdened (soul, heart; <~j by) II to 
cool with ice (a; to freeze, turn into 
ice {* IV »| C JI c-j*1jI it snowed, was 
snowing; to cool, moisten (a | glil 
ojJL* (sadrahu) to delight, please, gratify 
s.o. V to become icy, turn into ice, 
congeal; to freeze 

riU talj pi. -r^tuluj snow; ice; artificial 

ice | jlip Jtf (gida'i) ice cream; S*JG 
dill nudfat at-t. snowflake 

jJS taljl snowy, snow- (in compounds) ; 
icy, glacial, ice- (in compounds) 

gti tali] icy 

z*ti talldj pi. -un ice vendor 

i>-^j tallaja pi -at iceberg, ice floe; 
refrigerator, icebox; cold-storage plant 
(for foodstuff) 

l»Ji* matlaja pi. Mi* matdlij 2 icebox, 
refrigerator; cold-storage plant 

^Jb" to^i; deepfreezing 

rjk* matluj snow-covered; iced, icy; 
oUjli. frozen food; iced beverages 

^li* muUdlaj iced; icy, ice-cold; deep- 
frozen; — (pi. -at) iced drink; ice cream [ 
rtli* JL (lahrn) frozen meat; 4>Ji* »j^i 
(qahtoa) iced coffee 

L* tahma i (talm) to blunt, make jagged (a, break the edge of (a); to make a 
breach, gap or opening (a in a wall); to 
defile, sully (a reputation, honor); — ta* 

lima a to be or become jagged, dull, blunt 
II to blunt (a V to become blunt 
VII to be defiled, be discredited (repu- 

if talm nick, notch; breach, opening, 
gap; crack, fissure, rift | c~i«<aJI ]j t. 
as-slt defamation 

SJLf tulma pi. 1j tulam = talm [ ijj JU- 
sadda tulmatan to fill a gap; xJ V <Jj 
(tusaddu) a gap that cannot be closed, 
an irreparable loss 

J I? talim dull, blunt 

rjli. matlUm defiled, sullied (reputation, 

iii» mutatallim blunted, blunt; crack- 
ing (voice) 

C-juJ1 it** muntalim as- sit of ill repute, 
of dubious reputation 

f tamma there; there is | f j* mtw taffia 
hence, therefore, for that reason 

f tumma then, thereupon; further- 
more, moreover; and again, and once 
more (emphatically in repetition) | *& < !» 
(kalld) no and a hundred times no! p j* 
mitt- tumma then, thereupon 

« tammata ((la) there; there is | ^^-J 
*x there isn't 

aLc tumdm a grass j j-l^l t_3ji» ^ {ta* 
rafi t-t.) within easy reach, handy; a!*>- 
A£\ <J*J? J* he made it readily under- 
standable, he presented it plausibly for all 

i*Lc tumama blade of grass, a thin blade 
(of a plant) | i.L*JlT *J$\ it is a trifle, 
easy to accomplish 

xc I look up alphabetically 

jX tamara u to bear fruit IV do. ; to have as 
a result (^*, result (js in) X to 
profit, benefit (a from); to exploit, utilize 
(a; to invest profitably (a money) 

ss*c£*a jjV j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cPVi ^Svpwo 



y tamar pi. jU tihiar, jLc I atmdr 
fruits, fruit (coll.); result, effect, fruit, 
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain 

%j£ tamara (n. un. of tamar) pi. -at 
fruit; result, effect; yield, profit, benefit, 

j\zl^\ istitmdr exploitation (also pol.- 
eeon.), utilization, profitable use; (pi. -at) 
investment (of money, capital) | jL&-l 
ol^oil i. al-muddakarat investment of 

j+Z* mutmir fruitful, productive, prof- 
itable, lucrative 

j.«&.-» mustatmir pi. -un exploiter (pol.- 
econ.); beneficiary; investor 

j+ZL** mustatrnar exploited (e.g., the 
masses) ; invested, profit earning (money, 

Jx tamtla a (tamal) to become drunk IV to 
make drunk, intoxicate (» s.o.) 

Jjc* tamal intoxication, drunkenness 

SLe* tamala drunken fit, drunkenness 

Jx tamil intoxicated, drunk (en) 

aJU* tumala residue, remnant, dregs (of 
a liquid), heeltap (of wine); scum, foam, 

1 y: II to appraise, assess, estimate (a, 
determine the price or value (a of; 
to price (a | j«JL> V la yutammanu 
invaluable, inestimable, priceless 

y taman pi. OLc I atmdn, ex I atmina 
price, cost; value | J*»VI C >£J1 (o?K) cost 
price; ^U-Vl ( y*ii\ {asdsl) par, nominal 

yx tamln pi. oU timan costly, precious, 

more precious, 

,y 1 o|rrtatt 2 costlier, 
more valuable 

y+i5 tatmln estimation, appraisal, as- 
sessment, valuation, rating (of the price 
or value) 

bjJi* matmun object of value 
yt* mutammin estimator, appraiser | 
yt* j^~ assessor 

j*JU mutamman prized, valued, valu- 
able, precious 

jJL. mutmin costly, precious, valu- 

j*i. mutman object of value 

2 SJU* tamaniya (f. OLc tamdnin) eight 

jZs. aJU tamdniyata e a$ara, f. IjZs- jLc 
tamaniya 'aSrata eighteen 

y: tumn pi. OLc I atmdn one-eighth 

oe tumna pi. -at a dry measure (Eg. = 
i/ 8 ^ = .258 1; Pal. = ca. 2.25 1) 

j^jU tamdnun eighty 

objJLill at-tamdnindt the eighties (de- 
cade of a century) 

j^lill at-tdmin the eighth 

j*i« mutamman eightfold; octagonal 

<Cj tunna pi. (>u tunan fetlock 

»jJUj tundu'a, tunduwa pi. ^Lj tanddin breast ; 
(of the male) 

<£yj, 4j^j, cO*^ an ^ *i>^ see un der J 

Jj |<ma » (tany) to double, double up, fold, : 

fold up, fold under (a; to bend, flex ; 

(a; to turn (Jl a to); to turn <■ 
away, dissuade, keep, prevent, divert (• 

,jp s.o. from) | 4*»ji OLp Jj ( c indna farasihl) ] 

he galloped off; 4JI &Jk> Jf (tarjdhu) he ;• 

turned his glance on him II to double, '<; 

make double (a; to do twice, re- ; 

peat (a; to pleat, plait (a; \, 

to form the dual (a of a word); to pro- | 

vide with two diacritical dots (a a let- [■ 

ter) IV to commend, praise, laud, extol \ 

(Jp, s.o.), speak appreciatively ; 

(Jp of) I >L*JI ^U «uip JjI ('ahVa i-tanc?) ■: 

to speak in the most laudatory terms of [• 
s.o. V to double, become double; to be 

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doubled; to be repeated; to bend, fold; 
to be bent, be folded, bo folded up or 
under; to walk with a swinging gait 
VII to bend, bend up, down or over, lean, 
incline, bow; to fold up, pull or bend to- 
gether; to fold, be foldable, be folded 
back; to turn away (jp from), give 
up, renounce (^p; to turn, face 
(Jl toward); to apply o.s., turn (Jl to; (with foil, imperf.) to set out, pre- 
pare (to do X to except, exclude 
(^ « or j» or s.o. from), make an 
exception (* of 

J tany bending; folding; turning 
away, dissuasion, keeping, prevention 

(jj tiny pi. fbii atna' fold, pleat, plait, 
crease (in cloth); bend, twist | -Lo Uu 
^j tiny an ba'da tiny in from time to 

•UjI atnd'a (prep.) during; within; in; in 
the course of | »UJI j fi atna'i do.; J 
»Uttl oJu j, ,L?V1 i£iL" j, diii »b*l in the 
meantime, during all this time, mean- 

Im tanya pi. -a( fold, pleat, plait, 
crease (in cloth) ; turn-up, cuff (of trou- 
sers and sleeves), hem of a garment 

Uj tanlya pi. IUj tanayd middle in- 
cisor, front tooth; fold, plait; crease (of 
trousers); narrow pass; mountain trail | 
bto (3 in, inside, among, between, fre- 
quently only a fuller, rhetorically more 
elegant expression for "in", e.g., LUJ <J 
<uiJ in his heart, inwardly, <_*rSOl Lbj ,3 in 
the books ; L L* i>j in, inside, among, be- 
tween; UUiJI 9j& talld" at-t. one with 
high- flung aspirations 

tSjLl tanawi dualist 

44 j£ tanaiuiya dualism 

»bj tana commendation, praise, eu- 
logy; appreciation 

jLj fawcf i laudatory, eulogistic 

»L? tuna 2 and Ji. rnatna two at a 
time; /«naa (adv.) as a pair or duo, 
two and two 

jbj tund'l twofold, double, dual, bi- 
nary, bi-; bilateral; biradical (gram.); — 
(pi. -at ) pair, a group of two ; duet, duo 
(mus.); LJU (adv.) as a pair or duo | 
j\jil\ jIj !\j£ mukarrik t. 1-mUwar two- 
cycle engine; -oJl JUj 2. al-bu f d two- 
dimensional; a-JIi? CjlitAp ('"aZog'ai) bi- 
lateral relations; JUj JUjI (ittifaq) bi- 
lateral agreement 

4-ILj tuna'lya dualism; duet, duo [mus.) 

oLjl itndni, f. jldul itnatdni two 

^jtp Ujl tfna 'asara, f. 3^^ bill itnatd 
"asrata twelve 

jjo*^! ^j z/eram al-ilnain and £\IjVI 

JUJ1 at-t_ani the second; the next; (co/- 
loq.) the other (one), jlj, <J\j an other 
(one), a different one; Lotf tdniyan and 
4JL* tdniyatan secondly; for the second 
time, once more, again j f j r cj\ Jlj t. 
tnain the second of a pair, pendant, com- 
panion piece, match; juJTI Jl? |. w&sm2 
dioxide, O a , djjj£ll J~~TI JU |. 1*. aJ~ 
karbon carbon dioxide, C0 2 (c&em.); tiLJ 
j\S"l (with foil, genit.) the second largest 

4JU1 tdniya pi. o^j tawdnin second 
(time unit) 

(^jjlj tanawi secondary; minor j j^l 
4j^ju matters of secondary importance, 
minor matters; *jjJL> L-j-U secondary 
school; (j>^ AiJ— ^ subletting; ol^i 
4j_jjIj (sahdda) secondary school diploma 

4j jjlj tdnamya pi. -ai secondary school; 
— secondary importance 

<LJu talrdya repetition; plaiting, pleat- 
ing; doubting, gemination; (gram.) dual; 
second sequel (e.g., of a collection of 
short stories); commendation, praise, 
eulogy I f-ljvi^l V-^ Deuteronomy 

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»1&I iniina bending, flection; flexibil- 
ity, foldability | ,b£^J J, 15 foldable, 

«LJul iniina a pi. -a£ (n. vie.) bend, 
flexure, curve 

♦biL-1 istitna' pi. -a( exception, exclu- 
sion | »UiL-L with the exception of, ex- 
cept; *LiL-l jjOj without exception 

uUjju-1 istitnai exceptional; LJLiL-l 
istitnaiyan as an exception | SJUixJ J|^-l 
emergencies; 5Jl^L-l <— U- {jalsa) emer- 
gency session 

^t. mainly folded; plaited, pleated; 

^t* mutannan double, twofold; in the 
dual [gram.); dual {gram.) 

mustatnan excepted, excluded 

(j- from) 
»^j tuwwa see (ji^j 

1 (v_f^) V^ i^ a *" to return, come back 
(also, e.g., a state or condition, jl or J to 
s.o.); with lj} to return (Jl to s.o.) | 
-UwftJ Jl ^L? to regain consciousness, come 
to; eJ-ij 4JI u^LJ (ruMuhu) to recover 
one's senses II to reward (a s.o.; said of 
God) IV to cause to return (a, * s.o.,, 
Jl to); to repay, requite (a a with); 
to reward ( Jc « s.o. for) X to seek reward 

i^>y taub pi. ujLJ" tiyub, <--j\jj\ atwab 
garment, dress ; cloth, material ; (fig.) garb, 
outward appearance, guise, cloak, mask; 
pi. i_jLj clothes, clothing, apparel J *-^j 
S^fJi U as-sahra evening gown; <_->Lj 
»j4*J\ L as-sahra formal dress, evening 
clothes; Ja^ ^Ji j in plain, homely form; 
t-*y j*^ of flawless < haracter, irre- 
proachable; *->^' a**" danis at~t. of bad 

v!> tawdb requital, recompense, re- 
ward (for good deeds) ; (Id. Law) merit, 
credit (arising from a pious deed) 

Ajjt. matwaba requital, recompense, re- 
ward (bestowed by God for good deeds] 

•-tit- inatab place to which one returns; 
meeting place; rendezvous; resort, refuge 

hit* mataba (with foil, genit.) place or 
time at which appears or recurs; 
place or spot to which s.o. regularly re- 
turns; resort, refuge; manner, mode, 
fashion | ZAix (with foil, genit.) like, as; 
tantamount to, equivalent to, having th« 
same function as 

2 w>j!iJ = i_->»lij (l-Jj VI) to yawn | 

(jjj) j\j tdra u to stir, be stirred up, be a- I 
roused, be excited ; to swirl up, rise (dust); j 
to arise (question, problem; a difficulty, j 
H*~J J /* wajhiki before s.o.); to be trig- | 
gered, be unleashed, break out; to revolt, ' 
rebel, rise (J* against); to rage, storm I 
»J\S j\j (tairuhu) to fly into a rage, be- I 
come furious, flare up IV to agitate, 
excite (0 s.o., a; to stimulate (t 
s.o., a; to irritate (* s.o., a; 
to arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (a, 
e.g., feelings), cause, provoke, awaken 
(a; to raise, pose, bring up (ilL* 
mas'alatan a question, a problem) | jll 
<6j\j (tairatahu) to infuriate s.o., excite 
s.o.; IjL* jljl (gvhdran) to stir up dust 
X to excite (« s.o.), stir up, kindle (a, 
esp. passions) ; to rouse (a; to 
arouse, awaken (a, esp. feelings); 
to elicit, evoke (a wails, outcries, j* 
from s.o.) ; to incite, set ( Jp t> s.o. against)) 
<u*op jliL-1 (gadabahu) to infuriate s,o., 
make s.o. angry 

jji taur pi. jlj-j tiran bull, steer; os; 
jjiJl Taurus (sign of the zodiac; astrm.); 
the second month of the solar year 
(Saudi Ar., cf. J*» hamal) 

Ijji taura excitement, agitation; out- 
break, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair, 
etc.); eruption (of a volcano); (pi. -at) up- 
heaval, uprising, insurrection, riot, rebel- 

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lion, revolt (Jp against); revolution | 
<JW ijy (ahliya) popular revolt, civil 
war; LiUj Ijy (taqdfiya) cultural revo- 
lution; oLi. Ijy (mvdddda) counter- 

tfjy tawrl revolutionary (adj. and n.) 

~*ijj> tauriya revolutionary spirit 

iSJjy taurawl revolutionary (adj. and 

jijjj tawaran agitation, excitation, 
flare-up, eruption, outbreak, outburst; 
dust whirl 

j It* matdr incentive, stimulus, motive, 
spur, occasion, cause | J-U-i jli. m. al- 
jadal and f\ 'Jl\ jli. object of controversy, 
point of contention 

SjIjI itara excitation, stirring up, kin- 
dling; agitation, incitement; provocation, 
(a)rousing, awakening; irritation, stim- 

J\j 0ir excited, agitated, raving, fu- 
rious, mad; rebellious; refractory, stub- 
born; fury, rage (in the idiomatic phrase 
«jtij\j see above); (pi. -un, j\y tuwwar) 
insurgent, rebel, revolutionary 

•jTU tcfira pi. J\y tawd'ir 2 tumult; ex- 
citement, agitation; fury, rage 

j&* mutir exciting; provocative; stimu- 
lative, irritative ; excitant, irritant, stimu- 
lant; instigator; germ, agent; pi. olyt* 

rjijy toriyum thorium (ckem.) 

Jy VII to swarm, crowd, throng ( Jp around 
s.o.); to come over s.o. (Jp) 

Jy taul and J*Jl Jy h an-nahl swarm 
of bees 

^y turn (coll.; n. un. S) garlic 

^ytawd i (Ay tawd\ ^y tumy y <j:_*JU matwan) 
to stay, live («_* at a place); to settle 
down (c-> at a place); to lie, remain for- 
ever, slumber (also of objects; j in one 
place); pass, tuwiya to be buried IV to 
stay, live; to lodge, put up as a guest 
(. s.o.) 

^y tawly guestroom 

ly tuwwa pi. <£y tuwan signpost, road- 

^y\» matwan pi. j\t» matdwin abode, 
habitation, dwelling; place of rest 

u-ju tayyib pL ~dt a deflowered but un- 
married woman, widow, divorcee 

Jiw taital pi. JjLj taydtil 2 a variety of wild 
goat (Capra jaela) 

r abbreviation of »J>- part (of books), 4Jj>f*>- 
republic (e.g., ^ ^^ = 4~>yS\ <ijy^J-\ 
ajjj-JI Syrian Arab Republic), <lj^- gineh, 
junaih pound (p ^ and • f • jr g. mi§ri = 
Eg. pound) and ^yr answer 

by\L\ al-gdbun (Eg. spelling) Gabon (country 
in W Africa) 

jJLV jdtallq = J~Li>- 

jtj? fa* fa' pi. * ( j>r^r jctdji 2 breast; prow, 
bow (of a ship) 

jl>- ja'ara a [jar, yy? ju'dr) to low, moo; 
to supplicate, pray fervently ( Jl to God) 
jl>- jar and Jy^ ju'dr lowing, mooing 
(of cattle) 

^JU- gdz pi. -at (Eg. spelling) gas; gasoline; 

^U- jdz jazz 

UjjU- (Fr. gazon, Eg. spelling) gdzon lawn 

(jiU- ja'asa a (ja's) to be agitated, bo con- 
vulsed (with pain or fright) 

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j^iU- ja'S emotional agitation; heart, 
soul | 4-tU- Ja»j rabata ja'8ahu to remain 
calm, composed, self-possessed; ^ili-l J*jlj 
or ^U-l *l»t\j calm, composed, cool, self- 
possessed, undismayed; J*>ij ^Ltf with 
unswerving courage, unflinchingly 

cSl? jaket, c~5"U jaket (Fr.) f., pi. -at jacket, 

4sTU, aiTU jaketta, 4«TU- iaieta (It.) 
pi. -af jacket, coat 

0>JU jaZitf 2 Goliath 
o>JU- galon gallon 

^>JU (Eg. spelling) galerl gallery ((Aeaf.) 
pl>- jam pi. -at cup; drinking vessel; bowl 
LU- 4*il a&i"at gdmd (Eg, spelling) gamma 
rays (j%5.) 

j^-«U- (Fr. jambon) ham 

4-SC.U- jdmakiya pi. -<&, iL^ jawdmik 2 


crT>*^- j^mus pi. ^-a-I^ jawdmis 2 buflFalo 
5-^-U jdmusa buffalo cow 

iij-'U- (pronounced ztindmj, from Turk, ca- 
nerigi; coll.; n. un. Zauargeye) a variety 
of small green plum with several stones 

jiU 2an/t (^Zgr., Tun.) January 

• l>- jah rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory, 

*j^~» *jW" /cwca and ljl>- jawd Java 

tSjU- /atoi Javanese; benzoin; (pi. -un) 
a Javanese 

jbjU- jdxvaddr rye 

^tJjU (Turk.) caw;i£ ^jU- pi. -i#a sergeant 
(formerly, Eg., Sudan; mil.), see also 

1 i r ^ r jubb pi. uUI a/6a&, ^L.- /i6d& well, 
cistern; pit 

2 l fr jubba pi. ^^ jtt6a&, ^U p"6a6, c-J^r 

jabaib 2 jubbah, a long outer garment, 
open in front, with wide sleeves 

fyr jabh pi. £*»J ajbuh, ^L>- jibdh, 4J 
ajbdh beehive 

-wLivr jabkdna, jabakdna powder magazine; 
ammunition; artillery depot 

J&- jabara u {jabr, JJ?r jvbur) to set (a broken 
bones) ; to restore, bring back to normal 
(* ; to help back on his feet, help 
up (» s.o.; e.g., one fallen into poverty); 
to force, compel ( Jp « s.o. to do | 
6^U- j*- (kdpirahu) to console, comfort, 
gratify, oblige s.o. ; to treat (s.o.) in a 
conciliatory or kindly manner II to set 
(* broken bones) III to treat with kind- 
ness, with friendliness (e s.o.), be nice I 
(» to s.o.) IV to force, compel (J* « s.o. | 
to do; to hold sway (Jc over) \ 
V to show o.s. proud, haughty; to act | 
strong, throw one's weight around; to | 
show o.s. strong or powerful, demon- 
strate one's strength or power; to tyran- 
nize (Jp s.o.); to be set (broken bones) | 
ibL ,a>l jj. {bi-bnika) God has demon- | 
strated His power on your son, i.e., He f 
has taken him unto Himself VII to be \ 
mended, repaired, restored 

j^- jabr setting (of broken bones) ; force, f 
compulsion; coercion, duress; power, f 
might; (predestined, inescapable) decree \ 
of fate ; determinism ; Ija»- jabran forcibly, \ 
by force | jX\ ^ Him al~j. algebra; 
j**^\ Jfr (Ji yo,um j. al-bahr a local ; 
holiday of Cairo (the day on which, in 
former times, the water of the Nile was 
channeled into the now-abandoned kdlj, I 
or City Canal, thus marking the begin- 
ning of the irrigation season) \ 

(jj\>- jabrl algebraic; compulsory, '■ 
forced; — jabarl an adherent of the doe- 
trine of predestination and the inescap- 
ability of fate; fatalist 

*iJ*r jabariya an Islamic school of 

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thought teaching the inescapability of 
fate; fatalism 

jU- jahbar pi. -un, j-L*- jabdbir 2 , 2^L»- 
jababira giant; colossus; tyrant, op- 
pressor; almighty, omnipotent (God); 
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge; mighty, 
powerful; jU-l Orion (astron.) | S^U-I jU»- striding powerfully, taking huge 
strides; i.j*Jl jL>- /. al-'azma of strong 
determination or resoluteness; 3jU»- <JaS" 
(fca//) a strong slap in the face 

•jU- jiftara (art of) bonesetting 

lj*?- jabira pi. ,/L>- jabd'ir 2 splint 


Oj^n*- jabarut omnipotence; power, 

might; tyranny 

fljjuj- jibriyd'* pride, haughtiness 

j^4 tojbir, plli*JI j-£ orthopedics 

jL^-1 ijbdr compulsion, coercion 

^jU-1 ijbdrl forced, forcible, com- 
pulsory, obligatory | (jjL*-Vl -^-^ com- 
pulsory recruitment; military conscrip- 
tion; tjjU^l JUj compulsory instruction 

«jjL*-I ijbdrlya compulsoriness, oblig- 
atory character (of 
j\»~ jabir and j«f mujabbir bonesetter 
j^ji majbur and j«f mujbar forced, 

j^u mutajabbir tyrant 

S^j°r jabra'il 2 , J^b**- jabrd'U 2 , jibra'il 2 , 
iij*r jibrll 2 Gabriel 

1 ur *>. II to plaster, coat, patch, or fix with 
plaster (a; to put in a cast, set in 
plaster (a 
j^fr jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris 

UU- jabbdsa gypsum quarry; plaster 

•j^jj. jahas (coll. ; n. un. I ; syr.) watermelon(s) 

1 J ! i»- jabala u i {jabl) to mold, form, shape, 
fashion (a; to knead (a; to 

create (Jp o s.o. with a natural disposi- 
tion or propensity for) ; pass. Jp J-*- {jubila) 
to be born for, be naturally disposed to, 
have a propensity for 

*L*- jibla, jibilla pi. -at natural dis- 
position, nature, temper 

2 J-»- jabal pi. JU- jibal, JL^I ajbal mountain; 
mountains, mountain range | «-J*bfl JU- 
j. al-alb the Alps; ^\j/i\ JU>- the Aures 
Mountains (in E Algeria); .uU- J-*- ice- 
berg; Lj-- J^ /. slna Mount Sinai; J-*- 
<5j\l Gibraltar; jU J-*- volcano; J->- 
^JtJl j. aS-Saik Mount Hermon 

J->- jaball mountainous, hilly; moun- 
tain (adj.); montane; (pi. -un) highlander, 

iSJ%T gabaldwi (eg.) highlander, moun- 

1»*>L>- gabaldya pi. -at (eg,) grotto, cave 

3 J?^r jubail 2 small port in Lebanon, ancient 

<^>- jabuna u (jvbn, ^L»- jabdna) to be a 
coward, be fearful; to be too much of 
a coward (y to do, shrink (^ from II to cause to curdle (a milk); to 
make into cheese (a; to curdle; to 
accuse of cowardice, call a coward (» s.o.) 
V to curdle (milk), turn into cheese 

(j\>- jvbn and *jL»*- jabdna cowardice 

j^ jubn pi. dj^r jubun cheese 

i->- jubna cheese 

0L>- jabdn pi. »t^>- juband' 2 coward; 

uL*- jabbdn cheese merchant 

(>->- jabin pi. t>*- jubun, £-*-! ajbina, 
,>*-! ajbun forehead, brow; facade, front; 
face | J~>- <> mm jabini I alone; J* 
^IpJI (jw- in the sky 

J;-^ jabini frontal 

Jw-I ajban? more cowardly 

ijL*- jabbdna pi. -a( cemetery 

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<~£ majbana cheese dairy, cheesery 
^^f. tajbm cheese making, processing 
into cheese 

1 4 r >~ jabaka a to meet, face, confront (a s.o.) 
II to present a front (a against, 
oppose, defy, reject, refuse, repulse (a Ill to face, confront, oppose, defy 
(« s.o., *, show a bold front (* to); 
to face (a a problem, a difficulty) 

4^>- jabha pi. oX^- jibdh, oL^>- jabahai 
forehead, brow; front, face, facade; front- 
line, battle front j «u»*-£ if*»- (sa'blya) 
people's front, popular front 

*~^ tajbih opposition, resistance (J to), 
rejection, repulsion (J of ideologies, 
attacks, enemies) 

if-U- mujabaha facing, confrontation, 

2 <iU- 4-^ see *jU*^- 

^ jaba % {^jU- jibaya) to collect, raise, 
levy (a taxes, duties) II to prostrate o.s. 
(in prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect 
(a, » s.o.) 

<jL>- jibaya raising, levying (of taxes) ; 
(pi. -at) tax, duty, i mpost 

ciL»- jiba'i tax- (in compounds); fiscal 

^ majban pi. u->L£ majdbin tax, impost 

i_->U- jabin pi. »L^ jubah tax collector, 
revenue officer, collector; {bus, etc.) con- 
ductor (ir.) 

4-jU- jdbiya pi. ^j*- jawabin pool, basin 

b»~ /afa (abbreviation of M <_^»-) cosine 

4jIi>- (»r.) ££a#a head-scarf 

d^»- jalta u (jatt) and VIII to tear out, uproot 
(a a tree, also fig.) 

«£*- jutta pl.d^>- jvtat, i'iJ ajtat body; 
corpse, cadaver; carcass 

it^z mujtatt uprooted (also fig.); dj^Jll 
name of a poetical meter 

Ji»- jatt thick, dense (esp. hair) 

jJjU- jitltq pi. iiJli*- jatdliqa catholicos, pii- 
mate of the Armenian Church 

£- jatama u i {jatm, *J>- jutum) to alight, 
sit, perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to 1 
fall or lie prone, lie face down; to lie,! 
weigh heavily (Jp on s.o.,; to beset, j 
oppress (J* | »jX* Jp ^ faadrihi) r 
to weigh heavily on s.o.'s soul (problem,- 

«*i»- jatma (n. vie.) motionless sitting 
or lying 

l»li^- jutam and r>U- jdtum nightmare, 

olpiaf jutmdn pi. -af body, mortal; 

<il£>- jutmani bodily, physical, cor. 

<U- j'aH'm pi. JU. juttam squatting, I 
crouching; perching; prostrate, prone 

G^r) ^r fat® u (jutuw) to kneel, rest on the 
knees; to bend the knee, genuflect; to 
fall on one's knees 

jt>- jutum kneeling position 
lj^~ jutwa rock pile, mound; sepulchral 
mound, tumulus 
^£- majtan hassock 

i»U- jatin kneeling; Jli-1 Herculea 

Jk& jahada a (jahd, j^ juhud) to negate 
(a; to disclaim, disavow, disown, 
deny (a; to refuse, reject, repudiate 
(a; not to want to recognize ( 4 s.o.), 
not want to know anything (a, » about 
s.o.,; to renounce, forswear, adjure 
(a a belief); to deny (a o s.o. his right) | 
<Lj^ j& (jamllahu) to be ungrateful to s.o. 

X& jahd denial; repudiation, disavowal, 
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.) 

*j*: juhud denial; evasion, dodging, 
shirking (of a moral obligation) ; ingrat- 

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itude; repudiation, disavowal, rejection, 
disclaimer; unbelief (rel.) 
-U-U- jahid denier; infidel, unbeliever 

f[ VII to hide in its hole or den (animal) 
VIII to seek refuge, take one's refuge (J in) 

j£ juhr pi. jl*-l ajhar, jjf- juhur hole, 
den, lair, burrow (of animals) 

ji* jaM pi. Ji[& jihds, d[±& jihsan, 
J\£\ ajhas young donkey; (pi. J>j^=, 
jukuS) trestle, horse 

~*1& jah§a young female donkey 

Ji* jahaza a {bj& juhuz) to bulge, pro- 
trude (eyeball) ; to look at wide-eyed, stare 
juJI ]ffjf[ juhuz al-ain exophthalmic 
goiter, abnormal protrusion of the eye- 

Ji* jdhafa a (jahf) to peel off, scrape off 
(a; to sweep away (a j to have 
a bias (« for), side (** with s.o.) IV to 
harm, hurt, injure, prejudice (<_-> s.o.,; to ruin, destroy (<-> s.o.,; 
to wrong (o» s.o.) 

Jsi^l ijhaf injustice, wrong; bias, prej- 

Ja**£ mujhif unjust, unfair; biased, 

Ja£ jahfal pi. Jil*f jahdfd 2 multitude, le- 
gion, host, large army; army corps 
[Syr,); eminent man 

**; jahlm f. (also m.) fire, helhire, hell 
^Z jdhimi hellish, infernal 

fa jakka (eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to 
boast, brag; (syr.) to dress up (slightly 
jrl£ jakkak boaster, braggart 

*J*- jadd pi, ijA>- judud, a!.wl ajdad grand- 
father; ancestor, forefather | J* VI -U-l 
(a'ld) ancestor; <iV &•*>- {H-ohi) my pa- 
ternal grandfather 

s-U- jadda pi. -at grandmother 

- jadda i to be new; to be a recent devel- 
opment, have happened lately, have 
recently become a fact; to be added, crop 
up or enter as a new factor (circum- 
stances, costs); to appear for the first 
time (also, e.g., on the stage); to be or 
become serious, grave; to be weighty, 
significant, important; to take (J 
seriously; to strive earnestly (j for), go 
out of one's way (j to do, make 
every effort (j in); to be serious, be in 
earnest (J about), mean business; to 
hurry ( j one's step) | *mJ<> J ■**- he 
strode quickly on his way, strained for- 
ward in a hurry; «yu- ,j -k*- (sairihi) do. II to 
renew (a; to make anew, remake (a; to modernize (a; to restore, 
renovate, remodel, refit, recondition, re- 
furbish (a ; to be an innovator, a re- 
former; to feature new or novel, pro- 
duce new; to rejuvenate, regenerate, 
revive, freshen up (a; to renew, 
extend (a a permit) ; to begin anew, repeat 
(a, make a new start (a in; to 
try again (4b- hazzdhu one's luck) IV to 
strive, endeavor, take pains; to apply 
o.s. earnestly and assiduously (j to), 
be bent, be intent (j on; to hurry 
(j one's stop); to renew, make new (a | *ju* J Jb-I = ojv j J> V to 
become new, be renewed; to revive; to 
crop up anew (e.g., problems) X to be new, 
be added or enter as a new factor, come 
newly into existence; to make new, re- 
new (a 

jl*. jadd pi. jj*b- judud good luck, good 

-b- jidd seriousness, earnestness; dil- 
igence, assiduity, eagerness; io*- jiddan 
very, much | J&~ and Jb- j* earnestly, 
seriously; .UaIj Jb- jiddu bahizin very high 
(price); J** JU- /. 'azimin very great; 
Jst^Vi -U- Ojil^ {Jidda l-iktildf) they 

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differ widely; J JL;U JL- J* .JiSj {sdqi 
l-j.) to apply o.s. with diligence to, take 
pains in, make every effort to 

iSXj*- jiddi serious; earnest; t-i-Ur 
jiddiyan in earnest, earnestly, seriously 

4* .u- jiddiya earnestness; seriousness, 
gravity (of a situation) 

*Jl>- Jidda newness, recency, novelty; 
modernness, modernity; O rebirth, ren- 
aissance | 4*y»j oJai (tarafa) in a new and 
unusual fashion 

Sju- judda 2 , usually pronounced Jidda, 
Jidda (seaport in W Saudi Arabia, on 
the Red Sea) 

joju- jadld pi. j-U- judvd, judad new, 
recent; renewed; modern; novel, un- 
precedented | 6l-u:iU al-jadidan day and 
night; JbJU- <y anew, again; (eg.) JUJU- 
— J gadid lang brand-new ?Jb4>- ^ J* 
anything new? 

JU-I ajadd? more serious, more intent; 
newer, more recent 

.b-Uf tajdld renewal (also, e.g., of a 
permit); creation of new, origina- 
tion; new presentation, new production 
(theat); innovation; reorganization, re- 
form ; modernization ; renovation, restora- 
tion, remodeling, refitting, recondition- 
ing, refurbishing; rejuvenation, regenera- 
tion ; pi. -at innovations ; new achievements 

iJL^ tajaddud renewal, regeneration, 

iU- jadd in earnest, earnest; serious 

oU- jddda pi. -at, il_j»- jawddd 2 main 
street; street 

jj-L£ majdud fortunate, lucky 

*A£ mujaddid renewer; innovator; re- 

**£■ mujaddad renewed, extended; re- 
modeled, reconditioned, renovated, re- 
stored; rejuvenated, regenerated; new, 

recent, young; bo* mujaddadan anew 

Jbf mujidd painstaking, diligent, as- 

JUjl~. mustajidd new, recent; — (pi. 
-un) incipient; recruit (mil.), also ^JL*- 
JUc~*. (jundl) and -Uw~« gJiL~£> ('askari) 

^JU- jadvba u (*jj.u- juduba) and jadaba u 
(jadb) to be or become dry, arid (soil); 
to be barren, dried up, infertile, sterile 
IV to suffer from drought, poverty or 
dearth; to be barren, sterile; to come to 
nothing, go up in smoke, fall flat, fizzle 
out; (syr.) to explode in the barrel (shell; 

l->JU- jadb drought, barrenness, sterility; 
sterile, barren 

*_-jJU- jadlb and «-» •**?-' ajdab 2 , f. »ba>- 
jadbd* 2 barren, sterile 

wO^ mujdib barren, sterile; desolate, 
arid; unproductive, unprofitable 

£>0>- jadat pi. il.u-1 ajdat grave, tomb 

JU-JU- jvdjud pi. JU-IjU- jaddjid 2 cricket 

^JU- jadura u (SjlJU- jaddra) to be fit, suit- 
able, proper, appropriate (^ for s.o., for; to befit, behoove (<-> s.o.,; td 
be worthy (<-> of), deserve (*-» [ 
•jTj jJUi (dikruhu) and ^-iJt-j jJwf it is 
worth mentioning 

j-u- jadr wall 

j-JU- jadir pi. -un, »lj-L>- judard* 2 
worthy, deserving (<^> of; becoming, 
befitting (^; proper, suited, suit- 
able, fit (i-> for), appropriate (<-* to) | _/-U- 
jfM\j (dikr) worth mentioning 

jJU-! ajdar 2 worthier; more appro- 
priate; better suited, more suitable 

•jIju- jaddra worthiness; fitness, suit- 
ability, aptitude, qualification; appro- 
priateness | SjIjU-I olfS certificate of 
merit, citation (for bravery; mil.) 

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jIju- jidar pi. jJ*r judur, b\j±>- judran 
^J-U- jidan mural, wall (adj.) 

a jA>- jwrftra (pass.) and II to have smallpox 

i$j.U- judarl, jadarl smallpox 

jjJLf majdur and j4j£ mujaddar in- 
fected with smallpox; pock-marked 

Sjijf mujaddara dish made of rice or 
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions 
and oil (eg., syr.) 

^JU- jada'a a {jad e ) to cut off, amputate 
(a, esp. some part of the body) 

JuVI fid* bi-jad'i l-anf {prop., at the 
cost of having the nose cut off) at any 
price, regardless of the sacrifice involved 

f-JU-l ajda* 2 mutilated (by having the 
nose, or the like, cut off) 

2 G £JU- gada f (= ^JU- jada") pi. OUo*- 
gid'an (eg.) young man, young fellow; he- 

l J>*>. II to curse, blaspheme (Jp s.o.,esp.God) 
(JuA*: tajdlf imprecation, blasphemy 
d><&- mujaddif blasphemer 

Vj-U jadafa i and 11 to row (a a boat) 
<J»Uif mijddf pi. <J&i^ majddif 2 oar 
<Ju^ tajdlf rowing (sport) 

M-4- jadala u t (;arfi) to twist tight, tighten, 
stretch (a a rope); to braid, plait (a, 
the hair, etc) II to braid, plait, (a 
Ill to quarrel, wrangle, bicker (0 with 
s.o.) ; to argue, debate (a with s.o.); to 
dispute, contest (j VI to quarrel, 
have an argument ; to carry on a dispute 

J-i*- jadal quarrel, argument; debate, 
dispute, discussion, controversy | ^ji 
^-U- farada jadahxn to assume for the 
Bake of argument, propose as a basis for 
discussion, assume hypothetically (jl 

J-l»- jadaM controversial; disputatious; 
a disputant; dialectical | aJ-J-J aj.sU.1 
(maddiya) dialectical materialism (philos.) 

SJ.U- jadcUiya dialectics (philos.) 

Jl-u- jaddal and <}\jj~ mijddl disputa- 
tious, argumentative; mijddl see also 

4L_Jb»- jadlla pi. Jj*1jl>- jadd'il 2 braid, 
plait; tress 

Jljbf mijddl pi. Jj.iIj£ majddil 2 flag- 
stone, ashlar; see also above under 

JIjl>- jiddl and iJjbf mu jadala pi. -at 
quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion, 
debate | JUA-I J-i V (yaqbalu) incontest- 
able, indisputable; JlJb»- V Id jiddla and 
Jl-U- ^ bi-ld j. incontestably, indispu- 

Jj-^ majdul tightly twisted; braided, 
plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress 
of hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., 

J:>U£ mujddil disputant, opponent in 

2 Jjj^. jadwal pi. Jjl-i^- jaddwil 2 creek, brook, 
little stream; column; list, roster; index; 
chart, table, schedule | ^'j^ ^j-^r (dim* 
si) curriculum; ~<^ajjS\ Jj-U- stock list, 
4«s>jjJ\ Jj-u- t-j^- (kdrija) not quoted 
(stock exchange); JL^Vl JjA>- agenda; 
working plan; J*UjjI Jj4»- correlation 
table (math.); ^IjlkiJl ■JLti^* Jj^>- (qitd* 
rat) time table (for trains) ; railroad guide ; 
<^>j^\ Jj^ /. ad-darb multiplication 

(jA>-) li>- jadd u to give a present (Jp to 
s.o.) IV to give as a present (<_j Jp s.o., present (^» Jp s.o. with); to be of 
use, be useful; to be appropriate, serve 
the purpose (means, device) | UiJ ^5-^-1 
(nafan) to be useful; ^-^ V ^ that 
won't help you, that will be of no use 
(to you); il* dJ^ ^J^ U do.; ^»La ($JL£ V 

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(fatilan) = ^ Jij V, see J-p; ^a* ^ 

^ ^j^i see i£jj$ X to beg for alms; 

to implore, beg (* o s.o. for, plead 

(a for 

»i JL»- yada' advantage, gain (j* for s.o.) 
^j-U- jadwa gift, present; advantage, 

benefit, gain | ^jJU- ^L (bi-ld) and j*£ J* 

(jj-l^- (gairi) of no avail, useless, futile, in 


^.U-l oj'rfd more useful, more advanta- 

» 1 0=^-1 istijda' fervent plea, supplica- 

A£ mujdin useful, helpful; suitable, 
appropriate, serving the purpose | *£■ jf 

^JL>- jady pi. »ljb» /ufcf, olJU- jidydn kid, 
young billy goat; ^jlU Capricorn (sign of 
the zodiac; as(ro«..); the tenth month of 
the solar year (Saudi Ar., cf. J*>- hamal); 
the North Star 

JL>- jadda u (jadd) to cut off, clip (* 

olJU- judada pi. -«( slip of paper; pi. 
CjlilJU- small pieces, shreds, scraps, clip- 

<_jJL>- jadaba i (jadb) to pull, draw (a; 
to attract (a; to sniff (a the air, a 
fragrance); to pull out, draw out, whip 
out (a, draw (a a weapon, or the 
like); to appeal, prove attractive (» to 
s.o.), attract, captivate, charm, allure 
(» s.o.), win (* s.o.) over (<tJl to one's 
side) III to contend (<> with s.o.) at pul- 
ling, tugging, etc. (a | JJ-1 *pW" 
(habla) to vie with s.o.; {to be able) to 
compete with s.o., measure up to s.o., 
be a match for s.o.; *^Wl «uSU- or 4jSU- 
bJb- or £*j<U-1 Jsijkl <*jiU- (atrafa l-h.) 
he engaged him in conversation, involved 
him in a discussion; SjUiU J»\J*\ *j.iU- 
(atrdfa l-haddra) to vie with s.o. in cul- 
ture VI to pull back and forth (o s.o.); to 
contend; to contend with one another 

(o, * for); to attract each other | IjjiU 
i^jJlU Jsl^l (atrafa l-h.) they were deep 
in conversation, they were talking to- 
gether VII to be attracted; to be drawn, 
gravitate (Jf toward, to); to be carried 
away, be in ecstasy VIII to attract (« 
s.o., a, 4JI to o.s.; also magn.); to 
allure, entice (0 s.o.); to win (0 s.o.) over 
(4JI to one's side); to draw, inhale (a 
puffs from a cigarette, etc.) 

u-iJU- jadb attraction; gravitation; ap- 
peal, lure, enticement, captivation; O ec- 
stasy I lii>- Xf~\ to wrest away, take 
away by force; iS JJ-\ v^-J (jinsl) sex 

«-jiA>- jadddb attractive; magnetic (fig.); 
suction, suctorial; winning, fetching, en- 
gaging; charming, enticing, captivating, 

uJUl ajdab 2 more attractive, more 

t_-ilJL^i injiddb attraction, inclination, 
proneness, tendency; ecstasy 

<_>IJb>-l ijtiddb attraction; enticement, 

u-oU~ jddib attractive; magnetic (fig.); 
winning, fetching, engaging; charming, 
enticing, captivating, gripping 

<LjSU- jadiblya gravitation; attraction; 
attractiveness; charm, fascination; mag- 
netism (fig.); lure, enticement | O V.^ 
JiSJl j. at-tiql gravitational force; oiU 
^L^kJL. (magnatisiya) magnetism; ^ujiU 
^JLL- I j . al-jins sex appeal 

*_jjJbf majdub attracted; possessed, 
maniacal, insane; (pi. «_-jibf majadib 2 ) 
maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot | JiL*. 
^jSUM mustaSfd l-m. mental hospital 

t^oU^u mutajddib mutually attractive; 
belonging together, inseparable 

^JU.X* munjadib attracted; incUned, 
tending ( J[ to) 

jJU- jadara u (jadr) to uproot, tear out by the 

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roots (a II do.; to extract the root 
(* of a number; math.); to take root; to 
cause (» s.o., * to become deeply 

j JU- jidr, jadr pi. jjX>- judur root {also 
math.); stem, base, lower end; (pi. jli»-l 
ajddr) stub (of a receipt book, or the 
like) I j^S ji-jf (tarbi'i) square root 

iSjJb- jidrt radical, root (adj.); radical 
(— fundamental, extreme) | oIlw^ 
SjjJU- radical improvements; t£jA*r J*" 
{hall) a radical solution 

jij. tajdir evolution, root extraction 

9A>- jada r pi. jlp^U- jud'an young man. young 
fellow (cf. D pJbf gadcf) ; new, incipient | 
4p4>- u^i-l C-oU {harbu t jadaatan) the war 
broke out again, started all over again; 
UJU ^V! iUl (l-amra) he reopened the 
whole affair, he reverted to the earlier 

fJU- jmF pi. pl-V ojda*, fyV J*"^*' 
stem, trunk; stump, tree stump; torso 

^JU- ?j(fZ truncal 

JJU II to row (a a boat) 

cjlif- mijd&f pi. «Juibf Tnajddif 2 oar 

JU ja4i/a a (jadal) to be happy, gay, 
exuberant, rejoice IV to make happy, 
gladden, cheer (0 s.o.) 

J.U jidl pi. J1JU-I a/da?, JyU- j^wZ 
stump (of a tree) 

JjJU- judail wooden post on which 
camels rub themselves 

Ji>- jadal gaiety, hilarity, exuberance, 

Jir j°4& P** <jVi»- judlan gay, hilar- 
ious, cheerful, in high spirits, exuberant, 

u^i>- jadldn 2 gay, hilarious, cheerful, 
in high spirits, exuberant, happy 

fJb- jadama i (jadm) to cut off, chop off 
(a, esp. a part of the body); to 
remove, take out, excise (a e.g., the 
tonsils, the appendix; surg.); pass. 
judima to be afflicted with leprosy 

fir jidm pi. fj-U- judum, >»tJU-1 ajdam 

*li»- judam leprosy 

i*li>- judama stubble 

>-U-l ajdam 2 pi. t/Jb- jadma mutilated 
(from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut 
off); leprous; leper 

>jii majdum leprous; leper 

j^.JU- judmur stump 

SjJU- jadwa, jidwa, judwa pi. tS-U- jidan, 
judan, »IJU- ?idd' firebrand; burning log 

^ jarra 1* (/atr) to draw, pull (a; to 
drag, tug, haul (a; to tow (a; 
to trail (a; to drag along (* s.o., 
a; to draw (Jp a, on s.o.), 
bring (a down (Jp upon s.o.); to 
lead (Jl to), bring on, cause (J!; to 
entail (a e.g., some evil, J* for s.o.); 
(gram.) to pronounce the final consonant 
with », put (a word) into the genitive [ 
Ijj^ j>- (jariratan) to commit an outrage, 
a crime (J* against s.o.); tajji j>- (quyu* 
dan) to be in shackles, go shackled; 
a~*J J! jbJl j*- (qur$ihl) to secure advan- 
tages for o.s., feather one's nest; ^ *i/ 
iJSvj oLJ (lisdnahu bi-Jcalima) he won't 
let a word escape his lips ; V 4 * JT {qada* 
maihl) to drag one's feet, have a dragging 
gait IV to ruminate VII passive of I; to 
be driven; to be swept along, drift, float; 
to be derived, stem (,jp from, out of; 
esp. rights, claims from a contract or a 
legal situation) J *\jj\ J[ j£-\ (warai) to 
withdraw, fall back, give way VIII to 
ruminate; to repeat constantly (a the 
same words, ideas, etc.) j «uVl ./wr' {did* 
mahu) to mull over one's grief; Ijj^r' 

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JL^U-1 they chewed the old cud over, 
kept saying the same things 

j^ jarr pull(ing), drawing, draft; trac- 
tion; drag(ging), tugging, towage, haul- 
ing; bringing on, causing; genitive; pro- 
nunciation of the final consonant with i 
{gram.) \ J~ 1 J*p- harf al-j. {gram.) pre- 
position; \jr r i»j wa-halumma jarran and 
so forth 

%j>. jarra pi. j\j>- jirdr (earthenware) 

~*jT j arra * jwrra trail, track; rut (left 
by a wagon) | 15 lj£^ bi-j. qalam with 
one stroke of the pen 

lj>- jirra cud (of a ruminant) 

(jj^ ^ min jarra because of | £i^ ^ 
because of you, on your account, for 
your sake 

Aj>- j* min jarra' i because of, due to j 
o! *\j>- j* because 

j\j>- jarrdr dragging along behind itself 
a great store of things ; huge (army) ; pro- 
ducer and seller of clay jars (from Ij^ 
jarra); — (pi. -at) tractor; tugboat, 
steam tug, towing launch | j^f j\j^ 
{mujanzar) tracklaying tractor; Sjlj>- aj^ 
{'araba) motor car (tram); tractor vehicle 

jjjU jdrur pi. jj^yr ) aw ^ rir2 ( s V r ') 
drawer (of a desk, etc.) 

SjjjU- jarura {leb.) rake (tool) 

•Jjr W%m pi. J\yr jarair* guilt; 
offense, outrage, crime | ~*j^j>- J* m ^ n 
jarlrati because of, on account of 

lj\j*- jarrdra pi. -at a variety of scor- 
pion; tractor 

j£ mijarr trace, tug (of a harness) 

«j£ ma jarra pi. -at galaxy 

gjZ- majarrl galactic 

4ij\j£-\ ingirarlya {eg,) towage charges 
for watercraft 

jU- jarr governing the genit. (of a prep- 
osition; gram.) 

jjj*r majrur drawn, dragged, towed, 
etc.; word, governed by a preposition, 
word in the genitive form; (pi. jrjU 
magdrlr 2 ) drain, sewer {eg.) ; jj\$ sew- 
ers, sewage system {eg.) 

jLf mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.) 

jj>- jaru'a u («!>>- jura, »*\j^ jard'a) to dare, 
venture, risk, hazard ( Jp, take the 
risk (Jp of, ol of doing, have the 
courage (Jp for II to encourage 
(Jp » s.o. to V to dare, venture, 
risk, hazard ( Jp VIII to be venture- 
some, be daring; to become bold, make 
bold (Jp with s.o.); to venture (Jp 
or upon, have the audacity (J* to 

*<£j*r i ar ? pl- "hjr^ ajriyd' 2 bold, 
courageous (<->, Jp in; forward, 
immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, fool- 

•l/T J u1?a an( i *»bf jwaa courage, 
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence 
*iSj^- mujtarC bold, forward 
g\j>r (Ft.; Eg. spelling) gardi pi. -at garage 
a\j>- (Eg. spelling) gram pi. -at gram 

C-juI^ (Eg. spelling) granit granite 
Jji^*- granitl granitic 

'u^ jariba a {jarab) to be mangy; {eg.) to 
fade (color) II to test (a ; to try, try 
out, essay (a; to sample (a; 
to rehearse, practice (a ; to attempt 
(a; to put to the test, try, tempt 
(« s.o.) | j *~JJ ^j*- to try one's hand at; 
fLVl v>T {ayyama) to gather experience 

^j^ jarab mange ; itch, scabies 

V-rT jarib mangy; scabby 

^j>-\ ajrab 2 t f. Aij*- jarbd' 2 , pi. ^j* 
jurb and o^yr j^rban 2 mangy; scabby 

~>\j>r jirdb pi. ii^l ajriba, ^j^ jurvh 
sack, bag, traveling bag; knapsack; 
scrotum; covering, case; sheath, scab- 
bard (for the sword) 

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wlj*- jurdb pi. -at stocking, sock 
u*j^ jarlb a patch of arable land 
\A tajnba pl« VJ^ tajdrib 2 trial, test; 
tryout; attempt; practice, rehearsal; 
scientific test, experiment ; probation ; 
trial, tribulation ; temptation ; experience, 
practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also 
L*J«u hj£ (matbaHya) 

^ij£ tajrlb trial, test(ing) ; trial, trib- 
ulation; temptation 

iSlA tojribi trial, test (adj.); ex- 
perimental; based on experience, em- 
pirical | ^jjnjJI fJ Jc}\ 1* { f ilm an-nafs) 
experimental psychology; ^jf-j**- (haf- ) 
drilling of a test hole, exploration drilling ; 
\&A ^J-k {madrasa) experimental school 

*^ m j4 tajrlHya empiricism (philos.) 

<~>j£ mujarrib experimental; tester; 
examiner; tempter 

w^f mujarrab tried, tested; proven or 
established by experience, time- tested, 
time-tried; experienced, practiced, sea- 
soned; man of experience 

Vjjt look up alphabetically 

Slij*- jarbada = %y j>- 

JJT jurbuz pi. *j\j*- jardbiza impostor, 
confidence man, swindler 

"Ojr jarbaza (also 3Jb^>-) deception, 

fyj? W^ff (= fy.j) ph t^}jT jwabV 2 
jerboa (200?.) 

k&j*- jctrabandiya (and hx^\j>-) knapsack; 
{eg.) garabandlya cartridge pouch; small 
leather pouch 

a*. II iajartama to take root, come into 
existence, germinate 

tj*f? jurtum, l»jj/f jurtuma pi. ^jt 
jaratim 2 root; origin; germ; microbe, 
bacillus, bacterium | fj$J~) c^- taht al-j. 
inframicrobe ; ^j^-) i* 'Hm al-j' bacteri- 

^j>- look up alphabetically 

jTjr jarjara l}jrj*r farjara) to gargle; to 
jerk or pull back and forth; to trail, drag 
(a ; to tow away (* | «IW- j>-j*r 
(kutdhu) to drag one's feet, shuffle along 
II tajarjara pass, and refi. of I 

lj>-j>- jar jam gargling; rumbling noise; 
rumble, clatter (of a wagon) 

^ jirjxr (large, thick) beans 
jirjir watercress (bot.) 

ryr j^ralm a H ar fy) to wound (» s.o.); to, 
injure, hurt (« s.o.; also fig., the feelings) 
II to invalidate (a testimony), challenge, 
declare unreliable (e a witness), take 
formal exception (a, * to) VIII to commit 
(a an outrage, a crime); to bring about 
(a wonders) | oLJl ^j*^ (sayyi'dt) to 
do evil things 

rj*- jurh pi. ^\j>- jirah, ^jjt juruh, 
£*C~jsr juruhat, r^j^ ajrah wound, in- 
jury, lesion 

~\j»- jarrah pi. -un surgeon | ^yr 
jL-VI dental surgeon 
**-'jr ji r &b a surgery 
^■\j>r jirdhi surgical | v-l>>- *s^ 
( f amaliya) surgical operation 

f mjSr jarih pi. ^jr jo>rha wounded, 
injured, hurt 

£j£ tajrih surgery; defamation, dis- 

,-jU- jdrik injuring; wounding, sting- 
ing, painful, hurting; rapacious (beast), 

o-jU- jdriha pi. ^yr jawarih 2 pred- 
atory animal or bird | jJJl £j'j»- ?'• 
ap4air predatory birds 

rj\yr j^rdrih 2 limbs, extremities (of 
the body) | ^j\yr J& with might and 
main, with all his strength 

rjjZ wajruh pi. £;U majdrih? 
wounded, injured, hurt 

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r jarada u {jard) to peel, pare (a; to 
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk (a 
of; to denude, divest, strip, bare 
(a; (com.) to take stock; to make 
an inventory («jUiJ1 of goods on hand) 
II to peel, pare (a; to remove the 
shell, peel, rind or husk (a of; to 
denude, divest, strip, dispossess, deprive 
(j* 4 or t s.o. or of); to withhold 
(j* o from s.o.; to draw, unsheathe 
(•JuJI the sword); to unleash (J* a 
against s.o.); to send, dispatch (* a 
military detachment, troops, x^ or J* 
against s.o.); to free (j- a or « s.o. or from); to isolate (a; to abstract 
(a; to divest (,>• « s.o. of his citizen- 
ship, of a rank, of a vested right, etc.) | 
v^LJI j* o^ to disarm s.o.; ^ <u~aj :>j>- 
to free o.s. from, rid o.s. of, give up, ; 
<uj*>U y* a:y- [malabisihi) to undress 
s.o. V pass, of II; to strip o.s., rid o.s., get 
rid (^ or jc of), free o.s. ( y or jp from) ; 
to be free (^ or ^ from, J for a task); 
to devote o.s. exclusively (J to; to 
give up, renounce dy* or jp; to 
isolate o.s. ; to be absolute 

*j? J ar d hare, threadbare, shabby, 
worn; (com.) inventory; stocktaking 

*JT ) ar id> without vegetation, barren, 
bleak, stark (landscape) 

i^>-i a/rad 2 , f. *^j>- jarda 2 , pi. Sj^ 
jurd desolate, bleak, without vegetation; 
hairless, bald; threadbare, shabby, worn 
(garment); open, unprotected (border) 

^JT j ar &d (coll.; n. un. I) locust(s) | 
JU-j iljsj. (rahhdl) migratory locust(s); 
js*J\ s\j>- j. al-bahr langouste, sea cray- 
fish; U^l^ bi-jarddikd in its entirety 

•bj*- jarid palm brandies stripped of 
their leaves; jereed, a blunt javelin used 
in equestrian games 

»jij^s~ jarida pi. >ti\j>- jard' id 2 (n. un. 
of Ai^rr) palm-leaf stalk; list, register, 
roster, index; newspaper | v^i •**d,/r 

(yaumlya) daily newspaper; *L1I Jb'ljv 
j. al-masa the evening papers; SJUjil. 
iJtHJl and aJU-'aJI aJb^i-l the newsreel; 
*-+«*) »^o*- (rasmiya) official gazette, ; 
government paper for publishing laws \ 

{ £2>j J * r \ ajrudl (syr.) beardless, hairier 

2>j£- mijrad pi. ajbf ma jarid 2 scraper 

Jojd tajrld peeling, paring; dis- 
robement, stripping; denudation; depri- 
vation; divestment; disarmament; dial 
patching (of troops); freeing; isolation; 
abstraction | ^AJl ^y Jb^ disarmament;^ 
4jj^L-*'i/i jp ^jJ! Jjjif (usturiya) de- 
mythologization of religion | 

*Aj^ tajrida pi. ~dt t -bjU 1 tajdrHl 

military detachment, expeditionary force; 

iS+ijf tajridi abstract | <^4jj>j1I $ : 
(fann) abstract art 

<l Oj j£ tajridiya abstract trend (in art} ! 

sjf tajarrud freedom (j* or ^ 
from); isolatedness, isolation; independ- 
ence, impartiality; absoluteness; ab-- 
stractness, abstraction | 

$j£ mujarrad denuded, bare, naked;- 

freed, free (,>» or ^ from); pure, mere, 

nothing more than ; sole ; very, absolute; 

abstract; selfless, disinterested; 1st stem; 

of the verb (gram.); pi. C»l^ abstract; 

matters, abstracts | (with foil, noun in f 

genitive — mere, sheer, nothing but:}? 

jk ij£ mujarradu lahwin mere play, just- 

fun; S^><il o^^i with the naked eye; 

jl j^>J. li-mujarradi an for the simple' 

reason that . . . ; U Sj^x bi-mujarradi m l 

as soon as, at the very moment when; \ 

*-}L»H y l$j£- lilaL. (mintaqa) demilita- I 

rized zone \ 

2j*-z* mutajarrid impartial; selfless, free f 

of selfish interest 

6*j*r jardal pi. Ja1j»- jarddil 2 bucket, pail 

°>j>- jurad pi. uli^*- jirdan, jurddn large [ 
rat I 

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dj'^j>- jirdaun pi. Z/*\j*r jarddln 2 large 

*jj>- jurm pi, j^ ;«raz bundle (of hay, etc.) ; 
ponytail (hairdress) 

l O*JT j&fQM i {jars) to ring, toll, knell, 
(re) sound II to make experienced, inure 
by severe trials, sorely try (o s.o.; time, 
events); to compromise, disgrace, dis- 
credit, expose, bring into disrepute (uj 
o*j°r J ars > P rs sound, tone 
^j>- jams pi. ^-Iji^l ajrds bell 

<-j»- 7'wsa defamation, public expo- 
sure; scandal, disgrace 

2 iU^ jirsdya, vv^ prslya pi. -a£ jersey, 
woolen sweater; ^^ jersey cloth 

^J*yr (Ft* gar$on) gar son pi. -a/ (egr.) waiter 

^j-VT garsona, pi. -a£ (eg'.) waitress 

sjuj-^»- (Fr. garponniere) garsonera (eg.) 
bachelor quarters; rented quarters where 
a man can meet with his paramour 

J>j>- jarasa u (jars') to crush (a; to 
grate, bruise, grind (a 

J'jT J ar $ a grating, scraping noise 

irljT j ar i& crushed, bruised, coarsely 
ground; crushed grain; grits 

iil^ jarrdsa crusher (techn.) 

lijjU jdrusa pi. J^.j\j*r jawdris 2 
quern, hand mill (for grinding grain) 

Jtj->- jarida a (jarad); <L-hj ^y>j-*r (bi- 
riqiki) he choked on his saliva, could not 
swallow his saliva (because of excitement, 
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, 
in a state of great agitation, deeply 
moved; — jarada u (jard) to choke, 
suffocate (* s.o.) IV *hj <u^»-! (cf. I) 
to alarm s.o., fill s.o. with apprehension 

c*ij>r jari>4°- c^iJ^ ^J* c^ij^ 1 ^^" 
halo, l-j. duna l-qarid (proverb; lit.: 
choking prevented poetry, i.e.) in the 

face of death one does not think of 
rhyming (among other interpretations) 

fjr jam' & a O a O and jaria a (jara r ) to 
swallow, gulp, devour (a; to pour 
down, toss down (a a drink) II to make 
(6 s.o.) swallow (a; to gulp down 
V to drink (a; to swallow (a, 
also suffering, woes) VIII to swallow, gulp 
down (a 

'^jT j u >'' a > jar" a pi. 9j^- jura\ -at gulp, 
mouthfuh draught; dose, dosage (of a 
medicine or drug; med., pharm.); oral 
vaccination (med., = *jJaJl 1*^ j. at-fu'm) 

C>j*r jarafa >i (jarj) and VIII to sweep away 
(a; to wash away (a; to 
shovel away (a; to remove (a; 
to tear away, carry off (a; to carry 
along (a or * s.o. or VII to be swept 
away, be carried away 

Js/r fa r f clearance, shoveling away | 
JL^JI <J^r /. ar-rimdl dredging 

<Js^>- jvrf, juruf-pl. djj>- jurufy <Jsl>»-! 
ajrdf undercut bank or shore; cliff, 
steep slope, precipice; bluff (along a river 
or coast) | ^xi*- uj/r (jalidi) avalanche 

<s\j=r jirrafa pi. -at, iJ^Jj*- jararlf 2 
rake; harrow; O bulldozer j Jly ^il/*- 

J>j£ majraf pi. Jsjbf majdrif 2 torrent, 
strong current 

<j^f mljrafa shovel, scoop; (syr.) mat- 
tock; trowel 

»Jsl^ mijrdf pi. (Ju jl£ majdrif 2 shovel, 

tjslycl injirdf erosion (by water) 

<JsjL>- jdrif torrential (stream, moun- 
tain creek); stormy, violent (emotions, 
c S^ r \ al-jarkas the Circassians 

iS S J >- jarkasi pi. 4*S\j> r jardkisa Cir- 
cassian (adj. and n.) 

rj>- jarama i (jarm) to bone (J^\ al-lahma 

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the meat); — to commit an offense, a 
crime, an outrage (Jp or Jl against s.o.), 
sin ( Jp or Jl against s.o.), injure, harm, 
wrong (J* or Jl s.o.) II to incriminate, 
charge with a crime (o s.o. ; syr.) ; to make 
(* a criminal offense (jur.) IV to 
commit a crime, to sin (Jp or Jl against 
s.o.), do wrong ( Jp or Ji to s.o.), harm, 
wrong ( Jp or Jl s.o.) VIII = IV 

Aj>- garm pi. rjjr gurum {eg.) long, 
flat-bottomed barge, lighter (naut.) 

a j*- jirm pi. ptj^-i ajram, p»- jurum 
body; mass, bulk, volume {of a body); 
(pi. pl^-i) celestial body | lfU\ A^\ (fa* 
laklya)&n& ojjL-JI *\j^i\ (samdwiya) the 
celestial bodies 

aj>- jurm pi. Aj?\ ajrdm, mjj*- jurum 
offense, crime, sin 

aj9- V Id jarama surely, certainly, of 

jrj>. jarim hulking, bulky, huge, vo- 
luminous, of great size 

^-jT j ar ^' ma ph f^j? jwffi™? crime; 
offense; sin | (^^ or) ^jf *£ m j*- (kubrd, 
r uzma) capital offense; f l^i-l J>JU penal 

£ JL tajrlm incrimination; crimination 

f!/r' W® m crime; culpability, delin- 
quency; criminality | d^l-U-^l Aj>?\ i. ctl- 
ahddt juvenile criminality 

<j\j*»\ ijraml criminal 

{jj£ X lahm majrum fillet (meat) 

<Aj£- £-» sana mujarrama an entire 

aj£- mujrim criminal; (pi. -tin) a crim- 
inal; evildoer, culprit, delinquent \ aj£ 
aJU recidivous criminal; <-?j>- {jf- m- 
harb war criminal 

y\j>- jaramiz 2 and yAyr jard?nlz 2 limbs, 

legs | *>l^ 
made off 

(damma) he beat it, he 

oL*^-l al-jarmdn the Germanic tribes, the : 

tjltj^ jarmdni Germanic, Teutonic 

1 j J >- jurn pi, o\j>-\ ajrdn (stone) basin; j 
mortar; (eg.) threshing floor, barn | ( 
4jj^jJ.I bjp? j. al-ma'mudiya baptismal 

z o\j*r jirdn the front part of a camel's neck | 
<ul^ i— >^ to become established, take 
root; 4j\j*- <uL JJI (alqd, jirdndhu) to apply 
o.s. to and adjust to it, accustom 
o.s. to 

JU^>- lurndl (eg. also gurndl) pi. J^l^r Sara* ) 
nil 2 (eg., gardnll 2 ) journal, newspaper, 

C~ii\j>- granit granite 

jJl>r granitl granitic 

jjp- jarw (jiriu, jurw) pi. j>-\ ajrin, Aj>- jira% I 
*W a J r ® * *ijT^ ajriya puppy, whelp, \ 
cub (of a dog or beast of prey) 

l^jj^- grosa gross (=12 dozen) 

gj^ jara i (jary) to flow, stream (water) ; to 
run; to hurry, rush; to blow (wind); to 
take place, come to pass, happen, occur; 
to be under way, be in progress, be going 
on (work); to befall (J s.o.), happen (J 
to); to be in circulation, circulate, be 
current; to wend one's way (Jl to), 
head (Jl for); to proceed (Jp in accord- 
ance with); to conform (Jp to; to 
be guided, go (Jp by), take as a criterion 
(Jp; to follow (g*, yield, 
give way (~ to, e.g., to a desire); to 
entail (^; (with *\jj) to run or 
be after, seek to get | <d ^ 
« «ioJb- he had a talk with; q\j£ ^j>- 
(majrdhu) to take the same course as, 
be analogous to, follow the same way as, 
proceed or act in the same manner as; 
to function the same as, be used in the 
same sense as (of a word); J?XL\ Jp <£,> 

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(mudakkar) to be used in the masculine 
(gram.); ajJI &J£- * t5 iJl ^ ^j^ (minhu 
$-§ai'u majra d-dam) it had become second 
nature to him; jJVl Jp t£/r (aUun) 
to circulate, make the rounds (rumor); 
oU Jf Jp tfj^ to be on everyone's 
lips; <uii Jp ji^f*- (qalamihi) to come to 
s.o.'s pen (e.g., a poem); iL*- J* <£/*- 
(h'tta) to follow a plan; jUl IjL* Jp ^^ 
(fianan) he acts in accordance with this 
rule, follows this principle; <Jp ^jZ U 
J**JI {'amafo) the way things are handled, 
what is customary practice; J*Jl -o ^j^ 
to be in force, be valid, be commonly 
observed (law, custom); t_j oLJI £jj>- 
to be customary, be common practice, 
be a common phenomenon, have gained 
vogue; Jp SiUb ^jr ^° do s -^ n * custom- 
arily, be in the habit of doing; 
ri-iip dil-Aj <1>j*- that was their habit; 
u 4jU fjj>- {lisdnuhu) to articulate, 
pronounce, utter, express; O^- U 
iLUi <j what the night brought, what 
happened in the night II to cause to run [ 
<ujj (Sj>- (rlqahu) to make s.o.'s mouth 
water III to concur, agree, be in agree- 
ment (* with s.o. , J in; to keep 
pace, keep up (o with s.o.; also intellec- 
tually); to be able to follow (o s.o.); to 
go (along) (a with); to adapt o.s., ad- 
just, conform (a to), be guided (a by) 
IV to cause to flow, make flow (a; 
to cause to run, set running (a, a s.o.,; to make (a take place or 
happen, bring about (a; to carry 
out, execute, implement, put into effect, 
apply (a, e.g., rules, regulations); 
to carry out, perform (a an action); to 
hold, conduct (a talks, examinations); 
to set going, set in motion (a a project), 
launch (a an undertaking); to channel 
(J* or J a to), bestow, settle (J a 
or J* upon s.o.); to impose, inflict 
(Jp a, a penalty, on s.o.) | vjZ ^^1 
{tajribatan) to carry out an experiment; 
^i***" t5j*-\ to conduct an interview; 

U-jA^ iSj^r^ to conduct an investigation; 
4JU1 J <£j>-\ (i'dnatan) to grant s.o. a 
subsidy; ^j^- *[^1 {majra, with foil, 
genitive) to treat in the same man- 
ner as, put on equal footing with; 
<_j JjuJI t£/fi (alsinatahum) he brought 
them to the expression of . . ., caused 
them to voice or utter 

iSjr i ar y course | ^ U^>- jaryan r ald 
in accordance with, according to 

ill j*- t> m ^ n J ar &k a an< i £^\jT t> 
min jaraika because of you, on your 
account, for your sake 

*\j>- jarra runner, racer 

*t^ST P r &y a pi- -«* daily (food) ra- 
tions; pay, salary j *Aj*- J^e- e es giraya 
{eg.) coarse bread 

b\ij^- jaraydn flow, flux; course; stream 

4j£ majran pi. jit majdrin water- 
course, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent or 
flood of water; pipeline; canal, channel; 
drain, sewer; pi. sewers, sewage system; 
power line (el); current (d.); current (of 
a stream) ; track, path, course (of a ship, 
star); guide rail (techn.); course (of 
events), progress, passage; trend (in life, 
of events) | J^Ji i£j£- m. l-baul urethra 
(anat.); ^Judl <$jl^ m. t-tanaffus respir- 
atory tract {anat.)\ f$&l\ <jj\f> m. l-ka* 
lam the syntactic means, forms of con- 
tinuous discourse (of a language); (Sjf- 
j-^l. (mildhl) fairway, waterway (naut.); 
f W <Sj^- m ' l-hawa &ir stream, current 
of air, draft; *\j£ JU-I to take its course; 
see also <£/r * and IV 

tljLj^-L mdjaraydt, mdjariydt (pi. of 
tfj*- L.) (course of) events, happenings 

• IjLf mujdrdh keeping up (with foil, 
genitive: with); conformity (with foil. 
genitive: with) | J Sljbf mujdrdlan li 
in conformity with, in accordance with, 
according to 

»\j>-\ ijra pi. -dt performance (of an 
action); execution; enforcement; holding 

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(of talks, examinations, etc.); measure, 
step, proceeding; practical application, 
effectuation (of a plan, a recommen- 
dation, a rule); pi. oUl^l (Tun., Alg.) 
decrees, orders, regulations (jur.) j Jb^l 
oLI^I (ittakada) to take measures; 
iJ^JU o I •!/*-! (qdnunlya) legal steps, 
proceedings at law 
J|^-l ijra'% operational 

jU- jdrin flowing, streaming, running; 
circulating; current, present | ^jU-l j^tS\ 
(sahr) the current month 

*jjU- jariya pi. -at, j\j*- jawdrin girl; 
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, vessel 

jr jazza u (jazz) and VIII to cut off, clip 
(a; to shear, shear off (* ; esp. 
the wool of aheep) 

lj>- jizza (now also pronounced jazza) 
pi. J^- jizaz, j\j>r jazd'iz 2 shorn wool, 
fleece, clip 

3 J'>r ?W2a?a pi. -at shp of paper; label, 

jlj*. jazzdz pi. -tin shearer, woolshearer 
}£■ mijazz woolshears 

lh" jaza'a a to be content, content o.s, (<_j 
with) II to divide, part, separate, break 
up, cut up, partition (a V to divide, 
break up, be or become divided; to be 
separated, be detached, be partitioned 
off; to be divisible, separable (^ from) 
VIII = jaza'a; to divide up, do gradually, 
do a bit at a time (* an action, activity) 

*j*r l u z pi. *lj>-l ajza* part, portion; 
constituent, component; fraction; divi- 
sion; section; the 30th part of the Koran 
(= 2 hizb) | aJ*Ux>-! *\j>-\ spare parts, 
replacements (techn.) 

Jj»- juzl partial; minor, trivia], in- 
significant, unimportant; (jar.) minor, 
petty; L^J*- juzlyan partly; oLJjj>- 
bagatelles; petty cases (jur.) | y>r ■>!>• 
(mawddd) petty cases (jur.): y>r r^r 
(junah) summary delicts (jur.) ; iJ;^- <&£■ 

see under <X£; iJ^>- ijLJ see under 4jU; 
*Jjf 4j.sU- minor incident; <Jj>- i^J 
(taswiya) part payment; O iij>- *UJ 
(tasdbuh) partial assimilation (phon.) 

V>r ju£lya pi. -d( detail, particular; ? 
subordinate part; particle | lo^pw ^^jj* 
(saknya) rock fragments, mineral parti- 
cles; oUi&lj oLJ^i-l (kulllydt) the par- 
ticular and general aspects, the minor 
and the major issues 

*(jfr juzai* pi. -at molecule 

t^i^T J^ai'f molecular 

jlj>-l a?za*S pi. -ilw pharmacist, drug- 

uftU*!*' ajz&ji pi- -*y& pharmacist, drug- 

aJIj^-I ajzd'lya and iJU-ij*-! ajzdkdm 
pi. -a£ pharmacy, drugstore 

y^f tajzi'a division; partition; sep- i 
aration; dissociation; breakdown (into 
classes, categories, etc.); fragmentation! 
iT^U JjU divisible; 4jJ?£I1 SJbU divisi- i 
bihty; 5jj^^=Jl j>-\3 retailer, retail merchant : 

y!/r jaz'ara (from ^ i^U , see v>r) Algeriani- 

objaj- juzddn, jizddn pi. -a< wallet; change 

! J>r jazara u (jazr) to slaughter; to kill, ] 
butcher (a an animal) ; — i u (jazr) to ■ 
sink, fall, drop, ebb (water) 

J>j*r J azr slaughter; butchering; ebb 
(of the sea) 

*jj>- jazra blood sacrifice 

■Jjjr jazur pi. jy>- juzur slaughter 

•jljsp jizdra butcher's trade, butcherj \ 

j\j>- jazzdr pi. 2, ~un butcher 

I j j>- jazlra pi. jj>- juzur, rarely J\j> ■ 
jamir 2 island | *j _/>■ -ui Ubhu j. pen- ■ 
insula; »j J~) Al Jazira, (Northwest) 

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Mesopotamia; J\j^-) Algeria; Algiers 
(capital of Algeria); *-^Jt Ijj^ j. aVarab 
Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula; J\ji^ 
0I4JLCI {kdliddt) the Canary Islands; 
♦l^Mai-l »jj^\ (kadrd") Algeciras (seaport 
in SW Spain); ul»VI »/j*- /. al-amdn 
safety island 
iSJyr fazari insular; (pi. -un) islander 
<Sj\j*r ja&Firi pi. -un Algerian (adj. 
and n.); islander | *tJ)&\ <jj>fr*^:' 
<u*£Jl y^lyyrJdi {jumhuriya, scbbiya) De- 
mocratic and Popular Republic of Algeria 
jj4 majzir pi. j Jbf majdzir 2 slaughter- 
house, abattoir; butchery 

2jj£ majzara pi. jjL* majdzir 2 butch- 
ery; slaughterhouse (Ttm.) ; massacre, 

! jj»- jazar {coll.; n. un. S) carrot(s) 

pj»- jazi'a a (jaza r , fjjr juzu') to be or be- 
come anxious, worried, concerned; to 
be sad, unhappy (j* about); to feel 
regret {Jp for s.o.), pity (J* s.o.); to 
mourn (J* for s.o.) V to break apart, 
break, snap 

9)>- jaz r onyx 

fjT i uz<! axle; shaft (techn.) 
9 J»- jaza" anxiety, uneasiness, appre- 
hension, concern; anguish, fear; sadness 

l_jr 7 az ^ restless, impatient; anxious, 
worried, uneasy, apprehensive 

fj}T i az ^ an< * fj^r fa z ^ restless; im- 
patient; anxious, worried, uneasy, ap- 

£j£ mujazza? marbled, veined; varie- 
gated, dappled 

Jj*- III to act at, random, blindly, indis- 
criminately, take a chance; to speculate 
{fin.} ; to speak vaguely, in general terms ; 
to risk, stake (^ | a~Jcj JsjU- to 
risk one's life; j aj JsjU- to plunge s.o. 
into (some adventure) 

Jslj^- juzaf purchase of a certain a- 
mount of things (I si. Law); lil^»- juzd* 
fan at random, haphazardly 

iijljf mujazafa rashness, recklessness, 
foolhardiness ; risk, hazard; adventure, 

(J»Jb~ mujazif rash, reckless, foolhardy; 
adventurous ; venturesome 

l d}^- jazula u to be considerable, abun- 
dant, plentiful IV »UatJl 4J J J*- 1 {'atd'a) 
to give generously, openhandedly, lib- 
erally to s.o. 

4/r* i az ^ an( ^ tjij^r j az il pl- iJ[/T" 7* # 
zdl abundant, plentiful, ample, much; 
pure, lucid, eloquent (style) | J\j\ Jj*- 
of sound, unerring judgment; l^^Sw aj£j> 
*^jJ>- sakarahu Sukran jaztlan he thanked 
him profusely; *^jj>r l^^SCi many thanks! 

'^j*r jizk 1 piece, slice 
Z\j>- jazala profusion, abundance; 
(rhet.) purity (of style) 

2 djyr look up alphabetically 

z l>^J>- juzldn = jlaj*- 

1 {jr jazama i (jazm) to cut off, cut short, 
clip (a; to judge; to decide, settle 
{a; to be positive (<y about), be 
absolutely certain (<-> of; to assert 
authoritatively (<_j; to make up 
one's mind, decide, resolve (J* to do; to impose, make incumbent (Jp a on s.o.); {gram.) to pronounce the 
final consonant (of a word) without a 
vowel; to put (a a verb) into the apoco- 
pate form or the imperative 

Aj*. jazm Gutting off, clipping; decision; 
resolution, resolve; apodictic judgment; 
(gram.) apocopate form | Aji-1 1»^ 'aldmat 
ai'j. = jazma 

<*j>- jazma diacritical mark (°) indi- 
cating vowel lessness of a final consonant 

pU- jazim decisive; peremptory, def- 

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inite, definitive, final; firmly convinced, 
absolutely certain (<_j of; (pi. fj[>>- 
jawdzim 2 ) governing the apocopate form 

+jj£ majzum cut off, cut short, clipped ; 
decided, settled; (gram.) vowelless (final 
consonant); in the apocopate form 

fj*«X* munjazim (gram.) in the apoco- 
pate form 

2 *j*jr jazma pi. -at, pj>- jizam {pair of) shoes, 
(pair of) boots | \>\jj i.J*- (bi-ribdt) laced 
boots; 4p11 "i*J^ (lammd'a) patent-leather 

^j*r gazmagl (eg.) and jLj>- gizamdti 
(eg.), jazmdti (syr.) pi. -lya shoemaker 

<£j*- jam i (*\j>- jaza?) to requite, recompense 
(« s.o., u or Jf for), repay (e to s.o., 
<_,» or Jp; to reward (a s.o., i_j or 
Jp for); to punish (» s.o., l^ or Jp for); 
to satisfy (* s.o.), give satisfaction (• to 
s.o.); to compensate, make up (i_j a for with or by); to compensate, offset 
(^ | \j^~ *x\ iii>r (kairan) may 
God bless you for it! jl*^-- ^jt^jt {jo-zd'a 
sinimmdra) he returned to him good 
for evil III to repay, requite (lj a 
with, <~> a s.o. for), recompense (<~> « s.o. 
for); to reward (Jp or ^ « s.o. for); to 
punish ( Jp or ^ * s.o. for) | !j*>- ^IjU- (Am* 
ran) he invoked God's reward upon them 
IV to suffice (e s.o.), do for s.o. (0; to 
take the place, serve instead (jp of), re- 
place (jp 

»lj>- jazd' requital, repayment; rec- 
ompense, return; compensation, setoff; 
amends, reparation; punishment, pen- 
alty; final clause in a conditional sen- 
tence (gram.), = ^yii\ ^ j. as-sart \ 
jAaJ ♦!/»- (naqdi) fine; >\_yL) iiiaX* min* 
taqat al-j. penalty area (soccer) 

Jl_)>- jazal penal 

tax; tribute; head tax on free non- 
Muslims under Muslim rule 

\yfi- tajziya reward 

;ljlf mujazah requital, repayment; 

y^ jassa u (jass, i«^ majassa) to touch, 
feci, handle (a; to palpate, examine 
by touch (a; to test, sound, probe 
(a; to try to gain information 
(a about), try to find out (a; to 
spy out (a j <uaJ l _ r >- (nabdahu) to 
feel s.o.'s pulse, (fig.) *Jti\ tr iJ ^p*. to 
probe, sound out, try to find out 
V to try to gain information (a about), try 
to find out (a ; to reconnoiter, scout, 
explore (a; to be a spy, engage in 
espionage ; to spy, pry, snoop ( Jp on s.o.) | 
1jL»-l 4J fJlkM . £ (akbaran) to gather in- 
formation for s.o., spy for s.o. VIII to 
touch, feel, handle (a; to spy out 

I _ r j r jass: ^i-1 isj? tarty al-j. delicate 
to the touch, having a tender surface, fresh 

cr-^U- jasus pi. i _ r y?*\j*r jawdsis 2 spy 

4^-U- jasusa woman spy 

^j^-U- jasusi of espionage, spy- (in 

L--^-U- jdsusiya spying, espionage 
*~ or j ausasa spying* espionage 
lJ ~£ majass spot which one touches or 
feels; sense of touch | ,^^1 { yiS- hash' 
al-m. coarse to the touch, having a rough 

Lr A mi jass probe (med.) J 

cr « J ^ iajassus spying, espionage 

^ •£ tajassusi espionage (in com- 
pounds), contributing to or caused by 

^U- jdsi' hard, rough, rugged 

x^~ II to make corporeal, invest with & 

ss*c£*a jjy j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ ^$XLa < j^j-° ar^ O^JiS J->^ ^5v5*-o 


body, embody, incarnate (a, give 
concrete form (a to; to render or 
represent in corporeal form (*; to 
concretize (a; to represent (a a role 
or character); to personify (a V to 
become corporeal, assume concrete form, 
materialize; to assume a visible shape 
(j in); to be personified; to become 
incarnate (Chr.); to become three-dimen- 

J-w»- jasad pi. iU>.l ajsdd body | jl* 
*ui-l "Id al-j. and x~X\ ^^ Corpus Christi 
Day (Chr.); ic^J. I .u*. corpus delicti 

t^J-*- jasadj bodily, fleshly, carnal 

(jl-t*>- jusdanl bodily 

*U#: tajassud materialization; incar- 
nation {Chr.) 

J*jf mujassad embodied, corporified 

J-^w. mutajassid corporeal; incarnate 

->- jasara u to span, cross, traverse (a ; 
(3jU>- jasara, jj*^ jusur) to venture, 
risk (J*, have the courage < Jp to do II to build a dam or dike; to em- 
bolden, encourage (* s.o., Jp to do 
VI to dare, venture, risk ( Jp, have 
the audacity ( Jp to do ; to be bold, 
forward, insolent, impudent (Jp with 
s.o.) VIII to span, cross, traverse (a 

j~*r jisr pi. J ^j r \ ajsur, jj~>- jusur 
bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; 
— (pi. hj~r jusura) beam, girder; axle, 
axletree | il^pw. j**- (mutaharrik) movable 
bridge; i }U* j^~ {mu r aUaq) suspension 
bridge; f lc ^>- pontoon bridge, floating 
bridge; y^^*- {qalldb) bascule bridge, 
drawbridge; ^syr j^r {jawwl) airlift 

jj~*r jasur bold, daring; forward, in- 
solent, impudent 

SjLw*. jasara boldness, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardness, insolence 

jJd£ ta jasur boldness, recklessness, in- 
trepidity; forwardness, insolence 

^r-U^u mutajdsir bold, daring; forward, 
insolent, impudent 

fjb~>- see jjia-^>- 

^-*- jasuma u (i*L*- jasdma) to be great, big, 
large, bulky, huge, immense II to make 
corporeal, invest with a body (a, 
give (a shape or form; to materialize 
(a; to cause to stand out, bring out 
(a; to embody, cause to appear 
clearly and palpably, make obviously 
recognizable (a a fact; Tun.); to enlarge, 
magnify {*; e.g., microscope); to 
make big, bulky, huge (a; to play 
up, exaggerate (a V to become 
corporeal, become embodied; to material- 
ize; to assume a form, take shape, be- 
come tangible or concrete; to be material- 
ized; to become big, large, huge, increase 
in volume, grow in size 

f**- jisrn pi. pl~». I ajsam, fj~*- jusum 
body (also Q of an automobile); sub- 
stance, matter; mass; form, shape 

,j*-~*- jisml bodily, physical; substan- 
tial, material 

£-**- jaslm pi. >L*»- jisam great, big, 
large; voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, 
immense ; stout, corpulent ; weighty, most 
significant, momentous, prodigious ; gross, 
grave (offense) | ^>. JL>I [ihmdl) gross 
negligence (jur.) 

£—>- jusaim pi. -at particle {phys.); 
corpuscle (biol.) 

p~* r \ ajsam 2 more voluminous, larger; 
stouter, more corpulent 

4*L*- jasdma size, volume; stoutness, 

o\ t ~3 r jusmdn body, mass 

tilc-r jusmdni bodily, physical, cor- 
poral [ Jt^JJ 4-py corporal punishment 

£~jf tajslm embodiment; relief; en- 
largement, magnification, magnifying 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlq Jj&Jma jj 01^5^54 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


pj~ mujassam bodily, corporeal; 
(math.) body ; three-dimensional ; tangible, 
material, concrete; raised, relieflike, 
standing out in relief (e.g., i»—^ "^j*- 
relief map); relief; enlarged, magnified | 
fji- ii {film) three -dimensional (stereo- 
scopic) film, 3-D motion picture; i-JH^JI 
4*~w»J.I (handasa) stereometry 

vie*'?- jasmaniya? Gethsemane 

(j~*r) \~*r jasd u to become hard, solid 

Jl^ jassa u (jass) to grind, crush, bruise, 

grate (a 

XL^- jussa hoarseness, huskincss, ran city 

(of the voice) 

jjijJi^. jasis ground, grated, crushed 
L £ r l ajass 2 , f. »Li>- jassa' 2 hoarse, husky, 

raucous (voice) 

ti»- II and V to belch, burp 

»l£*>» jusa and sti*- ?</i'a belch(ing), 

j\Z*- jusar livestock 

JSkL*- (G.) gestaltl: Jikii; 1 ^1 ^ Ge- 
stalt psychology 

*JL»- ja&ia a (jam) and V to bo covetous, 

*Jt>- y«*a* greed, avidity, inordinate 

«JL>- jast* greedy, covetous 

JL»- jasima a (jasm, '<*{£>- jumma) to take 
upon o.a. (a some hardship) II to make 
(» s.o.) suffer or undergo (a; to 
impose (a * on s.o. difficult), burden 
(a « s.o. with V to take upon o.s., 
suffer, undergo (a, e.g., hardships) 

JJL*- (eg., cf. JJLi si&ni) sample, specimen; 

jj^- II to plaster, whitewash (a 

0- 4 *" P$$ gyp suin j plaster of Paris 
^La*- pi. ~un plasterer 

j^a*- II tajastana to lounge, stretch lazily, 

h^ ji'a beer 

^*>- II to corrugate (a 

!Lj»»- y'a'&a (now also pronounced ju'ba) 
pi. v^r ?**<*& quiver; tube, pipe; gun 
barrel; O cartridge pouch (Syr.) | <#> 
jL>-i ;'. afc&ar town gossip (person) 

**«**- ja'jct'ct (i*>**>- ja'ja'a) to clap (mill) ; to 
gobble (turkey); to cause a rumbling 
noise; to bluster (in anger); to make a 
big fuss (about, make a noise; (syr.) 
to roar 

i**.**- ja'ja'a clapping (of a mill); 
rumbling; rattle; bluster; noise 

f U**p- ja'ja* clamorous, boisterous, 
noisy; rumbling; blustering; (syr.) voci- 
ferous, clamorous; bawler, loud-mouthed 

JU*- ja'uda u (<o^*>- ju'iida, ibU»- ja*ada) and 
Y to become curly, frizzed, kinky, curl 
(hair); to be wavy; to be creased; to be 
wrinkled II to curl, frizz (a; the 
hair); to wave (a; the hair); to 
crease, pleat, plait (a cloth); to wrinkle 
(a the skin) 

JU»- ja'd (or jlJI 0**- j. al-yad, (JiSOl Jw- j 
/. al-kaff) stingy, niggardly, tightfisted \ 
«4»»- ja f da curl, lock, ringlet J 

^^ ja'di and JU^-1 aj'ad 2 curly 
iS^^r gv'edi (eg-) bum, loafer, good- ' 
for-nothing j 

JLcl^ tajaid 2 wrinkles, lines (of the face} 
oljjef taja^uddt wrinkles 

-l*£ muja"ad curled, frizzed; wavy; 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled i 

x*^l+ mutaja"id curled, frizzed; wavy; i 
furrowed, creased; wrinkled | 

^Jbu- ja'dana idle talk, gossip (leb.) 

j**- ja'ara a (ja r r) to drop its manure (animal) 


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^S*r J>) ubu ji'r&n 2 scarabaeus; dung 
beetle; b\j**- ft ummj. Egyptian vulture 

j" t £ see £ 

jk*>. ja'far little river, creek 

tSj^r ja'fari: ^yi^^ i— *ill the Shiah 

J^r- abbreviation of 4-aJJI ijjJI 4jj^*i-l 
the Libyan Arab Republic 

J*>- ja f ab a (jafl) to make (a; to put, 
place, lay (a; to create (a; 
to effect, bring about (a; to make 
(a a a rule, a principle, or the like, 
• * s.o., e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint 
(» * s.o. to an office, rank, or the like) ; 
to fix, set {a * a sum, a price, at); to 
think, deem, believe (i_j * or o a s.o. to 
be , . ., a a to be . . .), take (y ( or m 
s.o. for, a a for); to represent (a, Ijj** j as, or in the form of, 
else); to appoint, settle (J a for 
s.o., in s.o.'s favor); to give, grant, 
concede (J a, an advantage, to s.o.), 
put s.o. (J) in the way of (a); to 
attribute (a J to s.o., maintain that (a) belongs to s.o. (<J); to entrust 
(Jl a to s.o.); to put, get (* s.o., 
a, into a specific state or condition); 
(with foil, imperf.) to begin to, set out toj 
Jaxj <d*>- to induce s.o. to do; to bring 
about that s.o. does or that 
happens; to make s.o. do (in a nar- 
rative); y>e <djw»- (bi-manzilati) to place 
s.o. on equal footing with; Jjl^u j *!*>- 
•Jb (ft midanauxdi yadihi) to bring or put within s.o.'s reach III to seek to 
bribe, try to win (^ » s.o. with 

J*>- ju'l pi. JU*-I afdl pay, wages; 
piece wages; reward, prize 

Ja>- ju'll: J*>- JUjI (ittifdq) piece- 
work contract 

J*>- ju'al pi. ot>U»- jilan dung beetle; 

yU»- pdla, ja'ala, ju f ala pi. J?l»- 
ja'ail 2 pay, wages; allowance; reward, 
prize; bribe 

iSfr; abbreviation of V-*JI *20*H *iJj4*3-} 
Yemen Arab Republic 

LJl^- jugrdfiyd and vL^ jugrdfiya geog- 
raphy | v^* vL^T [taWlya) physical 
geography; AjiUa^fl Li^A*- (iqtisddhja) 
economic geography 

(jl^r jwjf&fi* jigrdfi geographical ; geo- 

(Ji>- Jaffa (1st pers. perf. jafaftu) i (^JsU^- 
jafdf, JjjA^ jufuf) to dry, become dry; 
to dry out II to dry, make dry (a 

JsLL;- jajdf dryness; desiccation; dry- 
ing up; dullness | J»U>- j in a cold, un- 
emotional tone, coldly 

cjti^ fi?7a/ pi. «_aJL^ tajafif 2 protective 

*Jujk£ tajflf drying; desiccation; de- 
hydration; drainage 

J»U- jaj(/' dry | J»U-j^- 1* (qalam hibr) 
ball-point pen 

ijujuz- miijaffif dryer | j*J£}\ <JaJiA m. aS- 
saV hair dryer 

O^r mujaffaf dried, desiccated, de- 
hydrated; Cj\Jlo^- dehydrated foods 

»U>- /it/a 1 useless, vain, futile ; a mere nothing, 
trifle | »LL- i_-Ai dahaba jufd'an to be in 
vain, be of no avail, pass uselessly; — 
see also jJl^ 

cJt^ jift {eg.) forceps (esp. med.); tweezers, 
metal clamp (med.) | uL^ cJi>- j. Hr* 
ydn arterial clamp 

^tli^- {pronounced Siftisl; eg.) filigree 

jJIjU- jijtlilc farm, country estate; govern- 
ment land {Pal.) 

j}*- jafr t jaX-\ U r ilm al-j. divination, for- 

ss*c£*a jjy j) Cuio JbOJ^Lo jj OU-3-O3-0 ^ji-i-03 P.5^° i Oi.J A ar^ O^JiS J->^ ^5v5*-o 



ojA>- jufra pi. jJl>~ jufar pit, hole 

Ji*- jafala i u (jafi, Jj^- juful) and IV to 
start, jump with fright; to shy (horse); 
to be startled II to start, rouse (*, 
« s.o.); to scare away (t s.o.) 

Ji>- jafi and 6y^- juful fright, alarm; 

diU*- (pronounced siflik; eg.) — <iiLi>- 

1 ya? jafn pi. u^i>- jufun, b\Jh r \ ajfan eyelid 

iii*. jafna pi. uli^ jt/ait, iTjLi*- jafandt 
bowl; grapevine 

(_ji>-) U»- ja/a it (?a/w, »U*- ja/a") to be rough, 
coarse; to treat (* s.o.) roughly, harshly; 
to turn away (o from), shun, avoid, flee 
(» s.o.) Ill to treat (* s.o.) roughly, 
rudely, harshly; to be cruel (» to s.o.); 
to be cross (* with s.o.); to shun, avoid 
(* s.o.), keep aloof (o from); to elude, flee 
(» s.o.; slumber); to offend (* against 
good taste, one's sense of honor, or the 
like) VI to withdraw (^ from), shun, 
avoid (a s.o.); to loathe (jp s.o.,, 
have an aversion ( jp to) ; to display rude 
manners, act the ruffian 

jl>- jafw roughness, harshness 

Ij}^- jafwa roughness; estrangement, 
alienation (between two people); dis- 
agreement, brusque or harsh attitude; 
tense or unfriendly relation (,ju between) ; 

»li»- jafa* roughness, harshness; stern- 
ness; antipathy, aversion, distaste, loath- 
ing; estrangement, alienation; — see 
also li*- 

J>-1 ajfd refraining even more (J 
from), more averse (J to 

J»U- jdfin pi. *U*- jufah harsh, rough, 
coarse; brutish, uncouth, rude 

cSi*- and ^f U~ look up alphabetically 

J&*- III [syr.) to tease (# s.o.) 

l Jr ?°fk * 0~&r fatal) to be great, lofty, 
exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too 
great (j^ for), be beyond (jp), be 
far above (jp) | j^-\ *f. J»- ( f an 
il-hasr) to be innumerable II to honor, 
dignify, exalt (* s.o.); to cover (a, 
esp. the ground, as snow, plants, etc.); 
to envelop, wrap, drape, clothe; to border, 
edge (a,, i_j with) IV to honor, digni- 
fy, revere, venerate, esteem highly, exalt 
(o s.o.) ; to deem too high, too exalted (jp 
for, consider far beyond (<jp) 
VI to deem o.s. far above (^p) X to 
be great, exalted, sublime 

J>- jail great, outstanding; bulky 

J»- jull major portion, bulk, majority, 
main part | <*U- julluhu most of it; <*V' J*r 
;*. al-umma the majority of the people; 
<ui U J*- its main contents; *j\ JUj L. J*-,* 
(jullu) that much, at least, can be said 
that . . . 

JJU- jalal important, significant, mo- 
mentous, weighty 

J»- juM pi. JU- julal matter of great 
importance, momentous undertaking, 
great feat, exploit 

iU. julla, jilla droppings, dung (of 
animals); julla pi. JJU- julal ball, bowl; 
marble; shot (= spherical weight); (can- 
non) ball; bomb | iU-l ^j ramy al-j. shot 
put(ting) (athlet.); — see also JJU- 

JJU- jalil pi. oU-l ajilla 2 , 1U-I ajiUa, 
Jj*^>- jala'il 2 , iL*. jilla great, important, 
significant, weighty, momentous; lofty, 
exalted, sublime; revered, honorable, 
venerable; glorious, splendid 

JJLLl al-jalil Galilee 

d*>U- jalal loftiness, sublimity, august- 
ness; splendor, glory 

4j">U- jaldla loftiness, sublimity, august- 
ness; majesty | HI'sU-l (1U-L*) «_^>-U» His 
(Her) Majesty, dU,\ D^ j. al-malik His 
Majesty, the King 

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J>-l ajall 2 greater; more sublime; more 

a1^- majalla pi. -at periodical; review, 
magazine | l± jj± Uj£ (dauriya) periodical ; 
l^j^\ iirf. (usbu'iya) weekly magazine; 
\j4^ ii^ (§ahrlya) monthly publication; 
oi i^»U- iirf- (fcassa) professional journal 
for ...; *1&»-^I ibt lawbook, code; 

jyljiJI Uri do. 

Usf tajilla and tbU-l *j^ honor, 
distinction; esteem, deference, respect; 

\1> jull rose 

o"iU ju£a&, jullab rose water; julep, re- 
freshing drink made of mulberry and 
lemon juice 

&h\*- (Fr. gelatine) zeldtin jelly 

<l*-^>- (Ft. glace) glaseh (eg.) kid leather 

J i_JU jalaba i u (jalb) to attract (a,); to 
bring along, bring to the spot (a ; to 
arraign {• s.o.), present (* the accused be- 
fore the court) ; to fetch, get, bring (a, 
J to s.o.); to import (a goods); to bring 
about (a a state, condition); to bring 
(a harm, shame, etc., Jp upon s.o.); to 
gain, win, obtain (a; to earn (a | <*. 4JU- to bring along, take along with o.s.; <*»jiJ jUl <_JU- (li- 
qnr§ihl) to secure advantages for o.s., 
feather one's nest; — (v^k" jidvb) to 
scar over, heal (wound) II to shout, clam- 
or; to be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, 
gain, acquire (a ; = II; VII pass, of I 
VIII to procure, bring, fetch, get (a; to draw (a on; to import {a 
goods) X to import (a goods); to fetch, 
summon, call in (* s.o.); to attract, draw 
(a, * s.o.,; to seek to attract or win 
(a, o s.o.,; to get, procure (a 

.JL. jalb bringing, fetching; arraign- 
ment (of the accused before the court) ; 
procurement; acquisition; importation, 

import; causation, bringing on, bringing 

^^JU jalab imported; foreign 

uJU- jalab and 5JU- jalaba clamor; 
uproar, tumult, turmoil 

4JU- julba scar 

c^JU- jallb imported, foreign; (pi. L? i>- 
jalba, »LJU julaba 2 ) foreign slave 

uj^U- jallab attractive, captivating; 
importer, trader; see also alphabetically | 
x_oJl «-*^>- slave trader 

ij.j'^U- galldbiya (eg.) pi. -at, i-*J^U- gala* 
lib 2 galabia, a loose, shirtlike garment, 
the common dross of the male population 
in Egypt 

<—»UU- see below under <_~JU- 

^_JU-1 ajlab 2 more attractive, more 

Udt majlaba pi. <_Jb£ majdlib 2 causa- 
tive factor, motive, reason, cause, oc- 

._j>"5U*x--1 istijldb procurement, acquisi- 
tion; importation, import; supply; at- 
traction I (j^LJl l-j'^Uju-I promotion of 
tourist traffic 

i_JU- jdlib causative factor, motive, 
reason, cause, occasion 

oj_jist ma-flub imported from a foreign 
country, exotic 

2 u-j'^>- julab, jullab rose water; julep 

3 LL- jalaba jalap (bot.) 

^JU II tajalbaba to clothe o.s. (l-j with), be 
clothed, be clad (u in a garment, also 

ujLJU jilbab pi. v^*^ jalabib 2 long, 
flowing outer garment, loose robe-like 

jLU- julubbdn chickling vetch, grass pea 
(Lathyrus sativus; bot.) 

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OjJU (Engl, jolly boat) pi. cuu^U jaldblt 2 
(saud.-ar.) flat fishing boat 

4>U- II tajaltana to turn into gelatin 

1 J>JU- jaljala to reverberate ; to resound, ring 
out; to rattle; to shako (a 

J^JU juljul pi. J*-%U- jalajil 2 (little) 
bell, sleigh bell; cowbell; jingle 

4L»J>- jaljala sound of a bell; loud, 
shrill sound 

J>JLf mujaljil shrill, piercing; ring- 
ing, resounding, reverberant 

2 ii>J>- juljvla, aLJJ- \ Jj»- ja&aZ aZ-j. Golgotha 
3 o"iU«i»- juljuldn, jiljildn sesame 

^L- jaliha a (jalah) to be or become bald 

pL r \ ajlah 2 , f. »UJU- jalha 2 , pi. «i»- ;«$ 
bald-headed, bald 

, «!*- jalaha a and II to sharpen (a; to 
whet, hone (a a knife), strop (a a razor); 
to stretch, extend, roll out (a metal) 

jJU- j'aifc grindstone, whetstone, hone 

JlU- jafarfa * (jaU) to whip, flog, lash ( 6 s.o.); 
— jalida a to be frozen, freeze; — jaluda 
u to be tough, hardy, undismayed, stead- 
fast, patient II to bind (a a book); (to 
cause) to freeze (a Ill to fight (i> s.o,) 
IV to freeze; to be frozen, be covered 
with ice V to take heart; to show o.s. 
tough, hardy, robust; to resign o.s. to 
patience; to bear, suffer VI to engage in 
a sword fight 

xU jald flogging; — (pi. i^U! ajldd) 
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy 

aJU- jild pi. 2jl>- julud, j^U I ajldd skin, 
hide; leather | uL^ jJU- (suktiydn) 
morocco; 9-\X a1>- {lamma') patent leather 

3ol>- jilda skin, hide; piece of leather; 
race | LJ-d»- ^1 ibn jildatind our country- 
man, our fellow tribesman, pi. LlJjlU- jLj 
banu j.; ^Jl SoL- j. ar-ras scalp; SaL- 
4pLJI {eg.) leather wrist -watch strap 

(S^r jildi dermal, cutaneous, skin: 
(adj.) | *jJlJL>- ^1^1 skin diseases 

S-UU- julaida pi. -at membrane, pel- 
licle ; O film (phot.) 

j!>- jalad endurance; tolerance, indulp 
gence; patience; firmament 

e-iU- jalda lash, stroke with a whip 
-UU- jalid pi. JjJU- juladd? 2 staunch.; 
steadfast; strong, sturdy 

jlJU- jalid ice | aJU- J->- jabal j. iceberg; I 
xJLU ^ 4aU {qitfa) ice floe 

tS-A-l*- jalidi icy, ice-covered, glacial, ioe \ 
(adj.); snow-covered | ^-LjU-l _ y-fl Jl (asr\i 
the Ice Age; ioJU- IjjL (ballora) ice I 
crystal \ 

^1>- jalud long-suffering, patient 

:>t)U- jalldd pi. -un leather merchant;; 
executioner, hangman 

3 j"^>- jaldda and S-i^U- juluda endurance, 

S^Li mijlada whip, lash, scourge 

jJid tajlld freezing; bookbinding 

i^U- jildd fight, battle (against) j 

oLf tajallud endurance, patience j 

AJbf mujallid: <^&}\ oLf to. a/-i«(«}| 
bookbinder j 

oLi mujallad frozen, icy, ice - covered ; j 
bound (book); (pi. -at) volume (book) j 

jj U- mujdlid pi. -«n gladiator J 

al*^. mutajallid patient 

j^jL*- jtllauz (coll.; n. un. S) hazelnut; hazel 

Lr JL- jalasa i {^j^- julus) to sit down (Jl 
with s.o., at a table, etc., Jp on a chair); 
to sit ( J[ with s.o., at a table, J* on a 
chair) | A**J\ Jl ,j~U- (rassdm) to sit for 
a painter III to sit (* with s.o., next to 
s.o., in s.o.'s company); to keep s.o. (*) 
company IV to ask to sit down, make sit 
down, seat (o s.o.) 

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<-i»- jalsa (used as n.vic. of the verbal 
noun) sitting; (pi. -at) seat (in an audi- 
torium); session (of parliament, of a com- 
mittee, of a court, etc); party, gathering, 
meeting | "LA*. jj& r aqada jalsatan to 
convene a session; i,U SJU fdmma) 
open session ; td* iJ*- ( r alaniya) do. ; *-~U 
y j. r amal (pi. J^ oLk) work session 

<JU jilsa manner of sitting 

~4*r jails pi. »Li>- julasa' 2 participant 
in a social gathering; table companion; 
one with whom one sits together; 4~jJ>- 
the man who was at the party with him I 
JU1? VI tri^r babysitter 

i-*U. jalisa lady companion; fern, of 

tfjk- julus sitting; sitting down; 
accession to the throne; pi. of ^JU- 
jdlis sitting; sit down! (as command in 

u Af majlis pi. ^JU. majalis* seat; 
session room, conference room; living 
room; party, gathering, meeting; social 
gathering; session, sitting; council meet- 
ing; council; concilium; collegium, col- 
lege; board, committee, commission; ad- 
ministrative board; court, tribunal | J 
<Af- in s.o.'s presence, in s.o.'s company; 
►L^fl ^Af- parents' council; o^-skli ,jA^ 
and ^\S (J Aji. disciplinary board; ^JUi 
^^-i-u constituent assembly; JuT u ^i^ 
regional court {tribunal rigi&nal; Tun.); 
<»VI (j-1^ to. al-umma parliament; ^Ag- 
j*V! m. al-amn the Security Council; 
ajaUI ^jjif. m. al-baladiya and tr JU. 
iS-ih (baiadl) local council, municipal 
council; lj^J-I ^Jk m, al-harb war 
council; ^^. ^Af. (hasbl) probate court 
(for Muslims; Eg.); Urk Lr U (muktalit) 
mixed court (eg.); ^UjJI ^^Jbf defense 
council; Zj^\ ^A* to. al-idara ad- 
ministrative board, committee of manage- 
ment, directorate; board of directors (of 
a corporation or bank); Sjj-aII ^Af m. 
al~mudiriya provincial council, provincial 

parliament (Eg.); SJjAJl ^A* m. ad-daula 
state council, council of state (Eg.) ; ^A^ 
tj- J J (ruhi) religious court, clerical court 
(of the Coptic Church); «_^**J1 ^J^i m . 
a&Sa'b people's chamber (name of the 
parliament in several Arab countries); 
4)jJl\ ^jji. ^A^ to. Surd d-daula state 
council, council of state (formerly, Eg.); 
tfcr^' u^f- council of elders; senate (also 
of the U.S.A.); Jji* ^jJf ( f adli) court, 
tribunal (Syr.); (^JL* or) j^ ^^U 
(*w/S, r askarl) court-martial; wp u A*- 
^•Vl m. r usbat al-umam Council of the 
League of Nations; fj^Ji u Af the House 
of Commons; jL*Vl ,jAf m. al-a'yan 
senate (Jord.); £\j*y\ u lc draft board, 
recruiting commission (mil); ^jj ^^JLf 
(qarawi) local council; ^La^Sl ^J^ 
(iqtisadi) economic council; <jji ^^JLf 
(qauml) national assembly; SjLj (J JLst 
vj$\ to. qiyadat at-taura the Supreme 
Revolutionary Council; j^&l Lr Uii and 
jf>J\ (J-UJ.I (akbar) the Giand Council 
( = It Grand Conseil ; Tun. );Cj\ jsj^U I ^J^t 
the House of Lords; ^!_^J! ^Aj. to. an- 
nuwwdb lower house, chamber of deputies ; 
jU ^J^. (niyabl) parliament; X^A U A^ 
m. al-jiha approx.: provincial council 
(= conseil de region; Tun.); Ajjjl ^A*. 
m. al-wuzard' cabinet, council of minis- 

<JLf mujaUtsa social intercourse 
^JU jalis pi. ^jL. julus, ^^U- jullas 

sitting; pi. t ^'sU participants in a social 


o*J\*r julus (eg.) large heap 

U*. jalata i (jaU) to chafe, gall, abrade (* 
the skin); to shave (^\j\ ar-ra'sa the 

<LU- julta lump, clot | Sj^o &U (da* 
mawtya) blood clot, thrombus 

*JtU jilf pi. o^U-1 aj'fcz/ boorish, rude, un- 
civil; lout, uncivilized chap 

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jUyUA*- (Eg. spelling) galvanomitr galvano- 

JaiU- jalfata (UUiU jalfafa) to calk (a a ship) 

l y\* r gal f ana {eg.) to galvanize 

oii>- golf ana galvanization 

jaU mugalfan galvanized 

o^U- julaqa: '^jj «S^ (qaramya) yokel, 

jU- 7'tHi? 8 (and jiUaq 2 ) poetical designa- 
tion for Damascus 

]*- jalama % (jalm) to clip, shear off (a 
L- jdlam pi. W»-l oj7am shears 

^JU-^ji tt6« galambu {eg.) a variety of crab 

jlJU- II tajalmada to be petrified 

jlJU- jalmad pi. JU^U- jaldmid 2 and 
ijjb- julmud pi. JU*"^ jaldmid? rock, 

jUU- jullanar pomegranate blossom 

(jJU- and J*-) "^ ;aZ« « to burnish, polish (a ; to clear (a the view) ; to make clear, 
make plain, clarify, clear up (a, 
throw light on (a); to reveal, unveil, 
disclose (a; to dislodge, oust, re- 
move (jc jbor t s.o. or from); to 
shine, be brilliant, distinguish o.s. { j in; to be or become clear, evident, 
manifest; to pull out, move out {^ of a 
place), go away, depart (js- from a 
place), leave, quit, evacuate (jc a place); 
— J»- jald i to polish, burnish (a 
II to elucidate, clear up, make clear (a; to reveal, disclose, bring to light 
(je or a; to show, represent (a s.o., 
a; IV to remove, dislodge, oust, 
drive away (a, « s.o.,; to evacuate 
(a s.o., tf- from); to move away, go away 
(^ from a place), leave (jc a place) 
V to become clear, evident, manifest; to 
reveal itself, be revealed; to appear, 
show, come to light, come out, manifest 

itself; to be manifested, be expressed, 
find expression VII to be clean or cleaned, 
be polished, be burnished; to be removed, 
be dislodged, be ousted; to move away 
(^ from a place), vacate, evacuate (jt 
a place) ; to be dispelled, vanish, go away, 
pass (crisis, difficulty, etc.); to dis- 
appear; to reveal itself, be revealed, be 
disclosed; to be unveiled (bride); to 
become manifest, manifest itself; to 
become clear or plain; to clear up and 
reveal {^; to lead, come (je to), 
end (^ in) ; to result {jc in) | 4ip J»*j L. 
J * S J\ the outcome of the matter, what 
will come of it VIII to reveal, disclose 
(a ; to unveil (La a bride) ; to regard, 
contemplate, observe (a, look at (*) 
X to seek to clarify (a; to clarify, 
clear up (a, throw light (a on); to 
uncover, unearth, bring to light, find out, 
discover, detect (a 

tA>- j 1 ibn jald a famous, well-known 
man, a celebrity 

J»- jally clear, plain, evident, patent, 
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; LU p 
liyan obviously, evidently 

SJU- jally a pi. b^U- jaldyd sure thing, 
plain fact | j**$\ iJU- jaliyat al-amr the, 
true state of the affair 

J»-l ajld clearer, more obvious, more 

SjJU jilwa unveiling (of the bride) | UJ 
ljl\ lailat al-j. wedding night; ;J> 
^ j^\ preparation of the groom for a 
wedding (by men who bathe and clothe 
him, etc.) 

OU- jald' clarification, elucidation; 
clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness; 
departure, (e)migration (^ from); evac- 
uation {^ of an area; mil.); withdrawal 
(of an army of occupation) ; »^ clearly, 
plainly, obviously, visibly 

oLIU- jalaydn vision, revelation, apoc- 
alypse {Chr.) 




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J I* majalin (pi. of J* majlan) 

5-W tajliya clarification; revelation (of 
a religion by a prophet) | 4>VI ZjJ- (ild= 
Mya) divine revelation ; theophany (Chr.) 

OUI ijld" evacuation, withdrawal (of 
troops, ^ from) | j^^-aJI oU-I abandon- 
ing of bases (mil.) 

Jjf tajallin revelation, manifestation; 
Transfiguration (of Christ) | J>^JI JLc *£<£ 
at-t Transfiguration Day {Chr.) 

#*&>• ijtild' revelation; unveiling; ob- 
servation, contemplation 

*'&*z*\ istijla clarification, elucidation 

5JU- jaliya pi. -af, JJjhj- jawdlin colony 
(of foreigners) ; colony of emigrants 

J*M al-mujalli the winner (in a race) 

J>ȣ* mutajallin obvious, evident, mani- 
fest, patent 

JjGV ( E g- spelling) glukoz glucose (chem.) 

Ly^JU (Eg. spelling) glukomd glaucoma 

OjL- galon pi. -af gallon (egr.) 

OjLf mugalwan galvanized (egr.) 

J> juM see * J»- 

jwjJU- gilyotln guillotine {eg.) 

r fr abbreviation of ( j_ r A. <ui>- Egyptian 

*^- jamma i u (jamm) to gather; to collect 
one's thoughts, concentrate; to rest II and 
V to grow luxuriantly (plants) X to 
gather; to collect one's thoughts, con- 
centrate; to rest, relax, seek recreation 
(j* from); to be covered with luxuriant 
vegetation (ground) | *iitfc ^-1 to re- 

jj. jamm abundant, plentiful; much, 
a great deal of; many, numerous ; mani- 

fold, multiple; crowd, group of people [ 


?. al-aiar effective, efficacious; 
\j^ t Ls- 4-a-l (ahabbahu hubban) to be more 
than fond of; *j* OjI^j numerous ad- 
vantages, ample benefits; jJih ?- large 
crowd, throng 

pU; jamum rest, relaxation, recreation, 
gathering of new strength 

jf- ma jamm place where gathers 
or flows together | <u*^jl~*j <j\j\ 1JL» j£ 
(mustajma r uhu) what this opinion a- 
mounts to 

^f tagmim (eg.) bobbed hairdo (of 

flf^—1 istijmdm collectedness ; con- 
centration; attentiveness, attentive rev- 
erence; rest, relaxation, recreation | 
SJUJl fL*£**l reoperation 

*iLUi.l al-jamat/ik Jamaica 

■w*- jambiya see <Ljl»- 

l Sj^- t (from It. gam hero) gambari, ^^ gam- 
marl (eg.) shrimps (zool.) 

1 <~?>. jam jama {£**-> jam jama), p^SCjl ^>^ 
(kaldma) and II ta jam, jama to articulate 
indistinctly, stammer; to express o.s. 
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumble 

jumjuma pi. >-l> jamdjim 2 skull, cra- 

^•jnJ". jumjuml cranial 

«> jamaha a [jamh, ^\j^ jimdh, -rj*; jw* 
muh) to bolt (horse); to be refractory, 
unruly, recalcitrant; to be defiant; to be 
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her 
husbend, run away from home (wife); to 
soar (fantasy), run wild | -*JL^ <u «*^- 
(kayaluhu) his imagination ran away with 

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f-l> jimah recalcitrance, defiance ; will- 

rj*i i um uh recalcitrance, defiance; 

rj*: j^muh headstrong, defiant, un- 
ruly, ungovernable 

#U- jdmih headstrong, defiant, un- 
ruly; indomitable, untamable 

1 -U : jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, ^y^ ju* 
mud) to freeze; to congeal, harden, 
stiffen, be or become hard or solid, solid- 
ify; to coagulate, clot (blood); to be 
rigid; inflexible (in one's thinking); to 
stiffen, freeze, remain rigid (of a person; 
because of fear, surprise); to stagnate; to 
be apathetic, indolent, dull, indifferent j 
Jc 4-iJ OJL^ to be indifferent toward, 
put up with, acquiesce in; o4j OJL^ # 
(yaduhu) to be niggardly, tightfisted II to 
freeze, frost, congeal (a ; to solidify, 
coagulate, harden, stiffen (a,); to 
densify, make solid, compact (a a soft or 
fluid mass or substance); to curdle (a; to freeze (a assets); to put on ice, 
postpone indefinitely (a a suit, request) 
V to freeze, become frozen, turn into ice, 
freeze up, become icebound; to freeze to 
death; to congeal; to solidify; to be den- 
sified, compacted, become solid; to hard- 
en, set (e.g., cement); to coagulate, clot 
(blood) VII to freeze up, become ice- 
bound; to freeze, become frozen, turn to 

x?7 jamd freezing; congelation, solidi- 
fication, coagulation | juM *>-ji darajat 
al-j. freezing point 

A*l jamad ice 

j I?; jamad pi. -at a solid; inorganic 
body; mineral; inanimate body, inani- 
mate being ; O neuter (gram,) ; — see also 

*J*l jwmvd frozen state; solid, com- 
pact state, compactness, solidity; rigor, 

rigidity, stiffness ; inorganic state ; harden- 
ing, induration; hardness, inflexibility; 
deadlock, standstill; inertia, inaction, 
inactivity; lethargy, apathy, passivity, 

o^ jumuda solidity, hardness 

-W: tajmid solidification, hardening; 
consolidation; reinforcement (of a foun- 
dation); freezing | jU*-Vl -Uj£ fixing of 
prices, freeze of prices (by a government); 
Jlj^V' •U*^ t. al-amwdl freezing of assets; 
1jJ\ JU^tf t. ar-rva densification of pul- 
monary tissue, atelectasis (med.) 

JUj£ tajammud freezing; frost; conge- 
lation; solidification; coagulation 

j^I injimdd freezing up or over, 
icing up; ice formation 

.uU- jamid hard, solid; stiff; rigid; 
in a solid state {phys.); motionless; in- 
animate, inorganic; {gram.) defective; 
dry, dull (book, and the like) ; impervious 
to progress or innovation, ossified, ultra- 
conservative; — pi. juIj*. jawdmid 2 sub- 
stances in a solid state (phys.); inanimate 
things, inorganic matter, minerals 

JU^jl. 7nutaja?nmid frozen, icy; 
congealed; coagulated 


munjamid frozen, icy, ice (adj.); 
arctic | JU>«JJ -U-^l (muhlt) the Arctic 

2 (pU7 jumddd name of the fifth and sixth 
months of the Muslim year (JjVl {£&*: 
j. l-ula Jumada I and S^^l tpU-, j* l-5ki* 
ra, also JliJI tPL>- j. t-t&ni, Jumada II) ; 
colloq. also &L>. jumdd (J/^l jI> j. al- 
aivwal and jUJl ^; lib.) 

1 J *~ t II to roast (a meat) VIII to burn incense 

j*> t jamr embers, live coal [ Jp uS~ 
jl^\ <y j*-\ [aharra] to be on tenter- 
hooks; to be in greatest suspense, be 
dying with curiosity 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlq Jj&Jma jj OU-3-O3-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


h*\ jaw 1 *"® ( n - un - of j**.) P^ jcwMtrat 
ember; live coal; smoldering embers; 
rankling resentment; carbuncle; anthrax 
(med.); pebble, small stone (in the 
stone-throwing ceremony at Mina near 
Mecca; also any one of the three piles of 
pebbles thus created) 

jL^ jummdr palm pith, palm core 
{edible tuber growing at the upper end 
of the palm trunk) 

lj+£- mijmara pi. ^Lf majamir 2 bra- 
zier; censer 

' z ^jih see ^j^ 

iiy^ jumruk, gumruk pi. iijl*"-. jamdrik 2 , gama* 
rik 2 customs; customhouse | t^J*) **j 
rasm al-g. customs duty, tariff 

Jy-; jumrukl, gumrukl customs, tariff 
(used attributively); customs collector | 
Sj*; s\J\ (ittihad) customs union; >j*y 
4-Sy- t customs duties, tariffs 

iSj**- mujamrak, mugamrak duty paid 

>> jummaiz (coll.; n. un. S) sycamore (Fi- 
cus sycomorus; bot.) 

j^U- look up alphabetically 

Jj* jamasa i u [jams) to unhair (a 
II to make love, caress, pet 

CJijh jamast amethyst (min.) 

f ( r abbreviation of <^j^\ ^ *ijj4*\ Arab 
Republic of Egypt 

*> jama f a a (jam f ) to gather (a; to 
collect (a e.g., money) ; to unite, combine, 
bring together (parts into a whole); to 
put together, join (a things); to set, 
compose (a type; typ.); to compile (a 
a book); to summarize, sum up (a; 
to rally, round up (.a people); to pile up, 
amass, accumulate (a; to assemble 
{> several persons); to convoke, con- 
vene, call {a a meeting); to bring to- 
gether (<_j » s.o. with others); to add (a 

numbers), add up (a a column); (gram.) 
to make plural, pluralize (a a word); to 
unite, link, bring together (,ju several 
things or persons); to combine (j — ^j 
e.g., both strength and courage); to con- 
tain, hold, comprise (a | C>\Jb\ «^ 
*^iJI (atrdfa) to summarize, sum up ; 
to give a survey of; ^ ApljJi *J; 
l$il_^l (bard'ata) to be very efficient, do 
an excellent job, do superlatively good 
work; -^LaJoJi JP *j^ (samla l-q.) to round 
up the herd ; jT^Jl ^r to learn or know 
the entire Koran by heart; v& ^ (kaffa- 
hu) to clench one's hand into a fist; £«j£ 
4jL>«jL^ j>j c->lxS3I (safahdtihi) the book 
contains, liste . . .; C^-j Jp C^j *-j£ 
(yujmafu) the plural of bait is buyut II to 
pile up, amass, accumulate (a; to 
rally, round up (a, *a s.o.); to pull 
together into unity (** people); to as- 
semble (a the parts of a machine, an auto) ; 
to gather together, collect (a e.g., infor- 
mation, reports, figures, from various 
sources); to compile (a diverse materials 
in a book); to combine (a a variety of 
things into a unit); to consolidate (also 
econ t> fin.), unite into a compact mass, 
combine into a single whole (a several 
things) III to have sexual intercourse (U 
with a woman} IV to agree (Jp on, to 
do; to be agreed (J* on); to decide 
unanimously (J* on), resolve (J* to do I Aja\ \_y^\ (amrahum) they 
came to terms, they made a joint de- 
cision V to gather; to assemble, congre- 
gate; to rally, band together, flock to- 
gether (people); to pile up; to accumu- 
late (also fig., e.g., signs, indications, 
mistakes); to unite, be combined (e.g., 
efforts) ; to gather into a mass, agglomer- 
ate; to cluster; to coagulate VIII to be 
close together; to come together, meet, 
join; to unite, combine (^j with); to as- 
semble, meet, convene (an organization, a 
committee, etc.); to be or get together, 
have a meeting, interview or conference, 

^jCSjo jiy j I Gtiio JboJuLo jj 01^3-03^ £jJ2JLo5 P5^£a <j^j-o ,— -*» j-oljjjj Jj^£ k&&x> 



hold talks (<_->, ^ with s.o.), meet (^->, » 
s.o.); to concur (Jp in), agree, be agreed 
(J* on X to gather, collect (a; 
also »\j$ quwdhu one's strength, ojtSsil 
afkdrahu one's thoughts); to summarize, 
sum up (a; to possess, combine 

£*; jam" gathering; collection; com- 
bination; connection, coupling, joining; 
accumulation; (arith.) addition; union, 
merger, aggregation, integration (j>j of); 
holding together (<>j of divergent, sep- 
arate things); — (pi. £_>*- jumu f ) gather- 
ing, crowd, throng; assembly, meeting 
(of people); group; gang, troop; (gram.) 
plural | J— Ul *j^ ;. as-saml union, inte- 
gration; j*«£jl £*- the broken (= in- 
ternal) plural, JUI ^X\ the regular 
(= external) plural; ^JJ ~J ism al-j. 
collective noun [gram.), nee also ^-1 (under 
f)' y t-^nJjl fjjh j, as-Mb masses of 
people, crowds 

( ju^ % jam r i collective, social, group (in 
compounds); common, joint, mutual | 
if*: o**J ( ra <l?) social dance, ball; jj*iJI 
t y»*i-l feeling of solidarity, sense of com- 
munity, collective consciousness; JJLJl 
t yui-l ( r aql) group mind; **jh 4LUL 
group interview 

*jh jum\ t_i£]l **i j. al-kaff, xJi *^ j. 
al-yad fist, clenched hand | <uju **jf with 
clenched fists 

4**l jum'a pi. a>7 junta*, -at week; Fri- 
day j a*J^\ *jj yaumal-j. Friday; f»V"SM 4**; 

Passion Week; 4*JiJ! *J^\ and i*^l 
iu>! Good Friday (CAr.) 


4-*^ javClya pi. -a£ club, association, 
society; corporation, organization; as- 
sembly j vVI v^ 7. al-umam League 
of Nations; Sj^- 4-*^ (kairlya) chari- 
table organization; <JiL-.^i 4^*^ j. 
al-is'df approx. : civil ambulance serv- 
ice; vo^iji Z^ (tasri'iya) legislative 
assembly; <~»j^ V 1 ^ ('umumiya) and 

4*U 4~**; ('amma) general assembly; gen- 
eral meeting; plenum, plenary session; 
VjUj 4-jj^ (tcCdwunlya) cooperative; 
aj jUi 4^ (tijariya) business company or 

£^ /ami* (with foil, genitive) total; 
whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g., ^dl **> 
all men, all mankind; *J^1 all people, 
everybody; the public at large; U^ jo* 
ml'an in a body, altogether, one and all, 
all of them; entirely, wholly, totally 

^\ ajma' 2 pi. ~un, f. »L^ jam' a" 2 , pi. 
£*: ?Vma' 2 entire, whole, all | JUI 
^i (_oUVI (ajma'a) the entire Islamic 
world; *U?; j\jS\ (jam* a a) the whole 
house; *u^U bi-ajma'ihi in its entirety, 
to its full extent, completely, altogether; 
ci**: k 'jjW- all of them came 

f-U; jammed pi. -wn typesetter [ O M> 
Jb j ^T(^Am6a , i) storage battery 

gl^ jummd t aggregate; total, total 
amount J 

4pU^ jama' a pi. -o2 group (of people); i 
band, gang, party, troop; community; \ 
squad (mil.) \ \*\j\j oUl^ jamd'atin I 
wa-afrddan in groups and individually \ 
^U; jamd'% social, group (in com- f 
pounds); common, joint, mutual; collec- \ 
tive (as opposed to &J fardt individual) | \ 
(j**-*: J^ ( f amal) team work; ^l^ ^ j 
(**te;) group therapy; ^L^ »Ui (^'na') 
choral singing; ^L^ ^*J (/a'6) party 

**jf majma r pi. *.La majami' 2 place 
where two or more things meet, place or 
point of union, junction; meeting, con- 
gregation, convention, assembly; (also 
^^JU *+£■ m. Hlmi) academy (scientific); 
college (e.g., of ecclesiastical dignitaries); 
synod | ^Aj *«£ (baladi) provincial synod 
(Chr.); SiJ-^^ C**r (*W*r»H) clerical 
synod (of the Coptic Church); ***Ji 
J^-JlI (maskuni) the Ecumenical Coun- 
cil; t-^UM £*^*^ JUI to win or captivate 

^uSji JJ^ j) Cuio JbOJuLo jJ OU- 3-O3-O ^jAj-03 P^aXO <<J^j-° cr «*' J-oljJ3 Jj^i ^5v5ta 



the hearts; 4j^ ^»U*x bi-m. 'ainaihi (to 
look at s.o.) with complete concentration, 

L5 **jf majma'i academy member, aca- 

«*«jf tajmf gathering, concentration, 
joining (of individuals) ; assembly, assem- 
blage (of the parts of machinery) ; com- 
position, bringing together; typesetting 
{typ.); compilation; combination; con- 
solidation (econ., fin.) | fli/iM £*£ com- 
bination of numbers; dialing a number 
(telephone); oljLJl *yJi L assay yarat 
automobile construction, assembly; £^ 
r^VI t. al-intdj combination, tie-in of 
different production branches (industry); 
>r*>-=JI <Ji typesetting machine; J*^ 
£*?£]l katt at-t. assembly line; assembly 

f-U^ jimd f sexual intercourse; 
comprising or involving another thing 
or a number of things | #*Vi fU; j3~\ al- 
kamr j. al-itm wine involves sin, wine 
is the vessel of sin 

f- W ijmd" agreement, unanimity (also 
jtjjl pt?;l); unanimous resolution (J* to 
do; {IsL Law) consensus {of the 
authorities in a legal question; one of 
the four usul of Islamic Law) | f-l^^Lj 

(jcW ijmd'i based on general agree- 
ment, unanimous; collective, universal 

**jf tajammu' pi. -at coming together, 
meeting; gathering; (Alg.) assembly; ag- 
gregation; aggregate; troop concentra- 
tion; concourse, confluence of people, 
crowd; agglomeration; O agglutination 

fje>-l ijtimd' pi. -at meeting (<-» with 
s.o.; of a corporate body; of parliament) ; 
get-together, gathering, assembly; re- 
union; rally; convention; conjunction, 
constellation (astron.); confluence (of 

rivers); life in a social group, community 
life, social life; Mf>-Vl human society | 
tS^laJi ?\fi>-\ ijtima* at-turuq crossroads, 
intersection, junction; J^ pLs>-i i. r amal 
work session; pl^V it r ilm al-ijt. soci- 
ology; pjf*-Vl *1JU sociologists 

^trl ijtimd'i community, group (used 
attributively); social; socialist(ic) ; socio- 
logical; (Magr.) concerning a corporation 
or business firm, corporate (in com- 
pounds); pi. oLpL*»-1 society news, 
society column (in newspapers) | »j\jj 
S-f Iffcy-Vl Ojttil ministry for social affairs; 
4*ft^>-Vl SJU-I personal status; L-U-'l 
4^1^ VI {kidma) social service, social 
work; \*\fc- VI S^ULl (mtisawah) social 
equality; IL^^Vt *~$JI (haVa) human 
society; x.Us»-Vi ^-aJI it social psy- 
chology; ^La^-VI J lil ^mIj corporate 
capital or assets 

A^l^l ijtima'iya socialism 

*^U- jdmi' comprehensive, extensive, 
broad, general, universal; — • (pi. -un) 
collector; compiler (of a book); compo- 
sitor, typesetter; (pi. **\y* jawdmi' 2 ) mos- 
que | ^Up! *-U- cigaret-butt hoarder, 
butt rustler; «U- ±**~* (masjid) great, 
central mosque where the public prayer 
is performed on Fridays; «U- ^Ik*** 
{mu^talah) comprehensive term 

U.U jdmi" a pi, -at league, union, asso- 
ciation; community; federation; reli- 
gious community, communion; common- 
ness, community of interests or purpose; 
university | O '^L^i^ <U»U- j . al-kahrdbd* 
storage battery, accumulator; /Vl <*.U- 
;. al-umam League of Nations; ^.U-l 
iL.'iUVI (islamiya) Pan-Isiamism ; ix.U-1 
-w^' ( f arabiya) and 1j^*JI JjJu'I ^.U- 
(duival) the Arab League; l~*J> i^U- 
(sa'biya) university extension, adult edu- 
cation courses, evening courses; U*U- 
L^L j (riyadiya) sport association 

^uSji jJ^ j) Cuio JbOJuLo jJ OU- 3-O3-O ^jAj-03 P3^X0 <<J^j-° c***' <J"^'j"?3 J->^ 6&&iA 



jcU- jdmi'i academic, collegiate, uni- 
versity (adj.); university graduate | iJJL. 
V^U- (madina) student housing area 

fj*& majmu f collected, gathered; to- 
tality, whole; total, sum (arith.) | Jsj^i 
«.j*fM matter (typ-); J*Jft\ <^b' fj^r 
m. aradt l-qutr the total area of the 
country ; 4J^ fy^r w. tulihl its total 
length; tS ^\ Pj**^ ( r ambi) the nervous 

*&j~£- majmua pi. -at, £~«bf majami 2 
collection {e.g., of works of art, of stamps, 
etc, also of stories); compilation, list; 
group (of persons belonging together, also, 
e.g., offerees, of islands, etc.); series (e.g. 
of articles in a newspaper); O battery 
{el.); alliance, league, bloo (e.g., of states); 
collective, collectivistic organization; ag- 
gregate (techn.); a self-contained unit, 
made up of several individual components; 
complex, block (of buildings); system; 
composition, matter (typ.) | v!/r' **>**■ 
(ijramlya) a group of criminals; 4*^ 
i^jjVt Jj-aJI (duwal) the bloc of Euro- 
pean countries; IL-JJI Zcj+s?.i\ (samslya) 
the solar system; luclu^ ~<&j*£- (sincfiya) 
syndicate; «p^*^ j J**J1 ('amal) group 
work; ^Uj^»ii *j^ itazariyat al-m. set 
theory (math.) 

«^ mujammi e collector (techn.); Q stor- 
age battery, accumulator j ^ji a*^- (dar- 
rl) atomic pile, nuclear reactor 

£*£■ mujamma' consolidated (econ., 
fin.); combined, etc.; (pi. -at) collective 
combine, government controlled indus- 
trial enterprise in which several production 
branches are united (Eg.); government 
building housing offices of several agencies 
(Eg.); — a**^ Sju-j (wahda) community 
center for social services (with a doctor, 
agricultural advisor, social worker, small 
workshops, etc., Eg.) 

<dp *^f mujma* *alaihi (that which 
is) agreed upon, unanimous 

*^t mujtami' : pi. o^x>«il the assem- 
blage, participants of a meeting 

**^£ mujtama' pi. -at gathering place, 
place of assembly; meeting place, rendez- 
vous; assembly, gathering, meeting; so. 
ciety; human society; community, com- 
mune, collective | jJ* *♦££ (tabaql) class 
society; f ILsVl £*z£- m. aUiqtd' feudal 
society; ibl^VI *^ consumer society 

XSi^ = ^C^r l 00 ^ U P alphabetically 

1 J^ jamala u [jaml) to sum up, summarize 
(a; — jamula u (JU7 jamdl) to be 
beautiful; to be handsome, pretty, come- 
ly, graceful; to be proper, suitable, appro- 
priate (i-j for s.o.), befit (<_j s.o.) II to 
make beautiful, beautify, embellish, a- 
dorn (a, o s.o., Ill to be polite, 
courteous, amiable (a to s.o.) IV to sum, 
total, add (a; to treat as a whole, 
mention collectively (a; to sum up, 
summarize (a; to act well, decently, 
be nice V to make o.s. pretty, adorn o.s. 
VI to be courteous, be friendly to one \ 

another f: 


iL?7 jumla pi. J^; jumal totality, sum, [ 

whole; group, troop, body; crowd; whole- I 
sale; (gram.) sentence, clause; U*; jum* \ 
latan completely, wholly, on the whole, \ 
altogether, in general, at all | S-b-lj U*; r: 
jundatan wdhidatan all at once, at one [ 
swoop; objtSOl U-^ everything in ex- i 
istence; *jU?I U^ <y OS" he was one of his \ 
companions, he belonged to his com- 
panions; aJ L» L* U> j J US (jumlati) among 
other things, he said . . . ; J^iJI U^j ; 
(jl iva-jumlatu l-qauli anna or iL>j 
jl j* K J\ in short..., to sum up..., 
briefly stated . . . ; it^aijj Si> (jumlatan) 
on the whole and in detail; SJU-I Jt in : ; 
short, in a word; seen as a whole; UJ-L \ 
wholly, on the whole, altogether, in : 
general, at all; by wholesale (com.); 
aa>^lA\ 3/^*yi Us^ j. al-ujra al-mnsta- 
hiqqa gross wages; *JLJ-I j^'G wholesaler, 

^uSji JJ^ jl Cuio JbOJuLo jJ OU- 3-O3-O ^jAj-03 P^aXO <(J^j-0 cr «*' j-oljJ3 Jj^i ^5v5ta 



wholesale dealer; *\M j*~> sir al-j. whole- 
sale price; <jf\ *i> {ismiya) nominal 
clause; 5-i*s ILL*; (JVllya) verbal clause; aJL?; 
4jjL>-I (ikbariya) or \j^~ ~*^*\ (kabariya) 
declarative sentence {or clause); ii^ 
yiiil [in&aiya) exclamatory sentence; 
UU U*; (kaliya) circumstantial clause; 
U*^ U*; (Sartiya) conditional clause; 
l^JU* *Lh (mu'tarida) parenthetical clause 

Ji-i ^L^ /nsa& al-jummal (or jumal) 
use of the letters of the alphabet ac- 
cording to their numerical value 

JU; /»7?iai beauty | J Li- 1 is- "Urn al-j. 
and JU-I UJU fcUsafat al-j. aesthetics 

JL*- t jamall aesthetic 

J-*^ jamil beautiful, graceful, lovely, 
comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act, 
favor, service, good turn; courtesy | 
JJ4j Jsi^i, J^l iij*. ma'rifat al-j. and 
J^b oU^p {'irfdn) gratitude; JjM oj^& 
nukran al-j. ingratitude; J^l j5~U un- 
grateful; "iL^ <J JauU- (hajiza) to keep s.o. 
in fond remembrance, remember s.o. 
with gratitude 

J^i ajmal 2 more beautiful 
J-^ tajmll beautification, embellish- 
ment; cosmetics 
J-*jf tajmili cosmetic 

ILlrf. mujdmala pi. -af (act of) courtesy; 
civility, amiability; flattery; *Ltf mujd* 
malatan amicably, in a friendly way | 
U»lf SjLj ziydrat m. courtesy call; -telj* 
O^UUI etiquette 

JW t;ma£ summation, summing up; 
summarization ; ^ U7S ijmalan on the whole, 
in general, generally speaking, as a general 
principle | JjSl <*JJJJ ^W to sum up, I 
(would) say ...; JW j in its entirety, 
as a whole; JL^Vb and JU;V! J* in 
general, on the whole, altogether; <^ji 
Jl>Vl bi-wajhi 14. = VW 

JW ^'ww^i comprehensive, summary, 
general, over-all, total, collective; the 

whole sum, total amount | JU-.1 jrjij 
over-all report ; UL^l 1.1/ (gardma) col- 
lective penalty; XJU-J tjii (nazra) gen- 
eral view 

J^j£ mujmil pi. -im- wholesaler, whole- 
sale dealer 

J*jf mujmal summary, resume, syn- 
opsis, compendium ; general concept; sum, 
total I J*^b by wholesale 

2 J> jamal pi. JU; jimdl, <JU;I aymaZ camel | 
i^Jl J^ /. al-yahud chameleon 
JU; jammdl pi. -im camel driver 

o^ jamalun gable (arcA.) 

jU; jumdn (coll.; n. un. 2) pearls 

_^; jamhara to gather, collect {&, *, 
s.o.); to assemble (« s.o.) II tajamhara 
to gather, flock together (crowd) 

Vfr**. /ttwi/wra and ^LIl 3^^ multi- 
tude, crowd, throng; the great mass, the 
populace; general public; a large number 
(j- of people) 

-LH^ jumhur pi. ^aL*; jamahir 2 multi- 
tude; crowd, throng; general public, 
public; j^li;! the masses, the people 

<S-)J4*; jumhuri republican (adj. and n.) ; 
governmental., national (in a republic) 

HJ-M*". jumhuriya pi. -at republic | 
S^»»zl! y^i HJJ^^-^ (muttahida) the 
(former) United Arab Republic; ajjj^ 
ijiUiVl Ulit (ittihadiya) and *jjjV. 
yijJLiJi LJlU [fidrdlwja) the Federal 
Republic of Germany; Us-I^jcoJI 4jj^J-I 
aJLLVI (dimuqrdtiya) the German Dem- 
ocratic Republic; 4-^ ^jjj^. [sa'blya) 
people's republic; official names of Arab 
republics see under country names 

tfjjXa*; jamahiri mass (in compounds); 
arising from or concerning the mass of 
the people 

ii^U- jamahiriya (Lib.) state repre- 
senting the interests of the great masses, 
see ^ libi 

^uSji jJ^ J J Cuio JbOJuLo jJ OU- 3-O3-O ^jAj-03 P^aXO <<J^j-° c***' <J"^'j"?3 J->^ 6&&iA 



j+Ji tajamhur gathering (of people); 
crowd, concourse; riotous assembly (jur.) 

- janna u (jann, dj^- junun) to cover, hide, 
conceal, veil (a, Jp; to descend, 
fall, be or become dark (night); pass. 
junnai to be or become possessed, insane, 
mad, crazy | <£j^- j*? (jununuhu) to get 
madly excited, become frantic II to 
craze, make crazy, drive insane, madden, 
enrage, infuriate (© s.o.) IV to cover, 
veil, hide, conceal (a; — II; V to 
go mad, become crazy X to be covered, 
veiled, concealed; to regard (a s.o.) as 
crazy, think {o s.o.) mad 

fc- jinn (coll.) jinn, demons (invisible 
beings, either harmful or helpful, that 
interfere with the lives of mortals) 

^ jinni demonic; jinni, demon 

Li*, jinnlya female demon 

JL>- janna pi. -at> 0L>- jinan garden; 
paradise | ~*J( cAi*? paradise; oUi-J J^U 
inhabitant of paradise, deceased person, 
one of blessed memory; o-u c*- j. t adn 
the Garden of Eden 

o^ junaina pi. -at, J^ janain 2 little 
garden; garden 

^L>- janainl gardener 

k^- jinna possession, obsession; mania, 
madness, insanity 

a^>- junna pi. ,>U- janan protection, 
shelter, shield 

jL*- jandn pi. oL*-l ajnan heart, soul 

jL>- janndn gardener 

^jj*- janin pi. h* r \ a jinna, j\>-\ ajnun 
embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.) 

dj^>- junun possession, obsession; ma- 
nia, madness, insanity, dementia; foolish- 
ness, folly ; frenzy, rage, fury ; ecstasy, rap- 
ture | uyi Oj^L\ al-j. junun madness has 
many varieties, manifests itself in many 

tjj^r jununl crazy, insane, mad; fran- 
tic, frenzied 

tf~ mijann pi, jljf majann 2 shield 

S^f majanna madness, insanity 

6U- jann jinn, demons 

6_^jf majnun pi. <julf majdnln 2 pos- 
sessed, obsessed; insane, mad; madman, 
maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked; crack- 
pot; foolish; fool 

jj- janaba u to avert, ward off (a » from s.o, II to keep away, avert, ward off 
(a a from s.o., keep s.o. (s) out of 
the way of (a), spare (a « s.o. Ill to 
be or walk by s.o.'s (a) side; to run 
alongside of (a), ran parallel to (a), skirt, 
flank (a; to avoid (a Y to 
avoid (a, <, s.o.); to keep away (a, . 
from), steer clear, get out of the way 
(a, • of) VI and VIII = V; VIII to be at 
the side of (a), run side by side with (*), 
run alongside of (a), skirt, flank (a 

i^p*. janb pi. vj-^T junub, v^r' a P& 
side; janba (prep.) beside, next to, neai, 
at | ^_^- Jl Lip- (also i_-ii- l^-) side by 
side; *u^*- <>> (janbaihi) inside (it), within; 
in his very soul, within his inner being; 
<uc»- ^j L. (baina janbaihi) what it con- 
tains, comprises, its contents; c-^>- J* 
aside, apart; ^X\ £»li pleurisy, (also = 
4jJ\ C-»li) pneumonia (med.) 

i-i>- janba pi. janabdt side; pi. CjU*. 
fringe areas, remote parts (of a country \ 
or region), flanks J <t>Li>- J in it, within, \ 
inside; <*jLi>- ^o a*.J> (dammahu) to com- [■ 
prise, hold, contain ; A»jii\ oL> j. \ 
al-gurfa the whole room ; ii^Jl ^Lj* o« ; 
in (the middle of) the room; CjLJ-I j».jj \ 
crammed, chock-full, brimful, filled to \ 
overflowing or bursting; C-xJi ^L-^T J \ 
all over the house; IjjJlI oL> j 
throughout the whole town; 4U*- 0>l : 
(iVtazai) to be shaken in every joint or ' 

^uSji JJ^ jl Cuio Jbft^MuO jj OU- 3-O3-O ^jAj-03 P^aXO <<J^j-0 cr «*' j-oljJ3 Jj^i ^5v5S-0 


(^ janbl lateral, side (adj.) 

4~o- and w^ jambiya pi. -at, <j^>- 
janahl (yem., saud.-ar.) dagger 

•_~x>- junub in a state of major ritual 
impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not 
a kinsman | ^X\ jU-l the neighbor not 
belonging to the family 

<-->L>- jandb (title of respect) approx.: 
Right Honorable; &U»- Your Honor; 
you (polite form) 

<jU>- janaba major ritual impurity (Isl. 

i_jh>- junab (= i_-iJL.1 £>\'s) pleurisy 

ujj^- ;'anu& south; (f.) south wind; 
\jj^- januban southward, to the south | 
iJuyl 4^*- ?'. afriqiyd South Africa; 
<Jj$ ^>j^ (Sarqi) southeast; Oy- ^j^r 
(garbl) southwest 

<Jj^>- janubl southern; janubiya (with 
foil, genit.) south of | Liyl dj^r South 

t_Jl>- jdnib pi. i_-j'_^- jawanib 2 side; lat- 
eral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face 
{geom.); part, portion, partial amount; 
partial view, section (^y of a scene, pic- 
ture or panorama); quantity, amount; 
a certain number (^ of), a few, some; 
pi. cJW (with foil, genit.) the various 
aspects (of a problem or task, etc.) | 
*JU- ,> on his part; j- — <-JW- ,> 
j>-l i_JU- on the one hand — on the other 
hand; aJU- J! to him, to his address; 
at his (its) side, next to him (it); aJU 
beside him (it), next to him (it); <_JU- Jl 
and JU side by side with; in addition 
to; apart from, aside from; LiU- **J>j to 
put aside; LjL>- <uoj to leave 
aside, omit; i^JU- j in comparison 
with, as compared with, as against; re- 
garding, with regard to; .^yr uH ^ 
their hearts; JJI LiU- jdnibd l-fam the 
corners of the mouth; j* *_JU- a con- 
siderable, or certain, degree of; a con- 
siderable amount of, a good deal of; 

y j*S .JU- a great deal of, a large por- 
tion of; j* ^aX^U- Jp j* he is very , . . ; 
fj&\ y J^- ^H V J* o^ (karam) to be very 
generous; v*VI t> J^ ^_JU- Jt (aham* 
mlya) of great importance; *_*jU- Jael J* 
Sjjiai-M ,y 'aid ctzami janibin min al- 
hutura of utmost importance, of great- 
est significance; v-JU- JSj everywhere, on 
all sides ; <uJ U- *J J>J^- (kafada, jdnibahu) 
to show o.s. condescending, affable or 
gracious to s.o.; to meet s.o. on fair 
terms; <uU j.1 amino, jdnibahu to be 
safe from s.o. ; p\p*\ <_JL>- <>j&\ J (u'irhu) 
I paid not the least attention to him; 
4JU- (ul*, i_-Aj) t_!»U. (jdnibahu) to fear 
s.o., be afraid of s.o.; <_JU-I tiiL milk al-j. 
crown lands; <^>J ^J U- j. al-mlri (eg.), 
treasury; i_Jli-1 (>J layyin al-j. gentle; 
docile, tractable, compliant; i-JLU >J lin 
al-j. gentleness; ^J\jiA «--o-j rahb al-j. 
roomy; spacious, unconfined; <_JU- # I J^ij 
friendly, amiable, gentle; t-JU-J v^*j-» 
feared, dreaded; u-JU-J _>j£- powerful, 
mighty, strong; ^.JU-I Sjp r izzat al-j. power ; 
^JU-! ^y qawly al-j. mighty, influential ; 
t_jU-1 .tj>JL noticeable, conspicuous; 
«jLi-l u~^-« tnai'ib al-j. dreaded, respect- 
ed; jijJt *_JJ>*- j about the house, all 
over the house, often vW l5 ~ V? 
Jj-Jl *-J|>=r J in the midst of the 
market; ^'l™*- L '.« ^W fragments, epi- 
sodes, single pa<*es out of his life 

^jU- jdnibi Literal, side, by- (in com- 
pounds); marg rial, happening on the 
margin, occurring as a side issue j oj^j 
iLuU- (nar.ra) Side glance; "UjU- lL>\jv\j 
side effects 

^^-1 ajnahl io eign, alien; (pi. -an, *_JU-1 
ajdnib 2 ) foreigner, alien | SL^-Vl ^^Jl the 
foreign countries, the outside world; 4*,* 
<^j\^^\ jirqat al-' jdnib the Foreign Legion 

4jjU>- gannabi ya pi. -di (e<?.) curb; em- 
bankment, levee; side channel, lateral 
(following a roa I or railroad tracks); by- 
pass (of a lock t c sluice) 

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t-jjf iajannub avoidance 
^b^-i ijtindb avoidance 
<~£ mujanniba flank, whig (of an army) 

iSj^r see &j&i 

jL>- jumbdz, jL^ calisthenk ■■? ; gymnastics 
(^jL^- jumbazi (^jL^) ?alisthenic(al), 
gymnastic | \j\J^\ *_->UIVl gymnastic ex- 
ercises, plvysical exercises 

«^- janaha a (rj^r junuh) to 
clined, tend (J or Jl to); t> 
to or toward) ; to turn, go o 
( Jl, associate o.s. ( Jl v 
(Jp or J I on a coast; shi] 
deviate, depart (,y- from); 
(jp from), break (jp with) 
(a with wings, lend w 
IV to incline, be inclined, 
to) ; to lean (J or Jl to or to 
(J or Jl to; to stran* 
£^- jinh side 
«^ junh, jinh darkness, 
JJUl (j. il-lail) in the dark <■ 
cover of night; (j^\ { j>c-. 
il-kara) lit.: between the 
slumber, i.e., at night w] 

incline, be in- 
) lean (J or Jl 
er ( J I to), join 
ith) ; to strand 
'); to diverge, 
to turn away 
II to provide 
ngs (* to 
tend (J or Jf 
I ward) ; to turn 
I (ship) 

gloom [ ^ j 
<f night, under 
- ,j\j (junhay 
two halves of 
en everyone's 

4»*i*- junha pi. pL>- junah misdemeanor 
(jur.> less than a felony, a-;U>-, ;md more 
than an infraction, UJl<£) 

^-U*- jandh pi. 5>jl>-I ajniha, *^-l ajnuh 
wing (of a bird, of an airplane, of a 
building, of an army); side; flank | j III 
<s-Ljs- I am under his protection; ^U*- Jc 
^^1 over the ether, by radio; ,-b*- J* 
Se^-Ji (/. as-sur'a) with winged haste; *-L». 
p>^Jl wing forward (soccer) ; jxVI *-lil-1 
(aimari) outside right, j-jVI p-hi-l (c&f* 
sar) outward left (soccer) 

*-U>- junah misdemeanor (/wr.); sin [ 
jl <uip p-b>- V (jundha) it won't be held 
against him if he ...; it won't do any 
harm if he ... 

P^\ ajnah 2 more inclined (Jl to) 
rj^r januh inclined ( Jl to 

?-j^>- junuh inclination, leaning, bent, I 
tendency (Jl to) 

^U- jdnih side, flank, wing 

4^U- janiha pi. f-\j*r jawanih 2 rib; pi, j 

also bosom, heart, soul | { j£\j>- jo in my | 

bosom, at heart; l^l_j»- u^i (tafarat)sh \ 

became happily excited, she trembled 

with joy f 

*£j£ mujannah winged j 

4i*- II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (» I 
s.o.; mil.); to mobilize (a an army, j* | 
against; also fig. — to induce to action, I 
*a people) V to be drafted, be conscripted, | 
be enlisted (for military service); to be f 
mobilized, be set in action, be ready for \ 
action I 

JH>- jund m, and f., pi. *ji>- junud, ^L>1 ; 
ajnad soldiers; army | {J ^^-\ x^~ j. al j- 
kolas Salvation Army 

^X^- jundi pi. sj^*- junud soldier; pri- 
vate (Ir., Leb., etc.; mil.) | Jjl ,jx> 
(awwal) private first class; lance corporal 
(Jord., Ir. t Leb., etc.; mil.); otf &&>■ (W 
nin) private {Jord.; mil.); -b»*x~. ^^> 
(mustajidd) recruit (mil,); J>$*JJ i$xi\ 
the Unknown Soldier 

4j X^- jundiya military affairs ; the army, 
the military; military service 

xzj~ tajnld draft, enlistment (mil.); 
recruitment; mobilization (of the army, 
also of workers, of energies) | -A^^d! 
(jjL>-Vl (ijbdrt) military conscription 

xJ. tajannud military service 

Jufi- mujannad enlisted; (pi. -un) con- 
script, draftee (mil.) \ XjZ ^^Lp ('«* 
Jcarl) recruit (Eg., Syr.; mil.) 

(Sj\Xj>- ginddrl standard-bearer, cornet (Eg.) 

t_j.U>- jundub pi. <_jjL>- janddib 2 grasshopper 

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l j&*. gandara (eg.) to mangle ('a laundry) 

ZjXj>- gandara mangling (of laundry); 
press; O rotary press (typ.) 

'(SjIai*- look up alphabetically 

<*jA^. zandarma gendarmery 

tjjJ&>- zandarmi gendarme 

J»Jlj»- gandufli (eg.) oysters 

1 ^Xj> r jandala to throw to the ground, bring 
down, fell (t> s.o.) 

Jjl*. jandal pi. J .ill*- janadil 2 stone; 
pi. Jil>- cataract, waterfall (e<?.) 

2 Jj-L>- gundul (eg.) pi. Joli»- ganddll 2 gondola 

Jl.^*- jenaral, ginrdl (eg.) pi. -a£ general {mil- 
itary rank) 

jU- II to say the burial prayers, conduct the 
funeral service {» for the deceased; Chr.) 

ojL>. finaza, jandza pi. -a£ >*L>- janaiz 2 
bier; funeral procession 

jb>- junndz pi. _>JL>- jananlz 2 requiem, 
funeral rites, obsequies; funeral proces- 

JjjU janzabil (= J^j) ginger 

bjV janzara (= ^j) to be or become 
covered with verdigris 

j'j^r jinzdr (= jbfj) verdigris 

1/ j**- ?iw2lr (— ^j) pi. j- Jbf jandzir 2 chain; 
track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.); 
a hnear measure ( — 5 qasaba — 17.75 m; 
also — 20 m; %.) | jj*- SjU? £ara£ j. track 
sprocket, sprocket wheel 

j>yf mujanzar track -laying (vehicle) 

(j-i*- II to make aUke, make similar (a; 
to assimilate, naturalize {* s.o.); to class, 
classify, sort, categorize (a Ill to 
be akin, be related, similar (a, a to), be 
of the same kind or nature (« as s.o., 
* as, be like s.o. or (a, e ), 

resemble (a s.o., a V to have o.s. 
naturalized, acquire the citizenship (»_j); 
to be naturalized YI to be akin, related, 
of the same kind or nature, homogeneous 

{jr l^- jinx pi. ( _ r 'U>-i ajVwzs kind, sort, va- 
riety, species, class, genus; category; sex 
(male, female); gender (gram.); race; na- 
tion | (J JJ^\ *-i tsm aJ-/. (gram.) noun 
designating a kind, genus or species, 
generic term, see also J\ (under -«.); (J *iA-! 
tsytJI (bamri) the human race; LJU-. »UjI 
abna jinsina our fellow tribesmen; y> 
^-jj-, i cjj-o* he is Egyptian by nationality ; 
JaM}\ ^jAPi the fair sex; ^tX\ ^-U-J the 
strong sex; Q JSC^ ^^J^ (£aHt) form 
class (gram.) 

^JU- yi?i5l generic; sexual; racial | 
4--JL.- jTli* sexual problems; ^-JL>- ]*» 
sex film, porno 

(S ^r*)l la-jinsi asexual, sexless 
Aj—jU- jinslya sexuality ; (pi. -at) nation- 
ality, citizenship j Lklt ^-JLi- 1 (mitliya) 

i j~£j*- taints naturalization; paronoma- 
sia (rhet.) 

^L*- jinds (rhet.) assonance, pun, paro- 

\JAf- nujanasa relatedness, kinship, 
affinity; similarity, likeness, resemblance 

(j-J^f 1 tajannus acquisition of citizen- 
ship, naturalization 

^bf taidnus homogeneity, homogene- 
ousness; likeness, similarity, resemblance 

O ^Ua^-I islijnds homosexuality 

( _ r l£ mujannas mongrel, bastard 

^rJljf v>ujdnis similar, like, related; 
homogene< >us 

^-Uju ?i, utajannis naturalized 

^jJU^ju nutajdnis akin, related, of the 
same kind or nature, homogeneous 

UUk>>- (Lat. (>entiana) gentian (eg.) 

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1 (_ii*- VI to deviate (je from ; to incline, be 
inclined (J! or J to 

2 «_aJ>- look up alphabetically 

(j^Lb*- junfds, ^aJcj*- junais sackcloth, 

dl^- junk pi. ilj^- junuk harp 

^l»- janowa, jiniwa Genoa (seaport in NW 

^>- jand i {jany) to pick, gather, harvest, 
reap (>, also the fruits of one's work) ; 
to pocket, rake in, collect (>; to 
derive { a profit, j* from); to secure, real- 
ize (a profits, an advantage); to incur 
{* evil, harm, punishment) ; to cause, pro- 
voke, bring about (* ; — («uU*- jind* 
ya) to commit a crime, an outrage ( Jp on) ; 
to offend, sin (Jp against); to commit, 
perpetrate (<j^>-, UjS danban a crime, an 
offense; J*, less frequently Jl, on or 
against); to inflict (a some evil, Jp on 
s.o.); to harm (Jp s.o., J «l*i*- I* 
»i-U {yaddhu) the crime that ho has com- 
mitted V to incriminate, accuse, charge 
with a crime (Jp s.o.), lay the blame (J* 
on s.o.), blame (Jp s.o.); to act meanly 
VIII to gather, harvest (a 

J*- jany harvest; reaping (fig.); — 
janan (coll.) fruits 

5jL>- jinaya pi. -at perpetration of a 
crime; felony (jur. ; in the strictly legal 
sense, more than a misdemeanor, <U*^>-, 
and an infraction, iillsfr), capital offense | 
obLi-J 4X£ mahkamat al-j. criminal court 

Jb»- jinffi criminal | «LJli>- *&£ (mcrA* 
kama) criminal court; Jb^l j^UJI crim- 
inal law, penal law 

J^ majnan^A. uLf majanin that which 
is picked or harvested, a crop; source 
of profit or advantage 

^f tajannin incrimination, accusation 
(Jp of s.o.); mean way of acting, low, 
underhand dealings 

uU- jdnin pi. all*, jundh perpetrator (of 
a delict); delinquent, criminal 
4JU- jdniya criminal (fern.) 
<uU ^f majnly 'alaihi harmed, in« 
jured; aggrieved party; victim of a crime 

u^. (Fr. Geneve) zanef, jinev Geneva 

>- (Engl, guinea) gineh, also gunaih pi. -o( 
pound (e^r.) | JJ>-I <u^r (istarlini) pound 
sterling, English pound; c£/-a- Vr Egyp- 
tian pound (abbreviation: *r) 


JUf»- jahbad, jihbid, A™^- jihbid pi. eJbL^ 1 
jahabida man endowed with a critical I 
mind; great scholar; coryphaeus of 
science; bright, brilliant, intelligent 

x^ jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive, 
labor, take pains, put o.s. out; to over- 
work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (o s.o.) 
Ill to endeavor, strive; to fight (J^ j 
* iS tS\ for,); to wage holy war against 
the infidels IV to strain, exert (a; to 
tire, wear out, fatigue (* s.o.), give trouble 
(» to) | «u*uaJ A$>-l (nafsahu) to exert one- \ 
self, take great pains; to go to great \ 
lengths, go out of one's way (j for I 
or in; J o^So JL^-I (fikrahu) to I 
concentrate on, put one's mind to, apply 
o.s. to VIII to put o.s. out (J for, 
work hard; {1st. Law) to formulate an 
independent judgment in a legal or the- 
ological question (based on the applica- 
tion of the 4 usiil; as opposed to taqlid, 

Jl^ jahd pi. ,y^>- juhud' strain ; exer- 
tion; endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble, 
pains ((j on behalf or for the sake of; O voltage, tension (el.) [ «J^>- o$>- 
jahada jahdahu, also «-Cf>- (Jj^) J^ to do 
(try) one's utmost, do (try) all in one's 
power, make every conceivable effort; 
JL^>- \jtf- bi-jahdin jahldin with great 
difficulty, by dint of strenuous efforts; 

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X^*- J^#- juj after a lot of trouble O Mt 
JU Colin) high tension (el.) 

Xp^ juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used 
prepositionally) to the limit of ... | x^- 
35iyi jwMa \-taqa as far as possible, as 
much as possible; -dill* 44*- J. taqatihl 
as much as he can, to the limit of his 
abilities; <ul£L.I jl^>- juhda imkanihi do.; 
L Jl^*- /uA<2a ma as much as, to the limits 
of what . . . ; (jXfrr juJtdl as far as I can 

X&*- jahld see X&- jaM 

ilp*. jihad fight, battle; jihad, holy war 
(against the infidels, as a religious duty) 

tpltt- jikddi fighting, military 

3-LfiLf mujahada fight, battle 

il$*-l ijjAarf pi. -a£ strain, stress, effort, 
exertion; overexertion, overstrain(ing) 

it^-l ijtihad effort, exertion, endeavor, 
pains, trouble; application, industry, dili- 
gence; (1st Law) independent judgment 
in a legal or theological question, based 
on the interpretation and application of 
the 4 u§ul t as opposed to taqlid, q.v.; 
individual judgment 

J j*f majhud pi. -at endeavor, effort, 
exertion, pains, trouble, work; O voltage, 
tension (el.) | <olj>^ JJL> to make every 
effort, go to greatest lengths 

■ult mujdhid pi. -un fighter, freedom 
fighter; warrior; sergeant (formerly, Eg.; 
mil.) I j.JUhUJ.1 »1.jl? qudama al-m. (Alg.) 

itft- mujhid strenuous, exacting, try- 
ing, grueling; — mujhad overworked, ex- 

JL^uf mujtahid diligent, industrious; 
(pi. -un) mujtahid, a legist formulating 
independent decisions in legal or theo- 
logical matters, based on the interpre- 
tation and application of the four usul, 
as opposed to muqallid, q.v. 

jtf- jahara a (jahr, jt$>- jihdr) to be brought 

to light, come out, show, appear; — to de- 
clare publicly, announce (a or *_-»; to 
avow in public, proclaim (<-> ; to raise 
(a the voice); — jahura u (»jl$>- jahara) 
to be loud, be clearly audible (voice) 
III to declare or say openly, voice, utter, 
express frankly (<-> 

j4>- jahr and jl^>- jihdr publicness, pub- 
licity, notoriety; l^^*- jahran and 'jU^T 
jiharan publicly, in public 

*ser jahratan openly, overtly, frankly, 

iSj^r fah™ notorious, well-known, public 

j^ jahir loud (voice, shout) 

J ^ T \ ajhur 2 day-blind 

j^-\ ajhar 2 (elative) louder, more au- 

tjjj4>- jahwari loud { voice) 
j^j. mi]har loud-voiced 

j^ mijhar pi. _y&bf majdkir 2 micro- 

<£j¥r rnljharl microscopic (al) 

jl^f mijhar loud-voiced; O loud- 

% jfcUf mujdhara frankness, candor (of 
one's words) 

jji*- majhur loud and perceptible; 
voiced (phon.) 

j^- jahaza a to finish off ( Jp a wounded man), 
deliver tho coup de grace to (Jp) II to 
make ready (a; to prepare (*, 
also a meal ) ; to do up, refurbish (a a room, 
a dwelling); to arrange (a; to pro- 
vide, supply (a; to equip, fit out, 
furnish, supply, provide (<—» * or a or 
s.o. with) IV to finish off (Jp a wounded 
man), deliver the coup de grace to (Jp); 
to finish, ruin (Jp s.o.) V to be equipped, 
furnished, supplied, provided; to equip 
o.s. ; to prepare o.s., get ready; to be 
ready, be prepared 

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Jl^- jihaz (also pronounced jahaz) pi. 
-at, »>4>-l ajhiza equipment, appliances, 
outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance, 
gadget; implement, appliance, utensil; 
installation, apparatus (techn. ) ; (pi. cj^>-\ ) 
system, apparatus (anat.> also fig., = 
administrative apparatus, etc.); corpo- 
ration, committee (Tun.) | jjL-V jl^r 
(la-silki) wireless set, radio; y^j jlf*~ 
radio (receiving set); J-^^^** jl$>- {mus* 
taqbil), jLSx^l jl^*-, -ULiJVl jt*r re- 
ceiver, receiving set (radio); ^1. jl**- 
(mwZi'), Jt-jVl jt$»- J. allrsal trans- 
mitter (radio); J^jjaJj jL^- television 
set; jA^\ jl$»- j. al-hafr drilling rig; oil 
derrick; ^j*-*- JWr {hukiiou) govern- 
ment machine; iSjj* jlf*- {<laurl) circu- 
latory system (ortaf . ) ; ^ j I j I j Lp- ( t'dfar £ ) 
administrative apparatus; Jj-dl jl$>- ?. 
ad-daula state machinery; jl-^j jLpr radar 
installation; wj^l C»|jl>*V' Jcr>-~^ iWr 
or 4-^jVl ^(j^M ^y jW=r {hazzat, ardi* 
yd) seismograph; ^^ jl^- (atrrf) secret 
organization, underground organization; 
f Ir^V jWt sound locator; ^j^ jWr 
legislative body; i #*»t\ jW^ fa$ft6i) the 
nervous system; ^-JLcJl jL$>- educational 
system; ^jJ&JI (JtiT jl$>- ;'. fcas/ al-Jcidb 
lie detector; tfjUjI ^Jll jl*>- (/. «?- 
mas/t) radar measuring equipment; jL^- 

->(H 7. al-hadm digestive apparatus; 
j^VI v^-l <*. aJ-amn security apparatuses 

y$d tajhlz equipment, furnishment; 
preparation; pi. C>\y$4 equipment, gear 

(Sjh4 tojfaz* preparatory; (of a school) 
preparing for college 

JaU jahiz ready, prepared; ready- 
made; equipped | (oU^JL , j^^-*) *~*J' 
•JaU- (albisa) ready-made clothes 

j^- mujahhiz pi. -un (alg.) supplier of 
equipment, technical installations 

j^f mujahhaz equipped, provided, fur- 
nished, supplied (<_j with); armed (lj with 

guns; of a ship, tank, etc.); prepared 
(meal) ; refurbished (dwelling) 


IV to sob, break into sobs | »I£JIj J^\ 
(buka) to be on the verge of teara, 
struggle with tears; to break into tears 

Xt^- jahsa (n. vie.) pi. -at sob; out- 
burst of tears 

^L^-l ijhas outburst of tears 

,j-i^- IV to give birth prematurely; to have 
a miscarriage (woman); to induce abor- 
tion j Ifw J6 c~Jt#*-\ (nafsaha) she in- 
duced an abortion 

u Jl4>- jihd miscarried fetus 
,^0*4*- jahld miscarried fetus 
(J-*Wt' ij^ad miscarriage, abortion; in- 
duced abortion 

a ^-£ ynujhid abort ifacient (drug) 

J^>- jahila a (jahl, SJl$>- jahala) to be igno- 
rant; not to know (*-» or *, how to 
do; to be irrational, foolish; to 
behave foolishly (Jp toward) II to call 
(c s.o.) stupid; to stupefy, make stupid 
(a s.o.) VI to ignore (a; to refuse \ 
to have anything to do (a with), shut I 
one's eyes (a to), disregard (a a fact); to I 
affect ignorance, pretend to know nothing t 
X to consider ignorant or stupid (« s.o.} [ 

J^*- jahl and Ulf*- jahala ignorance; I 
folly, foolishness, stupidity; impetuosity, \ 
licentiousness, dissoluteness | J^>- ^ out 
of ignorance 

J^»- jahul ignorant; foolish, stupid 
J^f majhul ■ pi. jAbf majdhil 2 un- 
known region, unexplored territory | JaU 
LSjyl unknown Africa 
Js^f tajhil stultification 
y\4 tajdhul ignoring, disregard(ing) 
JaU- jdhil pi. ii|»- jahala, J^>- juhhxl t 
JL$*- jahhdl, *•&#*■ juhala" 2 not knowing 
(uj, how to do; ignorant, un- 
educated, illiterate; foolish; reckless, im- 

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petuous, uninhibited, unrestrained, with- 
out consideration 

JaU- jdhili pagan, of or pertaining to 
pre-Islamic times | JaU-1 j^\ {'a$r) the 
pre -Islamic period 

1JUU jakillya state of ignorance; pre- 
Islamic paganism, pre-Islamic times; bar- 
barism, licentiousness 

J^f majhvl unknown; anonymous 
(also y}\ Lijt*- m. al-ism); (pi. -tin) an 
unknown (person) ; pi. J^*^ majahiP un- 
known things | JxpJLl "^r^ §i§ a t (d-m. 
passive voice {gram.); ^\ ^j^f- "^j^ sirlca 
m. al-ism (Mor.) joint-stock company 
(= Fr. sociiU anonyme) 

"<Jj4^ majhuliya being unknown, un- 
known nature 

-%>■ jahuma u (l*^- jahama, i«>f>- juhuma) 
to frown, glower V to frown, scowl, 
glower; to regard with displeasure (a, * 
or J b.o. or, frown (a or J on); to 
eye gloomily, coolly, grimly (a, * or J 
a.o., ; to become sullen, gloomy (face) 

j»- jahm sullen, glum, morose, gloomy 

1*1$*- jahdm clouds 

luLff- jahdma and i^*- juhuma grim 
look, sullen expression ; gloominess ; brood- 
ing silence 

«4»- jahannam 2 f. hell 

jahannami hellish, infernal 

iSj&r see 4*-j 

y* jaww pi. >\j*-\ ajwa, *\j*- jiwa (pi. fre- 
quently with singular meaning) air; at- 
mosphere (also fig.) ; sky; weather; sphere, 
milieu, environment; \j>- jawwan by air; 
by telegraph, telegraphically | j3-\ Jj/ 
air mail; ^A-loU-k tabaqat al-j. air layers; 
J** sr J {mumtir) in rainy weather; jj** 
\j>- «ij>-U (suwar, jawwan) aerial photo- 

tjj^- jauwi air, aerial, aero- (in com- 
pounds); airy, atmospheric (al) ; weather 
{used attributively), meteorologic(al) | 
tfjlS JaJ^AJ! (dagt) atmospheric pressure; 
hj*- ^UU> {tabaqat) air layers ;^j>- JjU-*l 
{ustul) air fleet; hj*- SjU airraid; £*\j*l\ 
Ij^i-I {quwat) air force; *ij^\ **-*$\\ avia- 
tion; iSyr f ^r* ant ^ *iJ*r *^r* (win*?) air- 
port; hj3~ jUsjI meteorological observa- 
tions; <jj>- J? (hajar) meteorite; hj** 
\j>- aerial photograph; j^-l jr^-adl 
aerial photography; isyr P^ {manzar) 
aerial view 

\y T (colloq.) juwwa in it, within, inside 
Ji^>- juvnvani inner, inside, interior 

VLJJ^>- (Eg. spelling) givatimdla Guatemala 

*il^»- guwafa {eg.) guava (fruit) ; guava shrub 

Jl^»- (ey.) guioal pi. -af sack 

oV^ (Fr. juin) iwan {Alg., Tun.) June 

Jj1_^>- (It. guunti; eg.) gloves 

] ^ (Fr. ?w/>e'j and (e#.) 4j^- zwfca pi. -a£ 

2 (v^r) vV . ? ^ a w (?aw&, ^J? ia ? wSb ) to 
travel, wander (a through), traverse, 
roam, tour (a, e.g., foreign lands); to 
pierce, penetrate (a, cut through 
(a); to wander, cruise (a about a place), 
cruise bark and forth (a through the 
streets) 111 to answer (o s.o., Jp, 
reply, respond (» to s.o., J* to; to 
comply (a with), accede (a to) IV to an- 
swer (o or Jl s.o., jp or Jf a question), 
reply, respond (* or Jl to s.o., Jp to; 
to react positively (to a stimulus, invita- 
tion, challenge); to comply (a with a 
request), accede, defer (a to); to hear 
(« s.o.), accede to the request or wishes 
of <>); to fulfill, grant (a a wish); to con- 
sent, assent, agree (Jl to); to concur (Jl 
in) j «JiL- Jl «_*U-I (talabihi) to comply 
with s.o. s request VI to reply to one 

ss*C&*a jjy jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svsta 


another; to echo (a, l-j from); to ring out 
(voices); to resound (noise); to be (mutu- 
ally) corresponding, harmonize; to be 
favorable, propitious (« to s.o.; situa- 
tion) ; to adjust or attune oneself ( ** to VII to scatter, break up, pass over 
(clouds) ; to be dispelled, disappear, vanish 
(worries); to fade (darkness) X ^-.U^-l to 
hear, answer (a a prayer), grant (a a re- 
quest) ; to comply with the request of (J), 
accede or defer to the wishes of (J); to 
react (J to); to react positively (to a 
stimulus); to respond (<J to, *-* with), 
listen, pay attention (J to), show interest 
(J in); to meet, answer {<~> J s.o. with), 
reply (<_> J to s.o. with or by doing; 
to resound, reverberate, re-echo; to res- 
onate (J or Jl to, be in resonance 
with {<phys.); — V-K*^' istajwaba to 
interrogate, examine, question (» s.o.); to 
hear (« the defendant or witness); to 
interpellate (o s.o.; in parliament) 

Vj*- faith traversing, touring (of for- 
eign countries); piercing, penetration 

hj>- javba pi. -at, ^y? juwab opening, 
gap; hole, pit 

vl^r jawdb pi. <u^l ajwiba answer, re- 
ply; octave (to a given tone; mus.); 
(eg,; pronounced gawdb pi. -at) letter, 
message | .U^l vl^r h a$-§art main 
clause (conclusion) of a conditional sen- 
tence, apodosis 

jl>r jawabl answering (used attribu- 
tively) | j\ji-\ J*iJl (fi'l) the verb in the 
apodosis of a conditional sentence 

<~>)yr jawwdb traverser (of foreign coun- 
tries); s.o. constantly under way, travel- 
ling through the world, globe-trotter ; 
traveler, explorer 

v'j^ tajwab traversing; wandering 
(through unknown country) 

i>U-i ijaba response, respondence; com- 
pliance; fulfillment, granting (of a re- 
quest); accession; consent, assert; (pi. 

-at) answer, reply | jsJLJ ioLJ ijabatan li- 
talabikum in compliance with your re- 
quest; in answer to your request 

<_jjlf tajdwvb agreement, conformity; 

4jUju-I istijdba hearing, answering (of a 
prayer); granting, fulfillment (of a re- 
quest) ; response, reaction (to a stimulus) ; 
resonance, consonance (phys.) | j LU^-I 
istijdbatan li in compliance with, in answer 
to, in deference to 

< r >\j>c^'\ i8tijwdb pi. -at interrogation, 
questioning; hearing; interview; inter- 
pellation (in parliament) 

VJ^* 1 * mutajdmb harmonious 

i_~»c-~. mustajib hearing, answering, 
granting; reverberant, resonant, reso- 
nating; responsive, susceptible, impres- 

Cjj*- jut and \jj*~ juta f. jute (bot.); jute fiber 

<£>>-) £-1*- jdha u (jauh), IV and VIII to an- 
nihilate, destroy, ruin; to devastate (a a 
region) VIII to sweep away (a, « s.o., ; 
storm, also fig.), put down, quell (a, e.g., 
a riot) ; to strike, afflict, smite (a a country 
or region; natural catastrophe, disaster.) 
4*-U-i ijaha destruction, annihilation; 
crop damage, crop failure, bad harvest 

^Lj^-I ijtiydk destruction, annihilation; 
subdual, suppression 

^U- jd'ih crushing, devastating; dis- 

^U- ja iha pi. ^y*- jawa'ik 2 calamity, 
disaster, catastrophe; storm, tempest; 
epidemic; plague; crop damage 

ryr juk pi. r\j*-\ ajwdk broadcloth 

(*j*r) jU- jdda u (oj*. juda) to be or become 
good, become better, improve; — (jvd) 
to grant generously (i_j, be so gen- 
erous as to do (<_> with verbal 
noun) ; to be liberal, openhanded (*-> with 

s^u&js jjV jl CJlq Jj&Jma jj 01^5^54 $yiXa$ P.5^° < ChJ- cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


-Ltf-, J* toward s.o.), bestow liberally 
(^t, Jp upon s.o.), grant, give lav- 
ishly (v o f 8 - tn *» J* to s *°*)> ehower 
(*■?* J* 8 -°* witn ); *° donate (v a sum °f 
money, etc.) | -u^Lj jU to sacrifice o.s.; 
to give up the ghost; ^.aJU *l^t coU- ( r a£* 
naAt* bi-d-dam") tears welled from his 
eyes; f^l CoU- (heavens granted rain) 
it rained II to do well (a ; to make 
better, improve, better, ameliorate (a; to recite (the Koran; cf. Aj^) 
IV to do well, do excellently (a; to 
master (a, be skilled, proficient 
(a in), be an expert (a at), be conversant 
(* with an art); to ameliorate (a; to 
accomplish or say good, excellent things; 
to achieve excellent results; to be ex- 
cellent, outstanding, distinguish o.s. (e.g., 
as a poet) | UJ .sU-l (lugatan) to master a 
language; jJU! J* J>>JI iU-1 { r azfa) to play 
the piano well X to think (a good 
or excellent, approve of (a); to consider 
(a suitable for or appropriate to (J) 
sj*- jud openhandedness, liberality, 

$j>- jaud heavy rains 
»iU- see under 2 -X>- 

lij^ juda goodness, excellence; good 
quality (of commodities, products) 

JL*- jayyid pi. iL>- jiyad good, perfect, 
faultless; outstanding, excellent, first- 
rate; good (as an examination grade) ; ix. r 
jayytdan well, excellently; thoroughly | 
\j*- JU- {jiddan) very good (also as an 
examination grade) 

j>_^>.1 ajwad 2 better 

jij»- jawad pi. 2J^1 ajwad, >>U1 aja* 
wid a , -UjU-1 ajawid 2 , Zj*- jud openhanded, 
liberal, generous, magnanimous; jawad 
pi. iL>- jiyad, ^U-i ajydd, ^_jM ajawid 2 
horse; race horse, racer; charger, steed | 
il^»-Vl j;l noble man 

Jbj^ tajwid art of reciting the Koran, 

Koran reading (in accordance with estab- 
lished rules of pronunciation and into- 

•iU-1 ijdda good, excellent performance 
or accomplishment, etc.; improvement, 

sy£- mujawwid pi. -un Koran reciter 
Xj£ mujid adept, efficient, proficient 

jlbj*- jaudar see jbjU (alphabetically) 

jij>- judo judo 

( Jjr ) jU jara u {jaur) to deviate, stray (j* 
from); to commit an outrage (J* on), 
bear down (> upon), wrong, persecute, 
oppress, tyrannize (Jp s.o.); to encroach, 
make inroads (J* on another's territory) | 
jjjkJI *j OjU the way led him astray; 
he got off on the wrong path III to be 
the neighbor of s.o. (•), Hve next door 
to (•) ; to be adjacent, be next (a to, 
adjoin (a; to be in the imme- 
diate vicinity of (*, a), be close to (o, a); 
to border (a on) IV to grant asylum or a 
sanctuary (• to s.o.); to protect {* s.o., <y 
from), take (• s.o.) under one's wing; to 
stand by s.o. (.), aid (» s.o.) VI to be neigh- 
bors; to be adjacent; to have a common 
border X to seek protection, seek refuge 
(^ with ;.o., j- from, appeal for 
aid (a to -s.o., j* against 

Jyr ja-ir injustice; oppression, tyr- 
anny; outrage; wanton deviation (^ 

jU- jar pi. o\j^- jiran neighbor; refu- 
gee; protege, charge 

SjU- jura pi. -at neighboress 
*j*~ ?'^ ra neighborhood 
Sj^ ;, Im pi. j^- juwar pit, hole 
(jjj»- see alphabetically 
jlj>. ?7««r neighborhood, proximity; 
jL^ in the neighborhood of, in the vicin- 
ity of, nt ir, close to | *j[yr J 1 beside him, 
at his si'ie 

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ijj\& mujawara neighborhood, proxim- 

•jU-1 ijara protection, granting of 

jjljftajdwur neighborhood (reciprocal); 
contiguity, relationship (of several things) 

_/U- jair pi. ~ojj*r jawara, ^jU- jam 
unjust, unfair; tyrannical, despotic; ty- 
rant, oppressor, despot 

jjlji mujdwir neighboring, adjacent; 
near, close by; (pi. -un) student (esp. of 
Al Azhar University; living in he vicin- 
ity of the Mosque) 

jmZ mujir protector 

jjU-s* mutajdwir having a common 
border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous 

<->jj>- jaurab pi. i~>j\j>- jaivarib 2 stocking; 

L»-jj»- jorjiyd Georgia (republir of the 

^tSjjr juri damask rose (Rosa d; mascena, 
hot.); crimson 

2 <SJj=r (Engl.) juri jury 

1 {jj*t) JW" 7 ( * 2a u (JW j aw ® z ) to pass, come, 
travel (a through); to walk through (i_j or 
a a place); to pass (a an examination, 
a test); to be allowed, permitted, per- 
missible; to be possible, conceivable; to 
work, succeed (4JL with s.o. ; deceit, 
artifice) | ^IJ-I <tlp ^-iiW- (hila) the trick 
worked with him, he fell for the trick 
II to permit, allow (a; to approve 
(a of), sanction, warrant, authorize (a Ill to pass (a or by, go or 
walk past (a); to go beyond (a), 
overstep, cross, leave behind (a, also, 
e.g., ^1 j» i>**^' jjW £vmr) he is past 
thirty; to exceed, surpass (a; to 
pass over (jp), disregard {jp, 
pay no attention (je to); to let (^ 
go unpunished; to give up, forgo, re- 

linquish (jp I S-b-I^JI «pUI Cjj jU- {(w- 
sd'atu l-wdhidata) it is after one o'clock, 
past one o'clock IV to traverse, cross ; 
(a, Jl on the way to); to permit, 
allow (a J to s.o.; to authorize \ 
(a J s.o. to do, also a 0); to license J' 
(a; to approve, confirm, endorse | 
(a a decision, a judgment); to approve 
(a of, sanction (a V to toler- 
ate, suffer, bear; to speak metaphorically 
or in a figurative sense VI to pass (a 
or by, go or walk past (a); to 
go beyond (a), overstep, cross, leave 
behind (a, also an age of life, as in 
III); to exceed, surpass (a, also J*); 
to go too far, overstep all bounds, en- 
croach, make inroads; to pass over 
(jp), disregard (^p, pay no atten- 
tion (jp to) ; to skip over (jc ; to give 
up, forgo, relinquish (a; to refrain 
(<jp from) VIII to pass, run, go (a through), 
cut across (a); to cross (a a border, a 
street, a mountain range); to traverse 
{a a country or sea); to cover (a a dis- 
tance); to pass (a through the mind; 
said of ideas, thoughts); to go (a through 
hard times or a crisis); to surmount, 
overcome (a a crisis) | oLJLJI jb»-l {'aqa* 
bat) to overcome obstacles X to deem per- 
missible (a; to ask permission 

jj*- jauz pi. j\j*-\ ajwaz heart, center 
(of a desert, of a large area, etc.) | ji^-1 J 
amid, in the middle of, in; »UiAJI JljaJ j 
(fada) in space 

j \y 7 jawdz permissibility, admissibility ; 
lawfulness, legality; permission, (official) 
permit, license, authorization; possibil- 
ity, conceivability ; passing (of an exam- 
ination); (pi, -at) passport, also yLJl j\j>- 
j. as-safar 

jlji majdz crossing; passage; corridor 
(poL-geogr.); metaphor, figurative expres- 
sion (rhet,); meaning extension of an 
Arabic word, use in a wider, figurative 
sense (as a means of rendering western 

ss*C&*a jjy jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° < (IHJ- cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svsta 


terminology; lex,) | IjUs. majdzan, J*u- Jp 
jUJii figuratively, metaphorically 

(^jLf majazi figurative, metaphorical 

SjU-l ijdza pi-, -a* permission, authori- 
zation; approval; license; — Fr. licence 
as an academic degree; permit; vaca- 
tion, leave (of absence) [ ^**J- 1 SjU-i i. ah 
hasr grant of patent, issue of letters 
patent; patent; 3j*> «jl>-l i. sauq (Ir.), 
•>\J SjU-l i. qiyada {Kuwait) driver's 
license; 4JLai5 SjU-i (qunsuliya) exequa- 
tur of a consul (dipl.); \«J>j* »jU-l (mara= 
$iya) sick leave; 4^-j-dl oijU-Vl (mad* 
rmlya) school vacation; SjU-VLj uJU on 
leave, on vacation 

Sj jLf mujawaza and j jlf tajdwuz 
crossing; exceeding; overdraft, overdraw- 
ing (of an account); disregard {^ for); 
relinquishment ( jt of 

\jyf tajawwuzan in a figurative sense, 

jtaf ! ijtiydz traversing, crossing; pas- 
sage; transit; covering (of a distance); 
passing (of an examination) ; surmounting 
(of difficulties) 

j U- jo" iz permitted, lawful, legal; con- 
ceivable, thinkable 

Sj-'U- ya'iza pi- y^ faw&iz 1 prize, re- 
ward, premium | !L*-ljj SjTL- (dirasiya) 
stipend, scholarship 

jl# mujaz licensed; (pi. -uri) licentiate 
(as an academic title, = Fr. licencie; e.g., 
fjWI *i J^ U^ncie es sciences) 

i U jj>- = zjj II to give in marriage 

□ j_j»~ jaws pi. jlj>»1 ajwaz = r-jj couple 

njj^ (syr. ; pronounced mshvez, < 
rjj* muzwaj) wind instrument with a 
double pipe, corresponding to the Egyp- 
tian zummdra) 

Mj^-I al-jauza" Gemini (sign of the zodiac; 
astron.); the third month of the solar year 
[Saudi Ar., cf. Ji- hamal) 

*jj*~ jauz (coll.; n.un, I, pi. -a() walnut | 
^JJI j^- /. a«-.^6 nutmeg; . jll j^j- ?. aZ- 
qa% nux vomica; Axil J_j»- j. al-hind, jjs- 
tjj£j> (hindl) coconut; _}jJ\ jj>- j. alqazz 
cocoon, chrysalis of the silkworm 

ojy~ goza (eg.) narghile 

<jjy jauzl nut (used attributively and 
in compounds); nut-brown, hazel 

5 jU look up alphabetically 

djy jauzal pi. Jjlj*- jawazil 2 young pigeon 

(^y) ^U- jdsa u to peer around, pry 
around, look around (cbU- kilala in); 
to search, investigate, explore (a 
VIII to search, investigate, explore (a 

tj^yr faus®*! pi- i>*'j*r j^wdsiq 2 palace; man- 
or, villa 

*Uiy gaioita pi. JaJl^>- gawd'it 2 (eg.) dowel, 

(£-«") &V ?* r ° tt f/ aw ^ to ^ e nun & r y ; to starve 

II to cause (» s.o.) to starve, starve out, 
famish (» 3,0.) IV do. 

fyr fa* hunger, starvation j U^»- oU 
to starve to death 

**3*r )Wa (n. vie.) hunger 

o\*y>- jau'drfi, f. ^yr jau r d\ pi. 9-L*- 
?i?/a r hungry, starved, famished 

lUbf majd'a pi. -af famine 

JU- ;«7 pi. 9-L>- ?iya f , fy>- juiowa' 
hungry, starved, famished 
flj£ tajwi" starving out 
ipU-1 ijaa starving out 

1 J*_ ? *- II to make hollow, hollow out (a 

Jjy? jdiif pi. <J»lj>^ ajwaf hollow, cav- 
ity; depression; interior, inside, center, 
heart; belly, abdomen; north (magr.) | 
J*j>- j inside, in the interior of, in the 
middle of; JJUI ^y j (j. il-lail) or J*j>- 
JJJI (jaufa) in the middle of the night 

ss*C&*a jjy j) Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-3-09-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' <J"^'j"?3 cP^ ^Sssxa 



Sj*r jaufi inner, interior, inside; 
subterranean, underground, subsurface 
(of geological strata) ; northern (magr.) | 
*T?JT 8 ^* ground water 

O^l ajwaf, f. »ls^>- jaufa' 2 , pl. «J*^>- 
j«/ hollow; empty; vain, futile, inane, 
pointless, senseless 

tju^ tajwlf pi. .Jij jLf tajdwif 2 hollow, 
hollow space; cavity (also anatf.) | »Ju>? 
jkJl f. al-batn abdominal cavity (anat); 
^-JUaJl cJsjj^ 1 (. al-qalb heart ventricle 

(Jj^jf mujawwaj hollowed out, hollow 

8 **!>r l°ok up alphabetically 

Jj*- jaii^ pi. J[^»-l ajwdq and S5^>- jauqa 
pl. -a( troop, group; theatrical troupe, 
operatic company; choir (mus.) ; orchestra, 
band (also XJi^ja <*>>-) | 3jl>) j^> mu* 
dir al-j. conductor, bandleader, choir 
leader; Js^JJi SSj>- j.a$-$araf Legion of 

1 (J^*-) JU- jala u (jaul, "dj^ jaula, Jl^f taj* 
wal, oV^r jawalan) to roam, rove, wander 
about; to move freely, be at home (j in 
a field of learning), occupy o.s. (j with); 
to be circulated, go the rounds; to pass 
GJ> v through the mind) | «u-ty JU- 
and 4JU JU- to run through or go on in 
s.o.'s mind; to preoccupy s.o.; j J^f U 
(»Je>\j£) ^LU- what he is preoccupied with, 
what is on his mind; <ljup j ^.jJI JU- (dam r , 
r ainaihi) his eyes swam in tears; cJU- 
J o4j (yaduhu) he laid his hands on, he 
committed defalcations of IV to circulate, 
pass around (* | j Jjl JU-1 (ra'ya) 
to weigh thoroughly, ponder ; 
^kJI JU-l (nazara) to let one's eyes wander 
about; to look around V to roam, rove, 
wander about, move around; to patrol, 
go the rounds; to cruise; to tour, travel 
from place to place, travel about 

"^yr jaula -pl. -at circuit, round; patrol; 
excursion, outing; tour; (round) trip; 

voyage, run (of a steamer) ; (round-trip) 
flight (of an airplane) ; round (in sports, 
also of discussions, negotiations) 

^yr jawwal wandering, migrant, itiner- 
ant, roving; cruising; traveling; ambu- 
lant; — (pl. 5) traveler, tourist; hiker; 
wanderer; see also alphabetically | *JL 
J[^>- peddler, hawker, wandering street 
merchant; jjlf Jl>>- (tijdrl) commercial 
traveler, traveling salesman; Jl_j>- a\j ra* 
min jawwal pl. ~4\j>~ SUj rumah jawwdla 
rifleman (mil.; Syr.) 

^L>T j^wwdta one given to roaming 
or traveling; hiker; wanderer, wayfarer; 
O motorcycle; cruiser 

\}\j£ tajwdl migration, wandering, rov- 
ing, traveling ; tour, circuit; walking tour, 
hike; nomadic life, nomadism | Ji^f 
i->y£& migration of peoples 

o^jL\ al-jauldn the Golan region | 
jVji.1 Cj\jJjja murtafafat al-j. the Golan 

uV>»- jawalan migration, wandering, 
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism) 
JLJl o^j>- j. al-yad embezzlement, defal- 

JLf majal pl. -at room, space (J for; field, domain, sphere; scope, ex- 
tent ; reach ; range ; elbowroom , free scope ; 
play, clearance; field (magn.) | VLf £j U 
^iUJU (fakk) to admit of no doubt; JU V 
J (majdla) there is no possibility of or 
for . . ., it can't even be considered; V 
<us jfjJall Jb£ (majdla, ta r n) (it is) in- 
contestable; JUM IJLa j in this con- 
nection; ^-LJl jUJit j in the political 
sphere; oNUJJ ijJL^i j in various fields ; 
UjJ <uLt JUJL1 fjij (amdmahu) to give 
s.o. a free hand, wide scope of action; 
j:j>- Jlrf. (jawwi) air Space; <£**- Jl^ 
(hayawi) lebensraum; J^jJI J I* m. al- 
T amal field of activity; J^j^" Jl^ (kah* 
raba*i) electric field ; (j-^k* JUt (magna* 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlq Jj&Jma jj 01^3-03-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


tisi) magnetic field; JLJLI Sxi siddat al- 
w. field intensity (magn.) 

<}j£- tajawwul roaming, roving, wan- 
dering, migration; going out, moving 
about; patrol, round; (round) trip, tour; 
traveling | Jj^dl jC* man' at-t. and^U*- 
uj**dl kazr at-t. barring of traffic, traffic 
ban; curfew 

JjU- *jL> bd'i* jail pi. JjJLJU- 4tb peddler, 
hawker, street vendor 

dj>£* mutajawwil wandering, migrant, 
roaming, roving, itinerant; ambulant; 
traveling; traveler | <}j=^j» ^Sj traveling 
salesman; J^-i* f U (bayyd f ) peddler, 
hawker; 6y?z* ,_ri— * (qissis) itinerant 

2 l)1>»- look up alphabetically 

JJj>- (Eg. spelling) golf golf 

j»U look up alphabetically 

l 0j>- jun pi. olj*-1 ajwan gulf, inlet, bay 

*u^>- look up alphabetically 

*1jj>-, tAJj>-, <Ljjr (It. gonnella) gonella pi. -a7 
(woman's) skirt (e<?.) 

«U- look up alphabetically 

jAy* II tajauhara to become substance 

j*>>- jauhar pi. _^>l_>»- jawdhir 2 intrinsic, 
essential nature, essence; content, sub- 
stance (as opposed to form; philos.); 
matter, substance; atom; jewel, gem; 
pi. jewelry | y>j^j iju jJl (ztn/) the spuri- 
ous and the genuine 

Sy>j>- jaitltara jewel, gem 

iSJ'J 3 ? fauhari substantial; intrinsic, 
essential, inherent; fundamental, main, 
chief, principal; material; jeweler | ji. 
&/>yr unessential 

jTjbj*- jauJiarji and (eg.) ^y^j*- gawd- 
hirgl jeweler 

jty?. mujauhar decorated with jewels; 
pi. &[f>jf- jewelry, trinkets; jewels, gems 

1 ( jjs r jawiya a (jawan) to be passionately 
stirred by love or grief 

^j>- jawan ardent love, passion 

2 iSj^r l°°k up alphabetically 

j'-^^t — j^jW- I°°k U P alphabetically 

iJLj^ (Fr. juillet) £wilya (Alg., Tim.) July 

{**!-) *U- jack *^J~ yajiu (*^- map*) to come 
(o, a to); to get (a to), reach (a a place); 
to arrive; to happen; to bring (<~>; 
l-» o to h.o.; to bring forth, produce 
(i_j ; to set forth (^ ; to do, per- 
form; to commit, perpetrate (a; to 
occur, be mentioned, be said (<j in an 
article, document or book); (with foil, 
imperf.) to be about or set out to do | 
ajfi »U- (dikruhu) the discussion turned 
to him, people started to talk about him; 
u! fly* VI t&j*- ii *W" ^ e newspaper 
"Al Ahram" reports that . . .; j* »U~ 
61 fj-iS^i a report from Paris says that . . . ; 
J AJLlk* 4sclsi o*U- (mutdbiqatan) its 
results coincided with . . . 

4^>- ;Va, ?Wa coming, arrival | Ai*>- 
^boj (dahdb) coming and going, <^-aj 
LUij *x~>- to pace the floor, walk up and 

* j£- iiiaji coming, arrival, advent al-jaiyat the things to come 

1 (r w- jaib pi. VLteT juyub breast, bosom, 
heart; sine (ma(/i.); hole, hollow, cavity, 
excavation; pocket; purse | ^U^l VrH 

(foT&s) the privy purse; 

U tamdm 

al-j.y fi.dl t ^*^- cosine (math.); «-~Al 4pU 
pocket watch; <~«~U ij»j .**» pocket money ; 
LiiV' >-Jj>-4-l (an fly a) the nasal sinuses 
(\ ^»jUil vjc-r ?• al-muqawama pock- 
ets of resistance (mil.); t-^J-l -rj~* mas* 
rah al j. little theater; <-~J-l Sj^- 5a?/* 
>/«ra£ w/-;'. small car, compact, minicar 

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j. jeep 

jaibi pocket (adj.) 
jib and 

SjU- say y drat 

C~>- {ir.) cit a colorful cotton fabric* chintz 
1 -U>- jid pi. iU>-l ajyady ±j~>- juyud neck 
2 JU>- jay y id see zy* 
3 jLs*-, -^W^ see •*!>*" jawad 
1 j\ S; - jairi surely, truly, verily 

V 1 *" P r hme 

c£^ ftri oaloareous, lime (adj.) 
jL>- jayydr unslaked lime 
sjL>. jayydra limekiln 

V>- II to endorse {Jin.) 

jj^- (It. fiftro) endorsement (fin,) 

3>U 1 al-giza Giza {city in N Egypt) ; S>»- a 
brand of Egyptian cotton 

(crir) (j^W* j®$ a * (^A^r j&ya>$<i'n>) to be ex- 
cited, be agitated; to rage, storm; to 
boil, simmer II to levy troops, mobilize 
an army X to raise, mobilize (a an army, 
also, e.g., IjLaJl ansaran followers) 

JtM*. jaiS pi. (_£>£>- juyu§ army; troops, 
armed forces | J^b»Vl ^jt^ occupation 
forces; JsU^-l J^ army reserve; Jt^- 
Jajlj^ (murdbit) territorial army; u tx>- 
jLajV j,al-inqdd Salvation Army; ,jiu*- 
»LH al-masa' dusk, evening twilight 

t^Wr J a yy&$ agitated, impassioned; ex- 
cited, boiling up; ebullient; pleasurably 
excited, happily stimulated 

<L>Ujl»- jayaSdn excitement, agitation; 

(*J4»-) J»U jdja i, II and Y to be putrid, stink 
(decaying cadaver) 

5jL>- jlfa pi. cJo-^ jiya/, <JL>-I a/yd/ 
corpse, cadaver 

t 5^>- #*K Czech 

JoT j& Pi* ^ W ojyoJ race of men; coevals; 
generation; century; epoch, era | a*j ">U- 
J-»- (jUan) generation after generation 

j^L»- {It. gelati) jeldti ice cream 

^ j'im name of the letter r- 

ujjf (Fr. j/aine) corselet, sheath corset (eg.) 

^A&r jiyogrdfiyd geography | Lsl^jJL-l 
Sj^/JUJI (baiarlya) anthropogeography 

tilA^r jiyogrdjl geographical 

Uj^j-ar jiyoflziyd geophysics 

tibj^js*- jiyofiziyd'i geophysical; (pi. 
-tin) geophysicist | ybj-jjji-l i«Jl ($cma) 
the geophysical year 

Ji >*>=*- jiyofiziql geophysical 

L^J^^ jiyolojiyd geology 

ijrjjfr jiyoloji geologic (al ) ; {pi. ~un) 

fU- ha' name of the letter »• 

<jU- ^dft (cgr.) grillroom keeper 

^U-U- hakam rabbi | >TVl fU-U-1 the chief 

jU Ad/ see 2 J^ 
JjJ»- see Jp- 
j»U- /torn Ham (son of Noah) 

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^»U- haml Hamitic; (pi. -un) Hamite 

oU- and ajU- see {j&- 

JLiU- (pronounced 7iam6a) pi. wJl^>- /wtwam6 2 
(formerly Tan.) hamba, palace gendarme 
of the Bey of Tunis 

ti>jjU- Aawwf pi. CmjIj»* hawanit 2 wineshop, 
tavern; bar, pub; shop 

JjjU- hanutl pi, -i#a (etjr.) shop keeper; 
undertaker, corpse washer 

1 i T *. habba i (hubb) to love, like II to evoke 
(Jl in s.o.) love or a liking (*, a for 
or s.o.), make (Jl s.o.) love or like 
(•, a or s.o.); to endear (Jl a 
to s.o.), make (* dear, lovable, 
attractive (Jt for s.o.), make (a 
palatable, acceptable (Jl to s.o.); to urge 
(Jl a on s.o.), suggest (J! a 
to s.o.) IV (<_->- hubb, L*£ mahabba) to love, 
like (a, « s.o.,; to wish, want, 
or like, to do (ul) | o\ *_-*-! 
uhibbu an 1 should like to ... ; jl <d t~+-\ 
to like about s.o. that he . . . ; *J jX \ ^^- *il 
(kaira) he doesn't want him to be hap- 
py, he grudges him everything V to 
show love, reveal one's affections (Jl 
to s.o.); to endear o.s. ( Jl to s.o.), 
make o.s. popular, ingratiate o.s. (Jl 
with s.o.); to court, woo (Jl a woman) 
VI to love one another X to like (a ; 
to deem (a desirable, recommend- 
able; to prefer (Jp a to else) 

t^ hubb love; affection, attachment j 
oUJI u*- K ad-dat self-love, amour-propre ; 
f^£^*i\ u-j*. curiosity, inquisitiveness ; 
^J\ i^>- h. al-watan patriotism; J U~ 
{hubban) out of love or affection for, out 
of friendship for; J L*. in the desire to . . . 

^- hubbi friendly, amicable, loving; 
Lf- hubbiyan in an amicable manner, 
amicably; by fair means (jur.) 

t->- hibb pi. l_jL»-I ahhab darling, dear, 
dearest (one) 

w>U~ habab aim, goal, end 

»_-i~- habib pi. plf~\ ahibba 2 , 4-*-l 
ahibba, v^' ahJbab beloved, sweetheart, 
lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear 
(Jl to s.o.); popular; v^^' the beloved 
ones, the dear ones 

ou»~ habiba pi. -at, ^L»* habaib 2 sweet- 
heart, darling, beloved woman 

^^1 ohabb 2 dearer, more desirable, 
preferable (Jl to s.o.) 

[JL- habbada (with foil, nominative) 
how nice, how lovely is . . .! how good, 
excellent, perfect is . . .! | ^ tJL»- how 
nice it would be if . . .; J**^ <JU-' 'V" 
h. l-Mlu lau fa'dla it would be nice, or 
he would do well, if he did it; JU-I I.L*- L> 
(hdlu) that's just wonderful! 

XjZ- mahabba love; affection, attach- 
ment I JbJ\ 1~£- m. al-wapxn patriotism 

>^~J. tchabbub courtship, wooing 

^jLsi tahabub mutual love, concord, 

<-jj^ iriahbub beloved; dear; lovable, 
desirable; popular; favorite; beloved one, 
lover; (pi. u-m!^ mahabib 2 ) gold piece, 
sequin (in Ottoman times; eg.) 

*\y& mahbvba sweetheart, darling, 
beloved woman 

^~j£- muhabbab agreeable, pleasant, 
desirable, lovable, dear ( Jl to s.o.) ; nice, 

i^J- muhibb pi. -un loving; lover; 
fancier, amateur, fan; friend | ^UI <^£- 
philanthropic(al), affable; yyS\ U-st our 
dear friend; jU^l j~£- friends of arche- 
ology; 4JIJU (_-si (li-datihi) egoist 

^L^u mutahabb loving one another, 

■_ .-~.r.... mustalmbb (re) commendable, de- 
sirable (said of acts whose neglect is not 
punished by God, but whose performance 
is rewarded; 1st. Law) ; well-liked, popular 

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2 »_->- II to produce seed, go to seed (plant); to 
bear seed (grain); to granulate, become 
granulated; to granulate (a IV to 
produce seed 

<^**- habb (coll.; n. un. ») grains; seed; 
— pi. v!>^" hubub grain, cereals, com; 
eeed(s); grains, kernels; granules; pellets; 
pills, pastilles; berries; acne, pustules, 
pimples | > jJ\ ^^ chufa (Cyperus es- 
culentus L.; bot.); JlliJI ^-o- h. al-faqad 
chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus L. ; bot.) ; 
iJjUl 4->- croton seeds (seeds of Croton 
tiglium; hot.); (magr.) cherries; JL^JI »_-»- 
k. al-kdl and (olf^-) ol$)i ^*>- h. al-han 
cardamom (Amomum cardamomum L.; 
bot); pUiJl ,_*>- h. al-gamam hail, hail- 

X**- habba (n. un,; see also ^»- habb) 
pi, -at, <^y*- hubub grain, granule; seed; 
(coffee) bean; kernel; pill, pastille; tablet, 
troche, lozenge (med., pharm.); berry; 
pustule, pimple ; triviality, trifle ; a square 
measure (Eg.; = 58.345 m 2 ); pi. c»U- 
beads (of the rosary) j j*J> 4-*- k. §a e ir a 
linear measure (Eg. ; = 0.205 cm) ; <**- 
lj*~ (kulim) aniseed; »b_^ "L>- (sauda) 
black caraway (Nigella sativa L.; bot); 
JUJI oL» grains of sand; ^j io- h. raM 
grain of shot, pellet; ^Jl "L*- k. aVain 
eyeball; pupil (of the eye); ^JUJl <*- h. 
al-qalb dearest one, beloved, darling; 
J*J-1 *i* 4-»- h. man* al-haml contra- 
ceptive pill, the pill; SjJbt <~>j~*~ (mukadr 
dim) drugs, pills 

«_«>- habab blister 

<-ju>- hubaiba pi. -at little grain, small 
kernel; small pimple or postule | jJj 

oUJ-l fine-grained; £jLui-l J^»- kasin 
al'h. coarse-grained 

(Sy f~ hubaiU granular, granulated | 
^jjJ-1 J*J\ (ramad) trachoma (med.) 

V'V" habhab (coll.) watermelon (hij.) 
<_-*-L»- hubdhib firefly, glowworm 

JL>- II to approve, think well (a of, 
commend (a; to applaud, acclaim, 
cheer (o s.o., * 
1-L>- see 1 « r *- 

0-j^ tahbid approval; acclamation, ac- 
claim, applause, cheering 

jy- habara u (habr) to gladden, make happy, 
delight (* s.o.); — habira a (j^**- hubur) 
to be glad, happy II to embellish, refine, 
make workmanlike (a; to compose 
(a in elegant style; to write, 
compose (a 

jv- hibr ink | jU-1 *l umm al-h. squid, 
cuttlefish; 3>jj J* j*~ (waraq) mere ink 
on paper, of no effect (e.g., an agreement, 
a treaty) 

j*- habr, hibr pi. jL*-l ahbdr a non- 
Muslim religious authority, learned man, 
scribe; bishop; rabbi | JatVt jJ-l the Pope; 
jU-Vl J^ sifr al-a. Leviticus (Old Test.) 

(jj*- habri pontifical | gj*- ^lo* 
(quddas) pontifical mass (Chr.) 

4j jrf habrlya office or dignity of a 
bishop, bishopric, pontificate 

*jy>- habara, hibara pi. -at silken shawl 
or wrap (worn in public by ladies) 

jL>- habdr, hibdr pi. -at mark, trace, 
(esp. of blows), welt, wale 

jj*>- hubur joy 

jU- habbdr cuttlefish, squid (zool.) 

t^jU- hubdrd pi. oUjU~ hubaraydt 
bustard (zool.) 
jj~*~ yahbitr bustard chick (zool.) 

ij-^ mihbara, mahbara pi, j\fi. ma* 
hdbir 2 inkwell 

j-**- habasa i (habs) to obstruct, shut off, 
confine (a, * s.o.,, block, bar, hold 
back, check (a j& from; also tears, 
laughter, etc.); to withhold (a jc from 
s.o.; to hold in custody, detain 
(t s.o.); to apprehend, arrest, jail, 
imprison (* s.o.); to keep, keep back, 
put aside, put away (Jp a, for); to 

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tie up, invest inalienably (a capital) | 
Jp <L-Jj Lr *>. (nafsahu) to devote o.s. 
entirely to . . .; jt »ju Lr A»- (yadahu) to 
take ( out from under s.o.'s power; 
<wUil <JU ^^a*- (anfasahu) to make s.o. 
catch his breath, take s.o.'s breath 
away; Ji^Jl ** ^- hubisa ma f a S-Suglhe 
was committed to prison under hard 
labor II to tie up inalienably (a funds, 
Jp for, esp. for a pious purpose), make 
a religious bequest (a, for the benefit of 
J*) VII to be held back, be held up, 
stop, be interrupted, intermit; to restrain 
o.a., hold back VIII to block, obstruct, 
bar, confine (a, * s.o.,; to detain, 
hold in custody (a, * s.o.,; to hold 
back, retain, suppress (a, » s.o.,; 
to be detained, held up; to be impeded, 
held back; to falter, break, fail (voice), 
stop (breath) 

ir &- hubs (act of) holding or keeping 
back, obstruction, check, repression; 
blocking off, barring, confinement; dam- 
ming up, staving off; safekeeping, custo- 
dy, retention; imprisonment, arrest, de- 
tention, jailing; (pi. ^j?- hubus) prison, 
jail | J^L^-I ( _ r w- {ihtiyatl) preventive cus- 
tody, preventive detention (jur.); ^j***- 
tj}\jJu\ (infirddi) solitary confinement; 
Aui lJ *je- penal servitude 

,_>«*>• hibs pi. ,_r"U»-1 ahbas dam, weir, 

j***- hubs, hubus pi. ^^Ls-1 ahbas {Tun., 
Alq. t Mot. = waqf) inalienable property 
the yield of which is devoted to pious 
purposes, religious bequest, (Fr. jur.) 
"habous" | #U u »jf~ ( f amm) public haboue, 
^U ^ > - (kass) private habous; Loa- OS** 
J* (= Jc LiSj ulf ) to be entirely depend- 
ent on . . . 

<**>- huhsa speech defect, impediment 
of speech; O aphasia {psych.) 

j*ju^ habis blocked- off, shut- off, barred, 
confined, locked-up ; secluded ; bated 
(breath); choking (voice); restrained, 

barely audible (words) ; (pi. »La»~ hubasa' 2 ) 

tfjr*- liabus {Mor.,Alg.) habous = ,_>-*>- 
hubs, hubus 

^j^i- mahbas, mahbis pi. ,j^\^- ma* 
habis 2 place where is confined or 
locked up; jail, prison; (prison) cell 

j-^Lrf. mihbas pi. j-jI^ mahabis z device 
for shutting off or blocking off; shutoff 
valve, tap (of a water pipe) 

i-jjst mahhasa hermitage 

^L^l inhibas seclusion, confinement; 
stoppage, interruption; cessation 

^-L^-l ihtibas retention, restraint ; inhi- 
bition, impediment, obstruction, stop- 
page | JjJI jj-L^-l ihtibas al-baul sup- 
pression of urine, ischuria 

<j*j~£- mahhus shut-off (from the out- 
side world), isolated, secluded, confined, 
locked-up; imprisoned, captive; tied-up 
(funds); (pi. ^-jjI^ mah&bis 2 ) prisoner, 
prison inmate, convict 

^ muhabbis donor of a habous (see 
^j^- hubs) 

<Up (j-j^l al-muhabbas "alaihi bene- 
ficiary of a habous (see i _ r J&- hubs) 

^j***^* munhabis secluded, shut-off 

J^\ al-habas Abyssinia, Ethiopia; (pi. 
^iU-Vl al-ahbdS) the Abyssinians, Ethio- 

4±*i-l al-habasa (and ii*i-l i^h) Abys- 
sinia, Ethiopia 

(jJ 1l^ habaU pi. ^L^-i ahbdS Abyssin- 
ian, Ethiopian; SJLJ-I the Ethiopian 

Ja^ habapi i {^~- hubut) and habita a to 
come to nothing, fail, miscarry, go wrong; 
to be futile, be of no avail, be lost IV to 
frustrate, thwart, foil, defeat (a, 
J* a in s.o.; negotiations, efforts, 
an attempt, etc.) 

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]a~*- habat scar of a wound, wale, welt 

S?j~s- hubut futility, failure 

i*L*-i ihbat frustration, thwarting, foil- 

J^*- habaq basil (bot.); (eg.) a variety of 
speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.) 

jJL»- habaka i u (habk) to weave well and tight 
(a; to braid, plait (a hair), twist 
(a a rope); to knit (a stockings); to 
tighten, draw tight, make firm and solid 
(a; to bind (a a book); to contrive, 
devise (a a plan or plot) II to plait, twist 
(a; to tighten, make firm (a; 
to interlace (a VI II to weave well 
and tight (a; to bo or become inter- 
laced, interwoven, be arranged crosswise 
(like threads of a fabric) 

dL»- habk: iLJ-l jl>> jay y id at-h. well 
and tightly woven; tight-fitting, well- 

4^L>- kabka texture, structure; web of 
the plot, plot (of a drama, novel) 

4SL9- hubka pi. dL>- hubak belt, girdle 
<iXf- hubuk: rj>*Jl ^X^- h. an-nujum 
the orbits of the celestial bodies 

iTL>- hibdka weaver's trade, weaving 

i*J^jt mahbuk tightly woven; tight, 
tightly drawn; well-knit, sturdy, firm, 
solid; solidly worked, well-made 

1 J->- VIII to ensnare, catch in a snare (a, * 

J-a- habl pi. (JU- fiibdlf J-*- 1 ahbul, 
J^a*- hubul, JL*-1 akbdl rope, cable, 
hawser; cord, string, thread; (pi. JU- 
hibdl) beam, ray {e.g., of the sun, of 
light), jet (e.g., of water); vein; sinew, 
tendon | Jjj^I J~- jugular vein; ^Jl JJ-I 
(surri) umbilical cord; Sj^ lM~' (sauki) 
spine; \3j^> JL>- (sautitja) vocal cords; 
jS\~l\ J~>- ivy (bot.); »UI JU~ jets of 
water; ^j\^\ J* JJ-I (jJLLI) J) I aZga 
(atlaqa) l-habla f ald l-gdrib to let things 

go, slacken the reins, give a free hand, 
impose no restraint; JJ-I .lit; I slackening 
of the reins, yielding; relenting; ^JaJ 
<JU- idtaraba habluhu to get into a state 
of disorder, of disorganization, of disinte- 
gration, get out of control ; ^JLU J* ^ 
(la'iba, hablain) to play a double game, | 
work both sides of the street 

*J^»-I uhbula pi. J^UI aJidbil 2 snare, 
net; rope with a noose; pi. JjU-I tricks, 
wiles, artifices, stratagems (in order to 

*JL»- ZiiiaZa pi. JjL~ habdHl 2 snare, net 

JjU fo&fl: JjUL JjLUI UbM (tfcfafo/a) | 
everything became confused, got into I 
a state of utter confusion; a^LIij *+Ll> { 
all together, all in a medley { 

'* J-j- habila a (kabal) to be or become preg. I 

nant, conceive II and IV to make preg- 
nant (U a woman) 

Jj»- /w&aZ conception; pregnancy 

J-»- 7fcu6Za pi. JL^ habdld and iiiU 
habldna pregnant 

^\>- haban dropsy 

bl(*~ (oL$Jl <-<*- habb al-hdn) cardamom {Arao- i! 
mum cardamomum L.; bot.) 

ij-f) ^-*- ^^ u (ha° w ) to crawl, creep; to 
present (a * s.o, with, give, award 
(a * to s.o. Ill to be obliging (*to 
s.o.), show one's good will (* toward s.o.); j 
to favor {« s.o.); to side {© with s.o.), j 
be partial {<> to s.o.) ; to show respect, def- [ 
erence (a to s.o.) VIII to sit with one's legs \ 

drawn up and wrapped in one's garment \ 

Ij~p- hibwa, hubwa, habwa gift, present \ 

*L>- hiba gift, present j 

•lilrf. muhdbdh obligingness, complai- [ 
sance, courtesy; favor(ing), favoritism, i 
partiality; protection I 

il*s- kattau (hatt) to rub off, scrape off, scratch \ 
off (a j 

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<&- &itta pi. c^- hitat (eg.) piece, bit, 

ob>- /titiai scraps; morsels, crumbs 
£j\J. tahatt corrosion; erosion (geol.) 

&±. haiida a (hatad) to be of pure origin 
0:£ mahtid descent, origin, lineage 

!jw- hutra small piece, bit, trifle 

jl>- A&ar pi. JU /wftir border, edge, 
fringe, surroundings, vicinity 

Jc>- Aat/ pi. J>y*~ A-wiw/ death | jp 

4iUij di^- (Jl ^J yabhatu r an (yas'dild) 
hatfihi bi-zilpil he brings about his own 
destruction, digs his own grave; iJox*- oU 
«il 7?idfa &a£/a anfihl he died a natural 
death; <ux>- JJ (laqiya) to find death, die 

X I>- hatama i (hatm) to decree, make neces- 
sary, prescribe (Jp a for s.o. ), 
make (* a duty, a necessity ( Jp for 
s.o.); to impose, enjoin (J* * upon 
s.o.); to decide, determine definitely 
(l-> II to decree, make necessary, 
prescribe (Jp a for s.o.}, make 
(> a duty, a necessity ( Jp for s.o.) 
V to be necessary; to be s.o.'s (Jp) 
duty, be incumbent (Jp upon s.o.) 

J^- hatm pi. >j>- hutum imposition, 
injunction; final decision, resolution, de- 
termination; |p>- hatman decidedly, defi- 
nitely, necessarily, inevitably 

lj *^- hatmi decided, definite, final, 
conclusive, definitive, unalterable, irrev- 
ocable, inevitable 

4-*^- hatmiya decidedness, definite - 
ness, definitiveness, determinateness, un- 
alterableness ; necessity; determinism 

ijC*-*^ la-hatmiya indeterminism (phi* 

p^ mahtum imposed, enjoined, ob- 
ligatory; determined, definitive, deter- 

minate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

l£. muhattam imposed, enjoined, oblig- 
atory; determined, definitive, determi- 
nate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, 
predestined, ordained (fate) 

l**i* mutaliattim absolutely necessary ; 
imperative (duty) 

2 *b>- hattd-ma see J*~ 

J>- hatta (prep.) until, till, up to, as far as; 
(conj.; with perf.) until, till; (with subj.) 
until, that, so that, in order that; — 
(particle) even, eventually even; and 
even ; (with preceding negation) not even, 
and be it only . . . | jl JJ» even if; *U»- 
hatta-ma until when? 

1 d«s~ hatta u (hntt) to urge, incite, prompt, 
goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke, 
impel (o s.o., Jp to do | <>Ua^ ii*>- 
(kufahu) to quicken one's pace, hurry 
(Jl to a place); Jj^i »i*>- (tarlqa) to 
hurry, hasten; «l~.ji» <i^- (qadamaihi) to 
quicken one's pace, break into a run 
VIII and X ^ I 

«1j£>- Iwttit fast, rapid, quick 
O «jU- hatta hormone 

2 J>- hitti Hittite (n. and adj.) 

*Jli>- hutala dregs, lees, sediment; scum 
(fig.); offal, discard, scraps | j^\ *Jli»- 
silk combings 

(jt*-) li»- hata u (hatw) to strew, scatter, 
spread, disperse (a 

7,3- hajja u to overcome, defeat (o s.o., 
with arguments, with evidence), confute 
(» s.o.); to convince (o s.o.); — [faa-jj) to 
make the pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform 
the hadj III to dispute, debate, argue, 
reason (a with s.o.) VI to argue against 
each other, carry on a dispute, to debate; 
to take counsel VIII to advance (i_-> 

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as an argument, plea,, or pretext; 
to allege in support or vindication, 
plead («-->; to vindicate, justify (J ; to protest, remonstrate { J* against), 
object, raise objections {Jp to) 

«- hajj and if hijja pi. -at, ~f 
hijaj pilgrimage; hadj, the official Muslim 
pilgrimage to Mecca | i»J-l ji du l-hijja 
Zu'lhijjah, the last month of the Islamic 

if hujja pi. ^f hujaj argument; 
pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence; 
document, writ, deed, record; authorita- 
tive source, competent authority | 4>^ 
ol under the pretense that . . ., on the 
plea . . ., on the pretext of . . .; i»*»- 
/•IS^w-l document covering right of pos- 
session, confirmation of ownership {by a 
religious court, J* for 

i-^- hujjiya demonstrative power, con- 
clusiveness, authoritative nature, author- 
ity {of a source, tradition, etc.) 

^Lf hajaj pi. *f I ahijja circumorbital 
ring (anat.) 

*£■ mahajj destination (of a journey) 

i>«j£ mdhajja'pl. r-l^ mahdjf destination 
of a pilgrimage, object of pilgrimage, 
shrine; destination (of a journey); goal; 
road; way; procedure, method | ***£■ 
<-jJ^-aJl m. as-sawab the Right Way, the 
Straight Path; jujU-1 h*£- railroad 

r-lf hijaj argument, dispute, debate 

9*3?£ tahajjuj argumentation, plead- 
ing, offering of a pretext, pretense, ex- 

— U*x»-i ihtijaj pi. -at argumentation; 
pretext, excuse, plea, pretense; protest, 
remonstrance {Jp against), objection, 
exception {Jp to) | Jp U-Uj^-I (ihtijajan) 
in protest against 

r-U- hajj pi. r-Lf hujjaj, ^~f hajij 
pilgrim; hadji, Mecca pilgrim, honorific 

title of one who has performed thepil 
grim age to Mecca 

pz£- muhtajj pi. -tin protester 

i_-f hajaba u (hajb) to veil, cover, screen, 
shelter, seclude (Jp * from) ; to hide, 
obscure (j& a from else, e.g., 
from sight); to prevent (» the viewing of; to hide from sight, keep in seclu- 
sion (U a woman); to eclipse, outshine, 
overshadow (» s.o.); to make impercep- 
tible, invisible (<jp * to); to conceal 
(jp a from s.o.); to make or forma 
separation (Juj — <>j between — and} 
II to veil, hide, conceal; to hide from 
sight, keep in seclusion {U a woman); 
to disguise, mask (i_-> a with) V to 
conceal o.s., hide (^jp from), flee from 
sight, veil o.s. VII to veil o.s., conceal 
o.s.; to be covered up, become hidden, 
be obscured VIII to vanish, become 
invisible, disappear from sight; to veil 
o.s., conceal o.s., hide; to become hidden, 
be concealed (^ from); to withdraw; f 
to elude perception ; to cease or interrupt j, 
publication (newspaper, periodical) >. 

i^hajb seclusion; screening off; keep- \ 
ing away, keeping off 

i_^lf hijah pi. »-*f hujub, 4*f 1 ah^ I 
jiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; worn- j 
an's veil; screen, partition, folding \ 
screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm {also j 
J*-U-I <_jUJ-1; anat.); amulet 

4jlf hijaba office of gatekeeper 

^U^-l ihtijdb concealment, hidden- 
ness, seclusion; veiledness, veiling, pur- 

t^»-U. hdjib concealing, screening, 
protecting; {pi. *_>U«^/m;ja&» ^^^ hajaba) 
doorman, gatekeeper; chamberlain; order- 
ly {Syr., mil.); {pi. <^>-\j>- hawajib 1 ) eye- 
brow | i£?JJ »_-*-U- h. al-mahkama court 
usher; »i^JI <_*»-U- h. al-hawa airtight, 

<-jj**£- mahjub concealed, hidden, 

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muhajjab veiled (woman) 

\j£ hajara u (hajr, hijr, hujr, o\j& hijrdn, 
hujr&n) to deny access (Jt to s.o.); to 
stop, detain, hinder (J* or » s.o.); to 
forbid, interdict (J* a s.tli. to s.o.), pro- 
hibit (Jt s.o.) from doing (a); to 
place ( J* s.o.) under guardianship, declare 
( Jc a.o.) legally incompetent 

J? hajr restriction, curb(ing), check(ing), 
obstruction, impeding, limitation, cur- 
tailing (Jp of; barring, closing, 
debarment, preclusion; detention; block- 
ing, confinement, containment, suppres- 
sion (as a protective measure); interdic- 
tion, prohibition, ban; revocation, or 
limitation, of s.o.'s { Jp) legal competence | 
J* j£ ($ihhi) quarantine; jLSoV' J*^=>^l 
thought-ban, mind control 

j& hijr forbidden, interdicted, pro- 
hibited; lap; (pi. j Is: I ah jar, jj& hujur, 
hj*r hujiira) mare 

'j^ hujra pi. hujardt, J? hujar room; 
cell; (railroad) compartment; chamber | 
jU&VI *J£ waiting room; *jjl IJ? h. 
an -mum bedroom; i^UJl S^jJ-l (falla* 
hlya) chamber of agriculture 

j>+£- mahjar pi. j^\£- mahajir 2 military 
hospital, infirmary; prison, jail, dungeon | 
t/* J^ i^hhi) quarantine, quaran- 
tine station 

S*£ mahjir, mihjar, mahjar pi. j>- Lai 
maMjir 2 (~ j^Jl ^^ m . aVain) eye 
socket; see also below 

j**£ tahjir interdiction, prohibition, 
ban; see also below 

jj*£ mahjur pi. j^X^ maMjir 2 {and 
***- Jf*£) one placed under guardian- 
ship; minor; ward, charge 

"jf II to petrify, turn into stone (a; 
to make hard as stone (a Y to turn 
to stone, petrify, become petrified; to 
fossilize, become fossilized X = V 

J~ ha jar pi. j 1^1 ahjdr, SjLfr hijara, j\J? 
hijdr stone ; weight (placed as an equipoise 
on the scale of a balance) | ,^-UI ^ {asa* 
si) and ^-UVi JE foundation stone, cor- 
nerstone; j^-UVl j^l £**j (wad f ) lay- 
ing of the cornerstone; J»t>Ul ^ h. al- 
baldt flagstone, paving stone; Ipr Jr $" 
jahannam lunar caustic, silver nitrate; 
jX\ jz h. al-jlr limestone; hj\J\ ^ h. 
az-zawiya cornerstone; foundation, main 
thing; jl^Jl j*£>\ or j!<-Jl j& {summaql) 
porphyry; $jJ^\ j*X\ (aswad) the Black 
Stone (of the Kaaba); SjiLill ^ hema- 
tite (min.); S^aJI j3z h. al-atra stum- 
bling block; SjL/sliJt J? philosopher's 
stone; O j^^ _/r h. al-qamar selenite; 
rjTjje and ^x JE precious stone, gem; 
j^J-1 Jc *J» {tab") lithograph ; y^J- 1 itLL 

ijjr hajarl stony, stone (adj.) | 
&j>S\ j^\ ( r asr) the Stone Age; j^\ 
d^-U-l < $j>J~\ the Neolithic period; ^ r *»S\ 
f>uli (jj>^~\ the Paleolithic period 

j& hajir stony, petrified 

j{& hajjdr stone mason, stone cutter 

j^- mahjir pi. j>-\^- mahajir" (stone) 

y^- tahjir petrification; stone quar- 

j»+£> tahajjur petrification; fossilization 

yy^zj. mutahajjir petrified; fossil 

j^>^l^» mustahjir petrified ; fossil 

^ hajaza it i (hajz) to hold back, restrain, 
hinder, prevent ( jc a from); to 
keep away (j* a from); to block 
(off), close, bar; to lock (a the door, 
dji on s.o., against s.o.); to postpone 
(a a case, Jj^Jll li-l-hukm until sen- 
tencing; jur.); to isolate, insulate, con- 
fine, serlude; to make inaccessible; to 
set apart; to separate (^j two things); 
to arrest, detain; to seize, sequester, 
impound { J* or a, e.g., s.o.'s 

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property, salary); to confiscate, safe- 
guard (a ); to reserve (a; to 
make a reservation (a for a theater seat, 
a steamer cabin, a ticket, etc.); to book 
(a a seat, e.g., on a plane) VHI to retain 
for o.s., reserve to o.s. (a; to seize, 
arrest (» s.o.); to hold captive (» e.g., 
hostages) ; to confiscate (a 

jjz hajz curbing, prevention, re- 
straint; seclusion, confinement, con- 
tainment, isolation, insulation, separa- 
tion; arrest, detention, seizure, confisca- 
tion, sequestration (J* of; reser- 
vation (of seats), advance booking; ad- 
vance order (com.) | aj^I j^ h. al-hur- 
rvya deprivation of liberty, unlawful de- 
tention, duress (fur.); J^J^' JN {alqd) 
to confiscate; J»J-I iSLi Hbhah al- 
ii, ticket office 

jUJ-l al-hijaz Hejaz, region in W 
Arabia, on the Red Sea coast 

^j^r hi jazz of or pertaining to Hejaz; 
(pi. -un) an inhabitant of Hejaz 

jUm^-1 ihtijaz arrest, detention, seizure; 
confiscation | <^Iaj jU-^-1 seizure of hos- 

J»-U- hajiz and Sj*-U pi. j>-\j>- hawa* 
jiz 2 obstacle, hindrance, impediment, 
obstruction; partition, screen, dividing 
wall; block, blockade, road block; fence, 
gate, railing, balustrade; hurdle; bar, 
barrier; barricade | j^-U-i i^UJ-1 dia- 
phragm (anat); Q ^I^VI >r^ break- 
water; C<SjJ-\) SJ^JiJI jrlA' (qumrvqiya, 
gumrukiya) customs barriers; ,^-VI J*-U- 
h. al-amn security barrier; t*j J\ J*-U- h* 
ar-rlh windshield; ^lok^'bH >r^- fy. a ^- 
istidam shock absorber, bumper; O *>r^" 
j^l^aJl lightning rod; £jj*&)- J»-U- h. as- 
saut sound barrier; *jJL» J»-U- (mulaggam) 
mine barrier ; ^>- \y- JjL- sibdqh. steeple- 
chase; hurdle race (sport); Q J>-U- <Jak>* 
muwazzaf hajiz approx.: bailiff 

muhtajaz pi. -w» s.o. held under 
arrest; hostage, detainee 

1 5i>-U- muhdjafa singlestick fencing { jt 

Lp hajala u i (hajl, 0^ hajaldn) to hop, 
leap; to skip, gambol 

Jf ifeaj7, Jwj7 pi. 6jr hujul, JlfUk 
jaZ anklet 

J* 1 TtajaZ {coll.; n. un. ») pi. O^f { 
hijlan, j£" TttjTa partridge; mountain 
partridge, mountain quail 

lis? /wjafe pi. J Up hijdl curtained | 
canopy, or alcove, for the bride | uA; I; 
JUJ-l rahbat al-h. the ladies 

iUJ-l L*J to r 6a( al-hajla hopscotch 

J>^ muhajjal wearing anklets (woman); 
white-footed (horse); bright, brilliant, 
radiant; unique, singular, esp. in the 
phrase Jryi^l (agarr 2 ) 

*3z hajama u (hajm) to cup (* s.o.; md.)l 
IV to recoil, shrink, flinch (^ from); 
to desist, abstain, refrain (^ from), f 
forbear (jp ; to withdraw, retreat 

*Jt hajm pi. *j3? hujum., *Utl ahjam \ 
bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon} | J 
pj^ii yS bulky, sizable, massive; J* ■ 
^JLaj (naqdl) money volume {fin.) 

*\jz ha j jam cupper 

i*bp hijama cupping, scarification, art 
of cupping 

*»^ mihjam, 1+*^- mihjama pi. ^U ! 
mahajim 2 cupping glass 

>»l*M ihjdm desistance, abstention; re- 
straint, aloofness, reserve 

^5: hajana i (hajn) to bend, curve, crook [ 
(* VIII to snatch up, grab (»}, ( 
take hold (a of 

^\ ahjan 2 curved, crooked, bent 

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j*£ mihjan pi. ^^4 mahdjin 2 staff or 
stick with a crooked end, crosier; hook 

(>F) U*- *! 4 s ^ w2 ? s &*** kairan to think 
well of s.o., have a good opinion of s.o. 
Ill to propose a riddle {* to s.o.); to 
speak in riddles, be enigmatic 

lit, jz hijan pi. *\&\ ahja intellect, 
brains, understanding, discernment, acu- 
men, sagacity, wit, intelligence 

JE hajiy appropriate, suitable, proper 
(v for ) 

5jUt hujjaya pi. -df (wior.) puzzle 

jtl atya more appropriate, more 
suitable, more proper; more correct, 

*Jz\ uhjiya pi. ^U-l ahajiy, ^U-l 
ahajin riddle, puzzle, enigma 

>fc hakam — ^U-U- (look up alphabeti- 

■is- hadda u {hadd) to sharpen, hone (a a 
knife); to delimit, delineate, demarcate, 
mark off, stake off (a land, ^ from); to 
set bounds (<y or * to, limit, re- 
strict, confine (j- or a; to impede, 
hinder, curb, check (j- or a; to put 
a halt (^ to; — i («Jb- hidda) to 
become furious, angry (Jp at); — i u 
{il-b~ hidad) to wear mourning, mourn 
(J* the deceased) II to sharpen, hone 
(* a knife); to forge (a; syr.); 
to delimit, demarcate (a; to 
set bounds (a to, circumscribe, 
mark off, delineate sharply; to limit, 
restrict, confine (j* or * ; to deter- 
mine, appoint, assign, schedule, lay down, 
set down, establish (a; to fix (a 
e.g., prices); to define (a | .sJb- 
•^aj (basarahu) to dart sharp glances; 
to scrutinize ( j, look sharply (j at Ill to oppose (a, « s.o.,, 
act contrary (a, » to s.o., to, 
contravene, counteract, violate (a 

IV to sharpen, make sharp {a | 
Jl J±S\ Jb-I (nazar) to look sharply 
at, stare at; *j^ -A*- 1 {basarahu) to 
dart sharp glances; to scrutinize (j, look sharply (J at; 4*-i 
»j^> y (basariki) to glance sharply; — to 
put on garments of mourning V to be 
delimited, be delineated, be bounded, be 
circumscribed; to be determined, be 
established, be set down, be scheduled, 
be fixed; to be defined, be definable 
VIII to be or become angry; to become 
infuriated, be furious (Jp at), be ex- 
asperated (Jp with); to be agitated, be 
upset, be in a state of commotion 

0>- hadd: y JJ-I prevention, limitation 
(of; restriction (of the number or 
quantity of 

.u- hadd pi. ij-u- hudud (cutting) edge 
(of a knife, of a sword); edge, border, 
brink, brira, verge; border (of a country), 
boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the 
utmost, extremity, termination, end, 
terminal point, terminus; a (certain) 
measure, extent, or degree (attained); 
(■math.) member (of an equation), term 
(of a fraction, of a proportion); divine 
ordinance, divine statute; legal punish- 
ment (Isl. Law) | jU- li-haddi or o»- J I 
until, till, up to, to the extent of, J*- J I 
j^l -U-, ijS'I U-h. l-ana up to now, so far; 
U Ji^ J I {haddin) to a certain degree, 
to a certain extent; jS A*- Jl, -Uo -U- Jl 
to a considerable extent or degree, 
considerably, extensively; 0>- ^1 Jl 
{ayyi haddin) how far, to what degree or 
extent; <l a*- V {hadda) boundless, infinite, 
unbounded, unlimited ; Jb- ^h bi-la haddin, 
-U- _/J^ J! ila gairi haddin boundless, un- 
limited, without limits; *\j»> a^ Jp *ala 
haddin sawain, ^j** J&- Jp r ala h. siwan 
in the same manner; equally, likewise; 
^j, j*~ Jp {haddin dayyiqin) within nar- 
row confines, on a limited scope; -U- Jp 
{haddi) according to, commensurate with; 

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*Jy -b- Jp {qaulihl) according to hie 
statement, as he asserts, in his own words ; 
4jli 4»- j fl haddi ddtihl and <u1i Jl^ in 
itself, as such; ^li •*»- j /** they . . . 
in themselves, by themselves, they alone; 
Jp^I jX\ {a'la), ^Vi JU-i (ag?a) the maxi- 
mum; JjV! JbLl (adna) the minimum; 
c£^ *b- {%mri) age limit; ,j..b- ji du 
haMain two-edged; ij.u- j (hududi) 
within, within the framework of; Iju- iJb 
ul it reached such a pass, it went so far 
that . . .; ojJU- (S *S\ iL (ogrsd hvdudihl) 
to attain its highest degree; «ual ij-U- 
the bounds or restrictions that God has 
placed on man's freedom of action 

ijsjJ*- hududi located on the border | 
4j}jJ*- Ij1> (balda) border town; ^Ul^. 
ipj-U- border regions (of a country) 

*.*>- hidda sharpness, keenness; shrill- 
ness (of a high-pitched sound), stridency; 
sharp lineament (of features) ; vehemence, 
violence, impetuosity; fury, rage, wrath, 
ire, anger; excitability, irascibility, pas- 
sionateness | S-b- <j sharply; keenly; 
vehemently, violently 

«-b- hida see -b-j 

i-b- hadad forbidden 

.al-b- hidad (act of) mourning (J* over) | 
i! jj- 1 <^>Ji tavb al-h. garments of mourning; 
JoUl jijb- h. al-baldp court mourning 

Jj-b- hadid iron; pi. jtfl-b- hadu*id 2 
iron parts (of a structure) ; forgings, hard- 
ware, ironware J j*U- -lo>- crude iron, pig 
iron, iron ore; O fjU** -*i-b- (mutdwi*) 
wrought iron ; Jip jo Jb- (gufl) unprocessed 
iron, pig iron; JO-U-I^ zahr al-h. t 4jju- 
^fi}\ cast iron; jujJ-1 aZL* «'&&«£ al-h. 
railroad; jjL Ju-b- j 

-ua*~ /wd«£ pi. .>l.b- £td&f, »ljb-l a/i-K^ 
da* 2 , *Jb-l ahidda sharp (knife, eye, 
tongue, etc.), keen (mind) 

-is- 1 ahadd 2 sharper, keener; more 
vehement, more violent 

3.0 -b- hadida pi. Jui-b- kada'id 2 piece of 
iron; object or tool made of iron | 
<L>J~\ aJu^p-h. ^/iar< plowshare; 3-b J J- ! Jp 
(eg.) in financial straits, pinched for money 

t^OjJU- hadidl iron (adj.) | 4jJu-U- iSL- 
(siMa) railroad; ^jojU-I j*a*}\ { f a$r) the 
Iron Age 

Zjjj1.\ al-hudaida Hodeida (seaport in 
the Yemen Arab Republic) 

jIju- haddad ironsmith, blacksmith 

ol-b- Hidada smithcraft, art of smithing 

-0-b^ tahdid pi. -at limitation, delimi- 
tation; delineation, demarcation; re- 
striction, curb, confinement; determina- 
tion, fixation, appointment; definition | 
Jj-Umdl Jp and AjJb^xJI <u-j Jp (wajki 
t-t.) to be exact . . ., strictly speaking . . .; 
precisely, exactly; J-Jjl jo 4*1 t. an-nasl 
birth control 

iU kudd sharp (also, fig., of a glance), 
keen (mind); high-pitched (tone); shrill 
(whistle); stormy (applause); vehement, 
fiery, impetuous; fierce; vivid; acute (ill- 
ness) [ ^\Jl\ jU- h. al-mizaj, «JaJI iU h. 
at-tab" hot-blooded, hot-headed, hot- 
tempered, irascible; oU- hj\j (zawiya) 
acute angle; jU-1 cJ- subacute 

>s& mahdvd bounded, bordered (^» 
by); circumscribed, confined; limited 
( = small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.) ; 
delimited, determinate, fixed, definite, 
definitive | jiVl JjO* m. al-ufuq of lim- 
ited horizon; J*ll jj-bt m. al-ma r na un- 
ambiguous; 61^1 ijJbi m. ad-daman 
of limited liability; (y^i-il) ojA£ iT^ 
(&>&a) limited company, corporation 

j:b^ muhaddid: ^LJ j-tf m. giT/os gauge, 
measuring instrument 

.sAsi muhaddad sharpened, sharp; deter- 
mined, fixed, appointed, destined (J for) ; 
set, determined, given (time); strictly 
delimited, clearly defined; sharply de- 

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jk£ muhtadd angry, furious, exasper- 

•T.U- hid'a, pi. To*- A«2a*, »!-L>- hida\ <jT.u- 
/li^an. kite (zooZ.) 

•iJb- ftada'a pi. »la» /uc&f double- bladed 

t-0>- hadiba a (hadab) to be convex, dome- 
shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be 
hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly 
(J* or *-> to s.o.), be solicitous (Jp 
or uj about s.o.), care (^* or t-> for 
s.o.), take care ( J*, or <-> of s.o.) II to 
make convex; to arch, bow upward, bend 
outward (a a surface) V and XII ^-ojJU-1 
ihdavdaba to be convex ; to be bowed up- 
ward, be bent outward; to have a hump, 
be humpbacked; to be humped (back) 

t-j-U- hadab affection, fondness, love; 
kindliness; solicitude, care; (pi. <_jIa>- 
Aw?o6, t-jiji*-! ahdab) elevation of the 
ground | vj^y V*^* J^lt* {toa-^aubin) or 
l-jO>-j <~>j+* J^ j* from all sides, from all 
directions, from everywhere; ^-^ JT j 
V-^-j everywhere, in every quarter, on all 

<-jA>- #a<ii& arched, bowed upwardly or 
outwardly; hunchbacked ; kindly, friendly 

*•*>- hadaba hunchback, hump; vaulting 

yjU ahdab 2 , f.,l>JL- hadbti 2 , pl.u-*Jb- 
hvdb hunchbacked, humped; — (elative) 
kindlier, friendlier 

yljj4»-l ihdiddb: j^a}\ ^IJUJb-i i. az- 
zahr spinal deformation, kyphosis 

oA^ mukaddab convex; arched, bowed 
upwardly or outwardly ; having a hump- 
back, hunchbacked | O *>•&• <^> {fayy®) 
saddle of a geological fault, anticline 

yjj^ muhdavdib mounded (sand, the 
ground) t bowed upward; hunchbacked, 
deformed (spine) 

Jb~ hadata a (d^jJb^ hudui) to happen, occur, 
take place, come to pass; — - haduta u 
(UIjIs- hadata) to be new, recent; to be 
young II to tell, relate, report [t> to s.o., 
^ or a, j, jc about); to speak, 
talk (a to s.o., j^ or j about, of) | 
<dU 4jJb- haddataku qalbuhu and «£jJb- 
<l^1} haddatathu nafsuhu his heart, 
his innermost feeling told him (<^>; he had a presentiment or pre- 
monition ((_j of), he had a suspicion (uL 
that); l_j <L*iJ *1>J&- (nafsahu) to talk 
o.s. into (, try to believe or 
see (as factual); to resolve, make up 
one's mind to do; o\ *~J£ ti>«b- 
he said to himself, told himself that . . . 
Ill to speak, talk (j* or j « to s.o. 
about; to discuss (jt or j « with 
s.o., converse (jz or j a with s.o. 
about); to negotiate, confer (« with s.o.); 
to address, accost (* s.o.); to call up (* 
s.o., by telephone) IV to bring forth, 
produce, create, originate (a; to 
found, establish (a; to bring about, 
cause, occasion, provoke, effect (a; to drop excrement | b*JU- *i»JU-l 
(hadatan) to bring about; to cau^e 
or do, esp., evil, do mis- 
chief V to speak, talk (JI to s.o., ^, *-j 
or j about or of, converse, chat 
( Jl or M with s.o., jc, ^ or j about 
"VI to talk with one another, converse, 
have a conversation; to chat, talk (** 
with s.o. ) X to renew (a ; to buy new 
(a; to introduce, start, invent, 
originate, create (a; to find or deem 
(» s.o.) to be young 

C;-b- hadat pi. Cj1jl*.I ahdat a new, un- 
precedented thing, a novelty, innovation; 
event, incident, occurrence, happening; 
phenomenon; evil symptom; misdeed; 
misfortune; ritual impurity {I si. Law); 
excrement, feces; (pi. ujl-b-l, uu*Aa- hudtan) 
young man, youth; d*l»H*~l juveniles 

C-jJb- hadit pi. wil-U- hiddty #ljJb- hu* 
data 2 new, novel, recent, late; modern; 

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lijJb- haditan recently, lately | »UJl <l*j«k- 
h. al-bina' new-built, recently built; 
jJl it-j-U- A. as-sinn young; JL^I ^A^ /i. 
al-'ahd of recent date, recent, new, young ; 
c-j j^aJI *i-i-u»-, v -^ £*>J*~ (&. r uhdin) 
having adopted or acquired ( recent- 
ly; not long accustomed to (, inex- 
perienced at (, new at (, newly, 
e.g., oV^JIj A^Jl cUjA>- {hi-l-wilada) i\qw- 
born, r-lj^JU Jl$*JI <Lj -b- (bi-z-zawdj) newly 
wed; UjjL A^*Ji ^-^ oK he had not 
known Europe until recently 

<1j-U- hadlt pi. J^oW! ahdJit 2 , otf Jj~ M* 
£ara speech; chat, chitchat, small talk; 
conversation, talk, discussion; interview; 
prattle, gossip; report, account, tale, nar- 
rative ; Prophetic tradition, Hadith, narra- 
tive relating deeds and utterances of the 
Prophet and his Companions j ojA»- 
a5J^- h. hurafa fabulous story, silly talk; 

1*? £jO»- (§ukufi) press interview; 
^jtf <^-j-b- (qudsi) Muslim tradition in 
which God Himself speaks, as opposed to 
tfjJ £*i-b- {nabawl) an ordinary Prophetic 
tradition; ^j—ajJI £-jA>- ft» an-nafs pi. 
tJ Jc}\ i-jots^ one talks o.s. into; 
premonition; misgiving; pleasurable im- 
aginings, bright expectation; .iooU-f 
4*frljl (ida'iya) broadcast talks (radio), 
talk shows (TV) 

ijJU- hudut setting in (of a state or 
condition), occurrence, incidence (of a 
phenomenon); occurrence, incident, hap- 

ijl-U- haddta newness, recency, novelty; 
youth, youthfulness 

vi^il^ hawadit {eg.) folk tales, fairy 
wjJU-I ahdat 2 newer, more recent 

j*j)\ oLjJU- hidtdn (or hadatan) ad-dahr 
misfortune, adversities, reverses 

4?jJb-l uhduta pi. <iojU-l ahaoit 2 speech; 
discussion, talk, conversation; chatter; 
fabling, fibbing; topic, subject of a con- 

versation; gossip, rumor (about a person) | 
^ujAs-^l j— >■ husn al-u. praise (of s.o,); 
4jjJU-^I y** sit* al-u. slander, defamation 

4jit£ muhddata pi. -at discourse, con- 
versation, discussion, talk, parley 

^|jb-l ihddt production, creation, in- 
vention, origination; causation, effectu- 

oLjI-b-l ihddtlydt (pi.) co-ordinates 
(math.) | "^lyf oLjIop-I {'amudiya) ordi- 
nates; IJul oLJljb-l (ufqiya) abscissas 

dj1o#xi-l isiihdat invention, creation, 
production, origination 

doL- hadit occurring, happening, taking 
place; new, recent; fresh; — (pi. do]j> 
hawadif, also -at) occurrence, incident, 
event, happening; episode; case {fur.); 
accident, mishap | jjj JloU- a case of 
forgery; <ioU-l otSv. makan al-h. site of 
action, scene of the crime, locus delicti ; 

aoU- hddita pi. iol^>- hawadit 2 occur- 
rence, event, happening; plot (of a 
play) ; incident, episode ; accident, mishap | 
j jjl\ <*jU- h. al-murur traffic accident 

ojl^- muhaddit pi. -tin speaker, talker; 
spokesman; conversation partner, inter- > 
locutor; relator, narrator ; a transmitter of ; 
Prophetic traditions, traditionary, repre- 
sentative of the science or study of Hadith 
(see above); O phonograph, gramophone 

w>Jtf muhdat new, novel, recent, late; 
modern; upstart, nouveau riche; u^j-bM 
the Moderns 

<1>4>^l* mutahaddit spokesman, speaker | 
(J ^J\ djJudl {rasmi) the government 
spokesman; v^jU^ Sjljj OUL d»-L»«ill {bi- 
Usdni w. ) the spokesman of the foreign 

£»•*»•:■.«■• mustahdat newly made, new- 
fangled, of late date ; — (pi. -at) novelty, 
innovation; recent invention, modern 
product; neologism 

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£-Jl>- hadaja i and H to stare, look sharply 
(a, 6 at s.o., at, often with e^^a-j 
bi-bamrihi or »J& bi-nazarihl) 

y--U- hidj pi. T-jJb- hudiij, r-i-b-1 a&t/a? 
load, burden, encumbrance 

£a>- _>jl a6« hudaij stork 

1»-I.A»- hidaja pi. /iJb- hada'if camel 

j.u- hadara, hadura u (hadr, Sji-U- hadara) 
to be thick; — hadara u i (hadr, jj-X>- 
hwdur) to bring down, lower (a; 
to cause (a to descend; to drop 
(*; to shed (a tears); IjJb- j-U- 
(hadran) to rattle off, express quickly 
(an utterance, a thought); — (hadr) 
to come down, step down, descend; to 
glide down, swoop II to drop (a; 
to lower, incline, dip (a V to 
descend gradually; to glide down; to 
come down, descend; to flow down 
(tears); to derive, stem, originate (^ 
from) VII to come or go down, de- 
scend; to go downhill (of a person); to 
alight (from), get out (of a car); to glide 
down, sink down; to be in decline, be on 
the downgrade; to decline, wane; to flow 
down (tears); to slope down, slant down, 
be inclined (terrain); to reach back into 
the past, extend back to former times 
and be transmitted from them; to derive, 
stem, originate (j- from); to come (Jl to 
a place), arrive (Jl at) 

jJb- hadr rapid recitation of the Koran 
(a terminus technicus of tajwtd) 

jj-U- hadiir slope, downgrade, declivity, 
declivitous terrain 

jJbi tahaddur descent, slant, slope, 
inclination, incline, declivity 

jlo^l inhidar slant, dip, pitch, inclina- 
tion, descent, slope; declivity; fall (of a 
river), gradient (of a street, of a slope) ; 
decline, waning; ruin, decay, decadence; 

descent, lineage (,y from) | jl-^l JL- 
sibaq i. downhill race (skiing) 

jiU- hadir thick 

jA**i* mutahaddir descending, slanting, 
sloping downward 

jJU*^. munhadir descending; lowered, 
dipped; slanting, sloping, declivitous 
(terrain); declining, waning, being on 
the downgrade, in a state of decadence or 
decline; run-down, seedy, down-at-the- 
heels, down-and-out 

j-U^l. munhadar pi. -at sloping ground; 
talus, incline, descent, declivity; fall 
(of a river) 

^Jb- hadasa i u (hads) to surmise, guess, 
conjecture (a 

^Jb- hads surmise, guess, conjecture; 
O intuition 

□ Jsl-b- haddaf (< J>l J^), Infill J»lo>- (syr.) 
shuttle (weaving) 

G Sil-U- SjlL tarahadddfa (syr.) flywheel 

1 3-^- hadaqa i (hadq) to surround, encircle, 
encompass (c-« s.o.,; (with <c-*j 
bi-'ainihi) to look, glance (a at s.o.) II to 
look, glance, gaze, stare (J! or j at, 
also l-j) | J Ja^\ J-U- (nazara) to fix 
one's glance on ... IV to surround, 
encircle, encompass, enclose (<_j s.o.,; to look, glance (J, Jl or »_j at) | 
J JiJl Jjb-I (nazara) to fix one's glance 
on . . . 

*»JL»- hadaqa pi. -at, Jju- hadaq, jlJb- 
hidaq, JjlJb-1 ahdaq pupil (of the eye); 
pi. JiJU-l glances 

<u Aa~ hadlqa pi. jJl-U- hadd'iq 2 garden | 
oUjjJ-1 aaj-U- h. al-hayawandt zoological 
garden, zoo 

Jjl.u-1 ihddq encirclement, encompass- 
ment (w of) 

3-&- Ja>- katar muhdiq imminent danger 

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2 D *5Jb- II (= JJb-) to make acid, sour, tart, 
or sharp (a 

D JbU- hadiq (= JjiU.) sour, tart, acid, 
sharp (taste) 

J-b» hadala i to flatten, level, even, roll 
(a; (hadl, Jjju- hudul) to treat 
unjustly (Jp s.o.) 

<JA£ mihdala pi, J:sU£ mahadiP roller, 

>Jb- VIII to burn, glow, blaze; to burn up, 
be consumed by fire; to flare up, break 
out (fight); to be furious, bum with 
wrath (J* at, over), also U»~p *x&-\ 

>»lais-l ihtidam paroxysm 
{Jc£ muhtadim heated (e.g., debate); 
furious, infuriated, enraged 

»JL»- hida see A>-j 

1 D h-**- hidwa horseshoe 

t (j J *~) '•**" fyadd u (hadw, >\j*~ hitda, hida) 
to urge forward by singing (a camels); 
to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt, insti- 
gate, induce, move (^ or * s.o., Jl to, 
to do; <^» Iju- to instigate j 
j J*VI **j&- {amal) the hope of . . . 
spurs them on; Jl £j.U-I ^ lo»- their 
conversation led them to . . .; ^A^ ^j's- 
tjJIS^Jl 4JI (garadun tuhdd) a goal much 
sought after or worth striving for V to 
compete, vie (» with s.o.); to urge (lj * 
s.o. to, jL to do; to challenge, pro- 
voke (a, » s.o.,; <~> * s.o. to, 6b to do; to defy (a, * s.o.,; to incite, 
stimulate, arouse, animate, sharpen (a; «*lTi ddkaahu s.o.'s intellect); to 
intend (a, to do, be bent 
(a on doing | Cj>Jl\ i£±J- (mauta) to 
provoke, invite death, defy death; ^A^ 
6LjJl oU^U ('ddiydti z-zamdn) to brave 
the buffetings of fate 

»l Jb- hudd" animating singsong, chanting 
of the caravan leader 

»iJb- hadda camel driver, cameleer 

•>b-l uhduwa, 4jA*-1 uhdiya song of the 
camel drivers 

j^ tahaddin pi. cAijJ- tahaddiyat 
challenge; urging (^ to; provoca- 

iU- hddin pi. Sljb- hudah caravan leader 
(who urges the camels forward by 
singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader 

JU^u mutdhaddin challenger, provoker 

i c5- ifl - hadiya a to remain, stay (<_> at a place), 
stick (<^> to a place) 

2 jt£, ^jU- see 4*- 1 

3 D 5j1-ju- hiddya, hiddaya — 

hid i a 

jX>- hadira a {hidr, hadar) to be cautious, 
wary, to beware (^ or a, t> of s.o., of, be on one's guard (j* or a, a 
against) II to warn, caution (j* » 
s.o. of or about), put (* s.o.) on hia 
guard (j- against) III to watch out, be 
careful; to be on one's guard (a against), 
be wary (» of s.o.) V to beware, be wary 
(^ of) VIII - I 

jJU- hidr and hadar caution, watch- 
fulness, alertness, wariness, circumspec- 
tion; precaution | *jJU JUI to be on one's 
guard; jJU- Jp cautiously, warily; on 
one's guard (j^ against) 

jJU- /if7^*> cautious, wary 

jlJU- hadari beware ( jl of doing . . ., 
^ of! watch out (,y for)! he 
careful (j* of)! 

j^Aat tahdir warning, cautioning ( j* of, 

»jj>l*£ muhadara caution, precaution, 
precautionary measure 

jj-b* mahdur that of which one should 
beware, against which one should guard; 
object of caution ; — (pi. -at) danger, peril; 
trouble, difficulty, misfortune 

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JiJU- hadafa i {hndf) to shorten, clip, curtail 
{* or j*; to take away, 
cut off, clip off (<> from, reduce (j-., strike or cross (j-. off; to cancel, strike out, 
delete, drop, leave out, omit, suppress 
(a; {gram.) to elide, apocopate, 
drop by aphaeresis; to deduct, subtract 
(a; to throw (^ » at s.o., 
pelt (^ » s.o. with; to cast away, 
throw away, discard (v II to clip, 
trim (a; to give (a shape, 
to trim, clip, or cut {a into proper 

Jji»- hadf shortening, curtailing, 
cutting off, trimming, etc.; canceling, 
cancellation, striking off, crossing off, 
deletion; omission, dropping, suppres- 
sion; (gram.) elision, ellipsis, apocopation 

jjlJU- hadafir 2 '. o^ilJi^, UjjIJbC all of it, en- 
tirely, without exception; oj&\te aX>~\ he 
took all of it, he took it lock, stock and 

JJU- hadiqu a, hadaqa i (hidq, olJb- hadaqa) 
to be skilled, skillful, well- versed, proficient 
(a or j in, master (a ; — hadaqa 
u (iJj-JU- huduq) to turn sour (milk) 
V to feign skillfulness, proficiency, clever- 
ness or smartness 

JJU- hidq and «IJU- hadaqa skill, dexter- 
ity, proficiency; smartness, cleverness, in- 
telligence; perspicacity, sagacity, acumen 

jiU- hadiq pi. JjiJU- hudddq skillful, 
skilled, proficient; well-versed, clever, 
smart, intelligent ; sour 

jIju. II tahadlaqa to show or display affected, 
exaggerated erudition; to be pedantic 

iiJju. hadlaqa exaggerated, pedantic 
erudition; affected, forced style; pedantry 

j^-Uw mutahadliq pi. -un pedant 

(jA>~) IJU- hada u: «jJL»- IJU- (hadwahu) to 
imitate s.o., take after s.o., follow 

s.c.'s example III to be opposite 
( a ) , face , parallel (a s. th. ) , run 
parallel (a to); to stand opposite (* s.o.), 
stand in front (*, a of s.o. or VI to 
be opposite each other, be parallel VIII to 
imitate, copy (c-* or J* s.o.,, also a, take or follow (v or Jp s.o.,, 
also a as an example or model; 
to be shod; to wear (a as footgear 

jJU- hadwa (prep.) opposite, face to 
face with | J*JL J*JI iij-U- hndwaka n-na'la 
bi-n-nal in a completely identical manner, 
to a T, like two peas in a pod 

• IJU- hidcC pi. <jA>.1 ahdiya (pair of) 
leather boots or shoes | l^j^iil »IJb- h. 
al-furusltja (pair of) riding boots, high 
boots; <jJb~VI £>L* shoemaker 

»\X>- hida'a (prep.) and *\X*- hi- 
hidd'i opposite, face to face with 
- IJLa— hadda shoemaker, cobbler 

SiiUft (j) J* 'aid (ft) muhdddii along, 
alongside of, parallel to 

>\\z>-\ ihtida* imitation, copying 

il*£ muhadin opposite, facing 

. hurra u i (harr, lj\j*- harara) to be hot 
II to liberate (« s.o.): to free, set free, 
release (» s.o,); to emancipate (» s.o.); 
to consecrate (« s.o.) to the service of 
God; to draw up, make out accurately 
(a an account, a calculation); to adjust, 
render accurate (a a weight, measure); 
to point or direct (a a gun at; to 
revise (a a book); to edit, redact (a a 
book, a periodical) ; to write, pen, indite, 
compose (a; (from j j*~ harir) to 
mercerize (a cotton yarn or fabrics to 
achieve a silky lustre) V to become free; 
to be freed, be liberated (j* from) ; to be 
emancipated; to be written, be composed 
X to become hot, be heated, flare up 
(quarrel, fight) ; to be kindled, be ardent 
or burning (feeling, desire) 

j>- harr heat, warmth | »Ui j>- \j see \j 

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j*- hurr pi. m. j 1^-1 ahrar, pi. f. yi^- 
hard'ir 2 noble, free-born ; genuine (jewels, 
etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living 
in freedom; freeman; independent; free, 
unrestrained; liberal (poL; j[^-*yi the 
Liberals); frank, candid,. open (J* toward 
s.o.); free, available, uninvested (money) ( 
j£-\ ^Lj-VI (ihtiydti) free reserves, un- 
encumbered reserves; If- i»-L*- (sibaha) 
freestyle swimming; lj^ SpjLi* (musa* 
ra r a) freestyle wrestling; *JL j>- j* mw 
Awn mdlihi with his own cash, with 
funds at his disposal 

»j>- harm pi. -at stony area; volcanic 
country, lava field 

~<lj>- hurriya pi. -aZ freedom, liberty; 
independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., 
poetic) | SjLJI 4j_p- A. al- r ibada freedom 
of worship; ^SUJI i^>- h. al-Jikr freedom 
of thought; f*J&\ <ij*- freedom 
of speech; (iiUwJi or) jJ^il hj^- h. an- 
naSr (a$-sihdfa) liberty of the press; hj*- 
J^vaxJi h. attasarruf free disposal, right 
of disposition; authority, free hand 

j j>- harir silk; pi. J\j*- harair- (j\j*-) 
silken wares, silks | (jj^ j j*- {sakri) 
asbestos; ^L^ j j>- rayon 

iSJ j*~ harlrl silken, silky, of silk 

iSj\js- hard'iri silken, silk- (in com- 
pounds), of silk; silk weaver 

jl^p- harrar silk weaver 

Sjlp- hardra heat; warmth; fever heat, 
fever; temperature; ardor, fervor (of 
emotion), passion; eagerness, enthusiasm, 
zeal; vehemence, violence, intensity; 
burning (of the skin) 

I j j*- huraira pi. -at calorie 

tSjijp- harari thermal, thermic, thermo-, 
heat (used attributively); caloric | Sju-j 
4jj1^ (wahda) calorie 

O *d j!>>- hardriya pi. -at calorie 

j j j*- harur f., pi. J\j*~ hamir 2 hot wind | 

q\j*. harrdn 2 , f. ^j>- harrd, pi. j\j» 
hirdr, (jj\j- hardra thirsty; passionate, 
fervent, hot (fig,) | ^^- «/j (zafra) a 
fervent sigh; gj*- ?j*s hot tears 

^\ aharr 2 hotter, warmer | LiLpl s~ 

.1 I 

warmest congratulations ; 

-' > 

j*i- ! (jamr) on pins and needles, on ten- 
terhooks, in greatest suspense or excite- 

O j£- miharr heating system, heating 

j j£ tahrir liberation; release; emanci- | 

pation; record(ing), writing; editing, re- | 

daction; editorship (of a newspaper, a I 

periodical); (pi. -at, j j\J- tahdrtr 2 ) piece [ 

of writing, record, brief, document | | 

j j*A\ ^-4^ editor-in-chief; j j>^\ SjIjI ; 

board of editors, editorial staff; j \j'JL I 

(tahriran) issued, made out on (with the I 

date; on documents and certifications) j 

(jjij£ tahriri liberational ; emancipa- \ 
tional; liberal; recorded in writing, \ 
written, in writing | 

jj£- tdharrur liberation, emancipation \ 

jU- hdrr hot; warm; ardent, glowing, j 
fervent, passionate 

jjj£ mahrur hot-tempered, hot-headed, 
fiery, passionate, furious 

jj£ muharrir pi. -un Uberator, eman- 
cipator; writer, clerk; issuer (of a docu- 
ment) ; editor (of a newspaper, of a peri- 

jj£ muharrar consecrated to God; set 
down in writing, recorded in writing, 
written; booked; pi. Cj\jj€- bookings, 

jjs*i* mutaharrir emancipated; an 
advocate of emancipation 

>j*- hariba a (harab) to be furious, enraged, 
angry III to fight, combat (a s.o.), 

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battle, wage war {<> against s.o,) VI to 
fight (one another), be engaged in war 

<~>j>- harb f., pi. ^.ij>- hurub war, 
warfare; fight, combat, battle; enemy, 
enemies (J* or J of s.o.) | 4-JUl <->j*~ 
{aJdiya) civil war; ^LeUi ^->j»~ (difd'tya) 
defensive war; <4*>>*a ^J- (hujumlya) 
offensive war; aJU** ^>j>- (§ihafiya) 
press feud; ^LxJUaJl ^>jJ-\ {salibiya) the 
Crusades ; ^J*JI v^' ^uzma) , LiUJI <~>J- 1 
( f cUamiya), iuUIl «-iA' {'dmma) World 
War I; l$SU ,j£ vt/^' C-i-t5" kaSafat il~ 
harbu 'an sdqihd and JU Jp *-»>*"' '-"•^ 
gamai t/-/&. r aZa sa<?in war flared up, 
fierce fighting broke out 

Oj>- harbi warlike, bellicose, bellig- 
erent, martial, war (adj.), military; (pi. 
-un) warrior, soldier, military man J ^-aJjJI 
J^l {bulls) military police 

«-jj»- harblya military affairs | jjj 
*gJ-\ minister of war 

\j>- harba pi. ^j>- hirdb lance, spear; 
spearhead; bayonet, sidearm 

»Lj*. hirba pi. <j\j>- hardbiy chameleon 

i\jj>- \j wa harabdhf (exclamation of 
lament) alas! goodness no! oh my! 

<*>[>£ mihrab pi. <~ r ij^>- mahdrib 2 a re- 
cess in a mosque indicating the direction 
of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab; (fig.) 
sanctum, holy of holies 

44 jb£ muhdraba struggle, combat, fight, 
battle; warfare 

»-»l^«-l ihtirdb mutual struggle 

^jU muhdrib warring, belligerent; 
pi. -un) warrior, combatant, fighter; cor- 
poral (formerly, Eg.; mil.) | rJs ^jU- old 
combatant or campaigner, war horse 

OjjjUcil al-mutaJulribun the belliger- 
ents, the warring parties 

4j>j}j>- harbusa pi. ( J^) J *~ harabiS 2 (tun.) 
pastille, pill 

djj>- harata i u {hart) to plow (a the soil); 
to cultivate, till (a the ground) 

tt>j>- hart plowing, tilling, tillage, 
cultivation of the soil; arable land, tilth; 
plantation, culture 

*jj»- harp, (n. un.) arable land, tilth 

Z\j>- hirdta cultivation of the soil, 
farming, agriculture 

Cj\j*~ harrdt plowman 

6|/ mihrdt pi. £jjU maharit 2 plow 

C-jU- hdrit pi. &\j»- hurrdt plowman | 
Cjj\J~\ y\ abu l~h. lion 

r j>- hnrija a (haraj) to be close, tight, 
narrow; to be straitened, be confined, 
get into a strait, be cornered, be hard 
pressed; to be oppressed, be anguished 
(heart); to be forbidden (Jp to s.o.) 
II to narrow, tighten, straiten (a; 
to complicate (a, make (a 
difficult; to forbid (Jp a to s.o.); 
to persist (J in IV to narrow, 
straiten, confine, cramp, hamper, im- 
pede, restrict (a; to complicate, 
make difficult, aggravate, jeopardize (a 
a situation, s.o.'s position); to embarrass 
(a s.o.); to coerce, constrain, press 
(Jl o s.o. to); to forbid (Jp a to 
(s.o.) J <uiij- r^P-l (mauqifahu) to put 
s.o. under pressure, threaten s.o.'s posi- 
tion V to refrain from sin or evildoing; 
to abstain, refrain {^» from), avoid 
(<y; to be cornered, be forced to 
the wall; to become or be oppressed, 
anguished, distressed; to become critical, 
become complicated or difficult, be 
aggravated (situation), be jeopardized 
(s.o.'s position) | (<^*) J* ej-U* ^y$£ 
(so'lruku) to feel depressed by, feel 
annoyed at; ^-Ul <o ^^ this made 
things difficult for people 

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xj>- haraj closeness, tightness, narrow- 
ness; confinement, straitness, constric- 
tion, crampedness ; restriction, impedi- 
ment; oppression, distress, anguish; 
difficulty; critical situation; prohibition, 
interdiction; forbidden, inter- 
dicted, sin | rj*- V (haraja) there is no 
objection; dLit -rj>- V nothing stands in 
your way, you are at liberty; Tj p- ^ 
(bi-la) unhesitatingly, without restraint or 
fear; j rj>- ^ (ayyu harajin) why 
should one feel restrained in . . .? &j V 
j* Uya- he feels no hesitation about, 
will not hesitate to , . . 

rj*- haraj (coll.; n. un. I) pi. -at, r-j/*- 
hiraj, r!/*~' ahraj thicket; dense forest;, 
woodland, timberland 

pj>~ harij narrow, close, tight, confined, 
straitened; oppressed, hard pressed, 
harassed; critical (situation, position) 

£■^1 ahraj 2 narrower, closer, tighter, 
more straitened; more critical 

r\j»- hardg (eg.) auction 

'^j>- haraja seriousness, gravity, diffi- 
culty, complicatedness (of a situation) 

£j£ tahrij forestation, afforestation 

r- j£ taharruj restraint, reserve, aloof- 
ness; timidity, diffidence, faint -b carted - 
ness; critical complication, gravity, diffi- 
culty (of a situation) 

oU-^si muharrijdt: olx VI £>\*rj>* in. al- 
aiman binding, committing, or solemn, 

~j£- muhrij disconcerting, embarrass- 

rj£- muhraj hard pressed, in a critical 
situation; embarrassed 

r-jj^i. mutaharrij: jJUail -rj**^ m - a ?~ 
sadr annoyed, vexed, anguished, op- 

*j>- harida a (harad) to be annoyed, dis- 
gruntled, angry, furious (Jp at, with) 

^*- harad anger, annoyance 

ajU- heir id, *j>- harid and o\sp- hat* 
dan annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious 

OjSj*- hirdaun pi. ,jo]/- haradin 2 lizard 

jj*- haraza u (harz) to keep, guard, protect, 
preserve (a, take care (a of); — 
haruza u («j1/>- haraza) to be strong 
be strongly fortified, be impregnable 
IV to keep, preserve, guard (a; to 
obtain, attain, achieve, win (*, J* | 
(jjLaxJi) i^aJ Jj*-\ (na$ran) to win a 
victory; j^JI <_^aj J^l (qasaba s-sdbq) 
to come through with flying colors, carry 
the day, score a great success V to be 
wary (^ of), be on one's guard (j* 
against) VIII to be wary (^ of), guard, 
be on one's guard (j* against), be careful, 
take heed, take precautions 

}y>- hirz pi. j\j»~\ ahrdz fortified place; 
refuge, sanctuary, retreat; a safe place 
(for objects, valuables, money; e.g., a cup- 
board, chest, purse); (pi. jl/»~l, jj^ 
huruz) amulet 

y j,- harlz strongly fortified, guarded; 
inaccessible, impregnable 

jl^»-l ihrdz acquisition, acquirement, 
obtainment, attainment, achievement, 
winning, gaining 

jlyw-l ihtiraz pi. -at caution, wariness, 
prudence, circumspection; reservation, 
reserve | jlj«-VI J*&j with all reservation 

O ojj^- hdriza fuse (el.) 

'jj£- muhriz pi. -un obtainer, acquirer, 
winner, gainer; possessor, holder (Jp of | b_>_jJ 15CJI Jp }j£ (bakaloriya) hold- 
er of a secondary school diploma (Tun.); 
holder of a B. A. degree 

»js- harasa u (hars, *u-l/»- hirdsa) to guard, 
watch, control (*, a, s.o.); to 

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oversee, supervise, superintend (», a, 
s.o.); to secure, protect, safeguard, pre- 
serve, keep (*, a, s.o.); to watch 
( Jp over) V and VIII to beware, be wary 
(j* of), guard, be on one's guard (^ 
against); ^j^-^ ihtaris caution! 

^j>- haras watch; guard, escort; body- 
guard | jLJl ^jl\ (sayyar) militia, 
"garde mobile" (Syr.); J>ji)\ ^j*- h. 
aS-Saraf honor guard; Jll! L ^*^-l (tnalakl) 
the royal guard (formerly Ir. t Eg.); ^^ 
Ji^UI (muliiki) (formerly) bodyguard of 
the Bey (Tun.); jyi ^-j^-l (watanl) the 
National Guard; ijJli-l ^j*- border 
guard; J»-|>JI ^j^ coast guard 

Zm\j>~ hirasa guarding, watching, con- 
trol; watch, guard, guard duty; super- 
vision, superintendence; guardianship, tu- 
telage, custody, care, protection; safe 
conduct, escort; compulsory administra- 
tion, sequestration; state control; admin- 
istration of an estate (jur.); sequester | 
J*-I^-JI 1*\j»- coastal protection or guard- 
ing; aJjjJI Z*\jp- j £**»' to be operated 
under state control (of expropriated busi- 

*\jv\ ihtiras caution, wariness, pru- 
dence; (pi. -at) precaution, precautionary 
measure | ,y Ulj^-I for protection from 
or against 

^jU- haris pi. X»j*- harasa, ^j*- 
htirrds vigilant, watchful; watchman; at- 
tendant, keeper (e.g., in a zoo); sentry, 
sentinel, guard; overseer, supervisor, 
superintendent; administrator; guardian, 
custodian, keeper, protector; tutelary (in 
compounds); (= ^JS ^jU- h. al-marma) 
goal keeper (sport) | aSj-3! ^jU- h. at- 
tirka administrator of an estate; ^-jU- 
f !>J-1 keeper of the seal; jLii ^jU- (qa* 
dal) sequestrator, receiver (in bankrupt- 
cy, inequity); ^jU* ii*>« (maVak) guard- 
ian angel (Chr.); JJU1 ^jU h. al-lail night 

^•jj^- mahrus guarded, safeguarded, 
secured; protected by God, preserved; 
( j*jj*A.\ (lit. the one protected, i.e.) the 
son; your son, your child; bj*>jjs*W your 
children, your family; *^jj>J,\ an epithet 
of Cairo and other cities 

^j^ muhtaris cautious, wary, careful 

>*- hnrtiia i (hars) to scratch (a, o s.o., II to instigate, prod, incite, 
provoke, incense (e s.o.); to set (^j 
people against eacli other), sow discord, 
dissension (j-u among) V to pick a 
quarrel, start a brawl (^ with s.o.), 
provoke (i_> s.o.) 

,j£r- hirs, hurs pi. ^-j/*-' ahras, ^jj*- 
hurus forest, wood(s) 

haris and 

coarse, scabrous 


I ahras 2 rough, 


hursa, li\j>- har&sa 
roughness, coarseness, scabrousness 

J^ mJ £ tahrls instigation, prodding, 
incitement, provocation, agitation, in- 
cense ment 

J^j^. taharrus provocation, importu- 
nity, obtrusion, meddling, uncalled-for 
interference; pi. oU-^ trespasses, en- 

^>j*- htrsaf pi. Ja£\j>- harasif 2 scales (of 

iy>j>- harasa i and harisa a (hirs) to desire, 
want, covet (J*; to be intent, 
be bent (Jp on); to strive (Jp for), 
aspire (Jp to) 

a ^y>- hirs greed, avidity, cupidity, 
covet ousness ; desire; aspiration, endeav- 
or, wish (J* for); avarice | Jp Lo-^ in 
the desire for ... , in the endeavor to . . .; 
out of concern or consideration for . . . ; 
rLrj^l J^ L»j> danger! (on warning 

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ijAtj^ haris pi. ij^j*- hirds, >L^p- 
hurasa 2 covetous, greedy, avid, eager 
(Jp for); bent (J* on), desirous (Jp of) 

,^-y-l ahras 2 more covetous, greedier 

ij*j>- H to goad, prod, spur on, egg on, 
incite, rouse, provoke (Jp * s.o. to 
or to do; to instigate, abet, stir 
up, agitate ( Jp » s.o. to or against) ; Q to 
induce (e£.) 

^Ju^si tahrid incitement, provocation; 
instigation, abetment, agitation (J* to); 
inflammatory propaganda (Jp against 
s.o.); O induction (eZ.) | O Jlj o*ij^ 
self-induction (eZ.) 

fj^lj^- tahridi inciting, instigative, agi- 
tative, inflammatory; provocative 

u ^jU- /iarirf bad, wicked, evil 

J>j£- muharrid pi. -iiw inciter, baiter; 
instigator, abettor; demagogue, rabble 
rouser; agitator, provocator; Q inductor 

>^j> mutaharrid Q induced (4.) 

«Js/- II to slant, incline, make oblique (a; to bend off, up, down or back, turn 
up, down or back, deflect (*; 
to distort, corrupt, twist, pervert, mis- 
construe, falsify (jt | 4*Jy* y. 4Jp~ 
('an maudVihi) to distort the sense of, rob of its true meaning V to 
turn off, branch off, take a turning; 
to deviate, depart, digress (jt> from); 
to avoid (jp; to be or become 
bent off, distorted, corrupted, perverted 
VII to turn off, branch off, take a turning; 
to deviate, depart, digress, turn away 
(^ from); to slope down, slant, be in- 
clined (terrain); to turn (Jl to, toward); 
to be twisted, be distorted; to be oblique, 
slanting; to be cocked, rakish (headgear); 
with lj: to make appear oblique, 
slanted, or distorted; to be corrupted, 
perverted | ^p <o ujd\ to turn s.o. away 

from; to dissuade s.o. from; *>.ij^ Hj£\ 
(mizajuhu) to be indisposed, be ill VIII to 
do (a professionally, practice (* as a profession; to strive for suc- 

<Js^p- harf pi. ,Jjj>- hiraf (cutting) 
edge (of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge; 
border, edge, rim, brink, verge; — 
(pi. Ctjj*- huruf, J»j>-\ ahruf) letter; 
consonant; particle (gram.); type (typ.) \ \ 
»J»/>- J* irresolute, wavering, on the fence; \ 
Ipjj*- 4tUfl alfazuhu bi-hurufiha his words 
literally; (J»^-b or j*-\J\ J^A-b literally, 
verbatim, to the letter; «J»^ Up- harf an 
bi-harfin literally, word for word; Jj 
JjVl <3p-Vb (waqqa r a,ula) to initial (e.g., 
S-laU. mu'dhadatan a treaty); J>j^i 
aj Jjf^Vl (abjadiya) the alphabetic letters, 
the alphabet; <ey+£- *-»j^p- matter (typ.); 

4 :> „nll JfijjL\ (samsiya) the sun letters 

(i.e., sibilants, dentals, r, Z, n to which the 
I of the article assimilates), Sj^^JiJI <JsjjJ»! 
(qamariya) the moon letters (to which the 
I of the article does not assimilate); 
J-) J>/- h. al-jarr preposition (gram.); 
(jA«J-'i <-Jp~ h. al-kafd do.; t^Ju^pdl Jsp. 
article (gram.); ^J^a*Ji <J*/>- ^. aWatf co- 
ordinating conjunction (^ram.); ijp- 
(•l^ix-Vl interrogative particle (gram.); 
*~JiJl tJ/>- ft. al-qasam particle introducing 
oaths (gram.); Oj^ Jfij^^ Arabic type 
(typ.) ; for other compounds look up the 
second word 

Jj>- harfi literal 

i-ip- harfiija wording, literal meaning 
(of a text) I o>UJl 4-i^ ^ *° h°kil to 
the letter of the law 

<_jy- hurf common garden pepper cress 
(Lepidium sativum L.; bot.) 

iip*. hit fa pi. *-if*- Atra/ occupation 

(esp. carried on independently); trade; 

handicraft (also i>j-b **j>- hirfa yada- 

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jy hirafi (and hirjl) industrial, trade 
(in compounds), professional; (pi. -un) 
independent tradesman; craftsman 

<Juj>- harif pi. »\sj>- hum fa" 2 customer, 
patron, client (tun., rnor.) 

iju^p- hirrif pungent, acrid (taste); 
CjUj^ spicy food, delicacies 

*i\j>- hard fa pungency, acridity (taste) 

t-juj£ tahrif pi. -at alteration, change; 
distortion; perversion, corruption, esp. 
phonetic corruption of a word 

«Lij j£- tahrifiya revisionism (in social- 
ist countries) 

<Jsl^l inhiraf pi. -at deviation, di- 
gression; obliqueness, obliquity, incli- 
nation, slant; declination (astron.); ail- 
ment, indisposition, also «Jjll <Js \jd I ; per- 
version (sexual); aberration (opt.) 

jt^l inhirdfi pi. -un deviationist 

(Jsi^rw-I ihtiraf professional pursuit (of 
a trade, etc.); professionalism (in sports) 

J»j£- muharraf corrupted (word) 

(Jj^l. munharij oblique ; slanted, slant- 
ing, sloping, inclined; distorted, perverted, 
corrupted, twisted; deviating, divergent; 
(pi. -at) trapezium (geom.) | J*j»*u <J> 
Ubh m. trapezoid (geom.) 

Jsj^£ muhtarif one gainfully employed 
(i_j in), person doing (<^>) profession- 
ally; professional, a pro (sports); profes- 
sional (adj.), e.g., Jsj^ jU^ (sihafi) pro- 
fessional journalist; climber, careerist 

O Oj^ 1 muhtaraf pi. -af studio, atelier 

3/* haraqa i (harq) to burn (a; to 
burn, hurt, sting, smart | <dS 3j>- 
(qalbahu), pi. pfjls si^- (qulubahum) to 
vex, exasperate s.o.; — v, (/wrg) to rub 
together (* j <tb— I Ji^p- (asndnahu), 
(j V jj»- (urram) to gnash one's teeth II to 

burn (a; IV to burn (a; to 
destroy by fire (a; to singe, scorch, 
parch (a; to scald (a; to 
kindle, ignite, set on fire (a | J^-1 
j aU i^>*j (fahnmta tailihi) to spend the 
night doing (, burn the midnight oil 
over ... V to burn, be aflame, burn up, 
take fire, be consumed by fire, be burned ; 
to be consumed (by an emotion), pine 
away (a with), be pained (a by), eat one's 
heart out | U^i 3>j£ (sauqan) to be 
overcome with longing or nostalgia VIII to 
burn, be aflame, burn up, take fire, be 
consumed by fire, be burned 

3j*- harq burning, incineration, com- 
bustion; kindling, igniting, setting afire; 
arson, incendiarism; (pi. 3jy>- huruq) a 
burning, painful effect; pi. 3jj»~ burns 

C~~ haraq fire, conflagration 

Xij»- hurqa, harqa burning, incineration, 
combustion; stinging, smarting, burning 
(as a physical sensation); torture, tor- 
ment, agony, pain, ordeal 

JL>- huraq, hurrdq tinder 

(3^ harraq burning, aflame, afire; hot 

Jlj>- hariq and *hj>- pi. Jj[t- hara'iq 2 
fire; conflagration 

O *&[?*- harraqa torpedo 

c'jy haraqan burning, stinging, smart- 
ing (as a painful sensation; e.g., of the 

O 3j£ mahraq pi. Jjli mahdriq 2 focus 

J*jjI^ taJidriq 2 (Eg.) season of the 
Nile's lowest water level, hottest season 
of the year 

Jl^»-1 ihraq burning, incineration, com- 

Cj£ iaharruq burning, combustion burn- 
ing desire (J I for) 

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Jljv-1 ihtiraq burning, combustion; fire, 
conflagration | O Jlj^-Vt ^ pwr/ai aZ-i. 
combustion chamber (teckn.); tJ}l_^U-*^l JjU 
^a&tZ aZ-j. combustible 

JjU- Jtang pi. -un, Jl^- hurrdq arsonist, 
incendiary; igniter, burner (person) 

3jj& mahruq burned, charred, scorched, 
parched; reddish, bronze-colored; com- 
bustible, serving as fuel; pi. oUjyt com- 
bustible materials or substances; fuel | 
3jj£ jl>»i (fakjcar) fired clay 

3j£- muhriq: £y£ 2JLi (qunbula) incen- 
diary bomb 

O 3j£- muhraq crematory 

4#^ mukraqa burnt sacrifice 

lX»j>- harqada pi. j*\j>. hardqid 2 Adam's apple 

~4jSj*- harqafa pi. «J*»[^- haraqif 2 protruding 
part of the hipbone 

i\j>- II to move, set in motion, drive, propel, 
operate (a; to march, move (» 
troops); to stir (a; to start, get 
started, get underway (a; to 
agitate, excite, stimulate (a; to 
incite, instigate, goad, prod, provoke, 
actuate, urge (J* » s.o. to do; to 
awaken, arouse, foment, stir up (a; 
to vowel, voweiize (gram,, a a consonant) | 
• ptli* 13,*- (ma^cfirahu) to grip, excite, 
thrill s.o. ; C&\yt\ £J^ to affect the feel- 
ings, be touching, moving, pathetic; V. 
UTU ilj£ (sakinan) he doesn't budge, 
he doesn't bend his little finger, he 
remains immobile, apathetic; <c5~U i\j>* 
(sakinahu) to rouse s.o., put s.o. in 
a state of excitement, commotion or 
agitation V to move, be in motion, stir, 
budge; to start moving, get moving; 
to seize the initiative; to undertake in- 
dependent measures; to start out, get 
underway (traveler); to depart, leave 
(train) ; to put out, to sail (fleet) ; to be 
set in motion, be driven, be operated; 

to be agitated, be excited, be stimulated; 
to be awakened, be roused, be fomented, 
be provoked, be caused 

il^- harik lively, active, brisk, agile, 

"•&J*- haraka pi. -at movement, motion; 
commotion; physical exercise; stirring, 
impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy; 
action, undertaking, enterprise; military 
operation; continuation, progress; traf- 
fic (rail, shipping, street); movement {as 
a social phenomenon); vowel (gram.) \ 
<uLSL-j *ulS*p- j (sakanatihi) in all his 
doings; in every situation; jjJS ^j>- 
(through) traffic; *~-^[/il *0"" shipping 
traffic; *jLiJi iS^»- exchange of goods; 
merchandise traffic, freight traffic; iS^*- 
V-L- (siyahlya) tourist traffic, tourism; 
JJ^Vl aS^s- turnover (com.); i^^Jtfl "Sj-\ 
(nisiviya) feminist movement; iS^i-l iJujU. 
nimble, lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit; 
tf/J- 1 JJaj slow in motion, heavy-handed, 
clumsy, sluggish, lumbering, inert, indo- 
lent; 4jjv" ^S^p- expressive gestures; 
mimic art 

Sj*- harakl kinetic (phys.) 

O 4~G»- harakiya strategy 

£[/*• har&k movement, motion 

i\j£ mahrak path, trajectory (of a 

iWjfi. mihrak poker, fire iron 

Sij£ tahrikl dynamic 

i]j& taharruk pi. -at movement, motion ; 
forward motion; initiative; start; depar- 
ture; sailing (of a fleet) | ^-U^Lo £j£ (di- 
bldmasi) diplomatic initiative, demarche 

iljU- harik withers 

£j£- muharrik mover, stirrer; rouser, 
inciter, fomenter, awakener, agent; insti- 
gator; — (pi. -at) motive, springs, incen- 
tive, spur, motivating circumstance, cau- 

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sative factor; motor, engine (techn.) | 
Jljj^T ilj£ (kahraba'i) electric motor; 
ilii l Aj£ {naff at) jet engine; ^f^JLI lyb\ 
iqiwwa) motive power (phys., techn.) 

fj^u mutaharrik moving, movable, 
mobile; pronounced with following vowel, 
voweled, vowelized (consonant; gram.) | 
~&j>cj> jj^a (suwar) movies, motion pic- 

iSj>- harkata (and J^j*- harkasa) to stir up, 
agitate, excite, thrill 


haruma u, harima a to be forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted, unlawful, un- 
permitted ( Jp to s.o.) ; — harama i (hirm, 
oL^- hitman) to deprive, bereave, dis- 
possess, divest (a i or j- o s.o. of, 
take away, withdraw, withhold (a « or 
a j* or ^ « from s.o., deny, refuse 
(a o or a ^ or j* » to s.o.; to 
exclude, debar, preclude, cut off (a * or 
£» 6 s.o. from; to excommunicate 
(« s.o.; Chr.) II to declare (a 
sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable, or taboo, 
to taboo (a; to declare (a 
unlawful, not permissible, forbid, inter- 
dict, proscribe (a, Jp to s.o.); to 
render (» s.o.) immune or proof (,y 
against), immunize (<> * s.o. against) | 
4 ™ J ^ J* 1 *t>*~ ^° deny °* s * 8 *th., abstain, 
refrain from IV to excommunicate 
(a s.o,; Chr.); to enter into the state 
of ritual consecration (esp., of a Mecca 
pilgrim; see Aj>-\ ihram) V to be for- 
bidden, interdicted, prohibited; to be 
holy, sacred, sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to 
honor, revere, venerate, esteem, respect 
(a, » s.o., | <u-iJ fj\s^t to be self- 
respecting X to deem (a sacro- 
sanct, sacred, holy, inviolable; to deem 
(a unlawful or unpermissible 

aj>- hirm excommunication (Chr.) 

{J- haram pi. Aj>-\ ahrdm forbidden, 
prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy, 

sacred, sacrosanct; sacred, sacred 
object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum, 
sanctuary, sacred precinct; ( = *j>- 
l _ s imU-) campus, university grounds; uU^-1 
the two Holy Places, Mecca and Medina | 
jm^i *tJ^ $CUit al-haramain the third 
Holy Place, i.e., Jerusalem 

3up- hurma pi. a^- huram, hurumdt, 
huramdt that which is holy, sacred, sacro- 
sanct, inviolable, or taboo; woman, lady, 
wife; — holiness, sacredness, sanctity, 
sacrosanctity, inviolability; reverence, 
veneration, esteem, deference, respect 

a\j>- Jvardm pi. p»- hurum forbidden, 
interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; 
forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; 
sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed | j*l 
fljs- ibn h. illegitimate son, bastard; 
-y.1 ^IjVl no man's land; neutral 
territory; a\j^\ CjJI (bait) the Kaaba; 
{\jk\ j4±1\ (sahr) the Holy Month 

Muharram; p^-l JU- LI (masjid) the Holy 

Mosque in Mecca; Aj*- *iku (mintaqa) 
no man's land; dlJU fl^- you mustn't 
do (say) that! f\J-l illicitly, illegally, un- 

»\y- hiram pi. -at, 2uj»-l ahrima a 
woolen blanket (worn as a garment 
around head and body) 

fj^ harim pi rj*- hurum a sacred, 
inviolable place, sanctum, sanctuary, 
sacred precinct; harem; female members 
of the family, women; wife 

jl js- harimi women's (in compounds), 
for women 

fjj*- hurum pi. -at excommunication 

ij'y>- hardml pi. -iya thief, robber, 

oLj?- hitman deprivation, bereave- 
ment, dispossession (of s.o., ,> of; 
prohibition (with genit.: to s.o., > from 
doing, revocation (^ of a permis- 

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sion); banning, disqualification (of s.o., 
j- from); debarment, exclusion, preclu- 
sion (j* from); excommunication (Chr.); 
suspension (of a player, etc.; sport); 
privation; destitution, poverty | oL^- 
viyVl exclusion from inheritance, 
disinheritance {I si. Law) [ *iL5 ^ <jUp- 
SjLJl (qiyddat assay yam) revocation of 
s.o.'s driver's license 

^j£ mahram pi. fjU mahdrim 2 
forbidden, inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct, 
holy, or sacred; unmanageable, being 
in a degree of consanguinity precluding 
marriage (Isl. Law); pi. *>U close female 
relatives (of a man) 

i^ mahrama pi, -,L£ mahdrim 2 

£^- tahrim forbiddance, interdiction, 
prohibition, ban 

j*[^-l ihram state of ritual consecration 
of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the 
pilgrim, wearing two seamless woolen or 
linen sheets, usually white, neither combs 
nor shaves, and observes sexual con- 
tinence) ; garments of the Mecca pilgrim 

plji-l ihtiram pi. -at deference, respect, 
regard, esteem, reverence; honoring (e.g., 
of a privilege); pi. honors, respects, 
tributes | olJUl ^\J^\ self-respect, self- 

j-jys- mahrum deprived, bereaved, bereft 
(<> of); excluded, precluded, debarred 
(j- from) ; suffering privation (as opposed 
to <3jJja); poor; excommunicated (Chr.) 

f>£ muharram forbidden, interdicted; 
Muharram, name of the first Islamic 
month; pl^l r y£ m. al-haram honorific 
name of this month 

{j£ muhrim Mecca pilgrim who has 
entered the state of ritual consecration 
(see j.l^p-1 ihram) 

j»j^ muhtaram honored, revered, vener- 
ated, esteemed, respected; (in the salu- 

tation of letters:) my dear . . .; venerable, 
reverend; notable, remarkable, consider- 

Jy harmal African rue (Peganum harmala 
L.; hot.) 

~*Lf- harmala pi. J,]^. haramil 2 a 
loose wrap worn over the shoulders 
(garment of the dervishes); cape, short 
wrap for women 

bj^ harana, haruna u {b\j>- hirdn, hurdn) 
to be obstinate, stubborn, headstrong 

bjj*- Imrun pi. j^ hurun obstinate, 
stubborn, refractory, reluctant, resistant 

bjj[p- harun brazier 

bj*- harwa burning; wrath, rage; acridity, 
pungency (of taste); pungent, disagree- 
able odor 

<Sj*- V to seek, pursue (a, strive (a 
for), aspire (a to); to examine, investigate 
(a; to inquire (jc or a into), make 
inquiries (jc or a about); to be intent 
(a on, take care (a of, 
attend (a to, also J), look (a after, also J); to see to it (ol that) 

t^i-lj bi-l-hard hardly, barely 

iSj*- hariy pi. *L»^I ahriya 2 adequate, 
appropriate, suitable (i_j for), worthy 
(41 of I jfjjis ^j*- (dikr) worth 
mentioning, considerable; J;-UxJ1j ^^ 
credible, believable; t^^-b j\ or to be 
exact, or rather 

.1^*- fora* ( 2 ) Htra (mountain northeast 
of Mecca) 

t$j*-l aArd more adequate, more proper, 
more appropriate | tS^Vb j\ or to tell 
the truth, or more explicitly, or put more 
exactly, or rather 

j£ taharrin pi. ob^ iaharriyat 
inquiry; investigation | ^>dl ^i Surtat 

s^u&js jjV j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj 01^3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



at-t. or iSj**d\ 4*JU> maslahat at-t. secret 

j- hazza u (hazz) to notch, nick, incise, indent 
(j, make an incision, cut (j into II and VIII = I 

y>- hazz pi. jjj>- huzuz incision, notch, 
nick; the right time, the nick of time 

ly>- hazza incision, notch, nick; time; 
the right time, the nick of time ; predica- 
ment, plight 

j\y- hazdz head scurf, ringworm ; tetter, 
eruption (med.) 

Sjlj*. hazaza rancor, hatred, hate 

j£ mahazz notch, nick | j£\ ujL*! to 
find the right solution, hit the nail on 
the head, hit the mark, strike home 

*-y- hazaba u (hazb) to befall (» s.o.}, happen, 
occur {s to s.o.) | _r*Vl V>*~ ^ e ma tter 
became serious II to rally (a s.o.); to 
form or found a party III to side, take 
sides (e with), be an adherent (o of s.o.) 
V to take sides; to form a party, make 
common cause, join forces 

l-^9- hizb pi. iyt>-l ahzdb group, troop, 
band, gang; party (pot.); the 60th part of 
the Koran | ^1>-I j* j* he belongs to 
his clique, he is of the same breed 

\}j>- hizbi party (adj.), factional; (pi. 
-tin) party man, party-liner 

<ljj>- hizbiya party activities ; partisan- 
ship, partiality; factionalism 

jji's*- haizabun old hag 

«_^ tahazzub factiousness; factionalism 

<— »jU- hazib: (_jjU- nj>- hazabahu h. he 
met with a mishap 

u-ija-x- mutahazzib partial, biased; par- 

l j^- hazard i u {liazr, lj^- mahzara) to esti- 
mate, assess, appraise {a; to make 

a rough estimate (a of, guess (a 

jj>- hazr estimation, assessment, ap- 
praisal; conjecture, guess, surmise 

"ojjj*- hazzura riddle, puzzle 

6jj£ mahzara estimation, assessment, 
appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise 

2 o\jj~ hazlran 2 June {Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.) 

jl*>~ huzuqqani choleric 

~<ujj>- hazuqa, <«jjU- hazuqa hiccups 
JjU mahaziq 2 (alg.) pi. nuts (of bolts) 

l»j*- hazama i (hazm) to tie up, bundle, wrap 
up, pack, do up in a package or bundle 
(a ; to girth (a an animal) ; to buckle, 
fasten (a a belt, a seatbelt); to make fast, 
fasten, tie (a | •jA f>- (amrahu) to 
take matters firmly in hand ; — hazuma u 
(hazm, a*\j*- hazama, *.jj>- huzuma) to be 
resolute, firm, stouthearted, intrepid 
II to tie together, pack (a; to gird 
(es.o.) | <^U* r>- (matSahu) to pack one's 
things, tie up one's effects V and VIII to 
be girded; to gird o.s., put on a belt 

Af- hazm packing, packaging, wrap- 
ping; determination, resoluteness, firm- 
ness, energy; judiciousness, discretion, 

l^j9- huzma pi. p*- huzam wrapped 
up or tied up; bundle, fagot, fascine; 
beam of rays, radiation beam {phys.); 
bunch (of herbs, etc.); sheaf; package, 

Ay*, hizam pi. -at, l*y-\ ahzima, *y*- 
huzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund, 
waistband (worn over the caftan to 
fasten it); sword belt | j^l flj*. h. 
al-amn and uLVl pl>- h. al-amdn safety 
belt; ^Ui Ay» (su'a'i) radiation belt 
{phys.); i\f*z* Ay- (mutaharrik) conveyor, 
conveyor belt (techn.) 

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p*-l ahzamr more resolute; more judi- 

f^ tahzim packing up, wrapping up 

fjU- hazim pi. i.j>- hazama and £j>- 
A-asim pi. >L>- hvzama' 2 resolute, energet- 
ic; judicious, discreet, prudent 

j^- hazana u to make sad, sadden, grieve 
(» s.o.); — hazina a (huzn, Kazan) to be 
sad, grieved (<j or Jp at or because 
of); to grieve, mourn (J* over) II and IV 
to make sad, sadden, grieve (* s. o.) 

j>- huzn pi. j[^-l ahzdn sadness, 
grief, sorrow, affliction 

oj» hazn pi. djj>- huzun rough, rugged, 
hard ground 

dj*~ hazin sad, mournful, grieved 

J>J»- hazin pi. Ajj*- huzana 2 , ui^>- 
hizan y Jl^- hazana sad; mourning (for a 
deceased person); sorrowing, mournful, 
grieved | *^jL\ i**i-J (jurrCa) Good Friday 

olj^- /tazndm 2 very sad, very grieved, 
worried; in mourning 

□ <Ji!>- hazayinl (J\j>- hazaini) 
sad, mournful, melancholic; mourning- 
fin compounds), mortuary, funereal | 
<Ji!>- cr^ (qumd$) cloth for mourning 

jj*: taTfcazztitt sadness; behavior of a 

bjj£ mahzun grieved, grief-stricken, 
pained, sad, saddened 

Oj£- muhzin grievous, saddening; sad; 
melancholic; tragic ; oLjj*£ muhzindt griev- 
ous things | Zj£- \^U Is-oii (qissa tamtillya) 
and 4jj£- iuljj (riwdya) tragedy (tkeat.) 

-*- hassa (1st pers. perf. hasastu) u (hass) 
to curry, currycomb (a an animal) ; to feel, 
sense (a; — hassa (1st pers. perf. 
hasastu) i, (1st pers. perf. hasistu) a to 

feel sorry, feel sympathy or compassion 
(J for), sympathize (J with) II to grope, 
feel IV to perceive, sense, experience (a 
or C-.; to feel (a or «_>; 
to notice (a or ^; to hear (a a 
sound, a noise, etc.); to take notice 
(o of s.o.) V to grope, probe (a for, 
finger, handle, touch (a, run the 
hand (a over; to grope about, 
feel around; to grope, feel (a one's way, 
Jl to) ; to try to locate or detect (a ; 
to seek information, make inquiries (^ 
about); to sense, experience, perceive 
(a, lj; to feel (»-*; to be af- 
fected, be deeply touched (^ by 

iJ ^- hass sensation, perception, feeling, 

u *>- hiss sensor}^ perception, sensation ; 
feeling, sentiment; sense; voice; sound; 
noise | ^Lu (J ~*. (miUaballid) apathy, 
emotional dullness ; ijjji*. ^^ (mttStarak) 
community feeling or spirit 

^-j*- hissi sensory; sensuous; percep- 
tible; palpable | O ^-' i-j>JUlI (madhab) 
sensationalism, sensualism; O 5iJLiH 
i-J-i (faUafa) do. 

kjL-*- hisslydt sensations 

fj^r^- tois faint noise; soft sound of 
voices, whispering 

^l— >- hassds sensitive ; sensible; readily 
affected, susceptible; sensual (pleasure) | 
^L*- 3jj (waraq) photo -sensitive paper, 
photographic paper; *j*M a -L*- {dan*) 

^UL*>- hassdsa sensory organ 

^-l— *- hassdsi allergic j L-L*- *\j»\ 
allergic diseases, allergies (med.) 

5--L*- hassdslya sensitivity (also techn.) ; 
sensibility; faculty of sensory perception; 
susceptibility; sensuality | JL-U-I ^j* 
mar ad al-h. allergy (med.) 

s^u&js jjV jl CJlq Jj&Jma jj OU-3-O3-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


<~£ mihassa currycomb 

^L^-l ihsas pi. -at, ^ri-UI aM3is 2 feel* 
feeling; sensation, sense (*_j of; 
perception (t-> of; sensitivity; pi. 
*i>UL*-l feelings, sentiments | O ,^-1— »-t 
jyJU sensitivity to light; O ^U*-"^ -bxt 
highly sensitive; £]^1* ^-L-a-l (m^starafc) 
feeling of harmony, concord, unanimity; 
^L-^Nl ii* ffiWa* a*-». insensitivity, dull- 
ness, obtuseness 

O v-^-^^ 1 UjUJI at-taifa al-ihsdslya 
the impressionists 

(j*-^ tahasstts: JL*J1 (-r - **JI remote 
sensing (oil production) 

*^U- tosa pi. ^[p- hawass 2 sensation; 
sense | ^-J-*' u*!^ 1 tne five senses 

^y-jt mahsus felt; sensed; perceptible, 
noticeable, palpable, tangible; appreci- 
able, considerable (e.g., loss); ^^-^ that 
which is perceptible through the senses; 
appearance, evidence; oUj->l things 
perceptible through the senses 

t— *- Imsaba u (hasb, ^L*- /wsoi, oL— *- his* 
ban , husban) to compute, reckon, calcu- 
late; to count; to charge, debit (J* * 
to s.o., to s.o.'s account); to credit (<J a to s.o., to s.o.'s account) | *jL->- «-— . >- 
{Hsabahu) to take or s.o. into 
account or into consideration, reckon 
with or s.o., count on or s.o.; 

<J IjL*- i ~»- {hisaban) do.; to attach 

importance to s.o. or; (Jolt »-*-*-, 
J ^L*~ {alfa) to have a thousand appre- 
hensions about . . . ; — hasiba a i (oL— *- his* 
ban, \~£- mahsaba, mahsiba) to regard (« » 
s.o. as), consider, deem (« »s.o. to be . . .); 
to think, believe, suppose, assume; to 
consider, regard (j- a, « s.o., as be- 
longing to), count {<y * s.o. among); to 
see (a j in s.o.; — hasutta u (hasab, 
*iL»- hasaba) to be of noble origin, be 
highborn; to be highly esteemed, be 
valued III to settle an account, get even 

(* with s.o.); to call (» s.o.) to account, 
ask {» s.o.) for an accounting; to hold 
(« s. o.) responsible, make (• s.o.) an- 
swerable | <uou J* «_— U to be careful, 
be on one's guard V to reckon (J with an 
event) ; to be careful, be on one's guard ; 
to take precautions; to seek to know, try 
to find out (a VI to settle a mutual 
account VIII to debit or credit; to take 
into account, take into consideration (uj 
or a; to reckon («-> or a with); (to 
anticipate a reward in the hereafter by ad- 
ding a pious deed to one's account with 
God — such as resigning in God's will at 
the death of a relative; hence:) \>ilj i^-Jw-t 
(waladan) to give a son, be bereaved of 
a son; #^t!l 4>l Xs. ^— I*-l to sacrifice in anticipation of God's reward in 
the hereafter; to charge (*Jp a for); 
to think, believe, suppose; to take (• * 
s.o. for or to be . . .); to be content, 
content o.s. (^ with); to disapprove 
(Jp a of in s.o.), take exception 
( Jp a to in s.o.), reject (J* a 
in s.o.); to call (Jp s.o.) to account, 
ask (Jp s.o.) for an accounting 

t _^ J *- hasb reckoning, computing, cal- 
culation; thinking, opinion, view; suffi- 
ciency 1 fAji (*iAr-*: or ) *&?-*- hasbuka (&t- 
hashika) dirhamun one dirham is enough 
for you ; o\ viL— »• it suffices to say that . . . ; 
you know enough when you hear that . . . ; 
you need only ... ; b\ UJL« *i-L-~*: (mngni'an) 
it will be enough to convince you if ... ; 
\J, 45" IJL^j d 1 ,-- j {bi-ftadd kullihisarran) 
but enough of all these negative aspects! 
,_....* . fa -hasb and that's all, and no more, 
on]y (interchangeable with iaii) 

^^- hasbl: ^- Lr l£ {majlis) pi. jJ^ 
;Lu~ *~ guardianship court, probate court 

^^p~ hasab pi. uL-l ahsab measure, 
extent, degree, quantity, amount; value; 
esteem, high regard enjoyed by s.o.; 
noble descent; hasaba (prep.), <- — £■ bi- 

**u&js jJV j I Cuio JbOJLLo jj Olfr 3-03-0 iji-i-03 ^3-U-o tQiJ cr* Oti^MS J->^ pS^A 


hasabi and i_— ->- J* 'a&i hasabi according 
to, in accordance with, commensurate 
with, depending on | ^ — \j ^^^ jj {nan 
sab) of noble descent 

lt«->- hasabamd (conj.) according to 
what — , as, depending on how . . . | 
Jij! k«*. (ttafaqa) as chance will 
have it 

3**,*- Ars&a arithmetical problem, Hum; 
calculation, reckoning 

<-•*-->- hasib pi. *L—*- humba* 2 respected, 
esteemed; noble, of noble birth, highborn 

oL-^- husban calculation, reckoning, 
accounting; computation | uL-J-l J jlT 
to be taken into account, be taken into 
consideration; to be expected, be antic- 
ipated; jl DL-J-I j ulT it was expected 
that . . .; ul JL~>- I expect that . . . 

cjL-*- his&b arithmetic, reckoning, cal- 
culus; computation; calculation, estima- 
tion, appraisal; accounting, settlement; 
— (pi. -at) reflection, consideration; 
weighing; bill, invoice; statement of costs ; 
(bank) account; pi. obL>- bookkeeping | 
J*i-1 yU- h. al-jum?nal (al-jumal) use of 
the alphabetic letters according to their 
numerical value; ^LJ-I ^ r ilm al-h. 
arithmetic; JL^-Vl uL*. calculus of 
probability; J^UxJl V L^ h, at-tafddul 
differential calculus; J*ISCjl v Lj- h. at- 
takamul integral calculus; 4jU>- j jS" 
he reckoned with it, he expected it, he 
was prepared for it; *J LL*. J^ to take 
s.o. or into consideration; to reckon 
with s.o. or; J* «jLL*. ^j {rat* 
toba) to take into account or into 
consideration, be prepared for or to 
do; i/U-'t V LJ-I (kitami) and 
jl^ ^Us- (nihd'i) final statement of 
account, final accounting; <_jLJJ Jl s Uj 
(da'dhu) he called him to account; fjj 
^LJ-I yaum al-h. the Day of Reckoning, 

Judgment Day; 
account to s.o.; 


■Ul to render 

^i without limit 

or bounds, to excess, to an unlimited ex- 
tent; l-*L>- j& j* blindly, without fore- 
thought, at random; b"$h ^LjL to s.o.'s 
credit, to s.o.'s advantage; o^i «-jI— *- An 
to s.o.'s debit, at s.o.'s expense, to .s.o. 'a 
disadvantage; <_jLJ-! ^ JJ laqiyasiia l-h. 
he got a raw deal, he was in for it; ^L- 
oUii. h. mutallat&t trigonometry; t^L*. 
jU (jarin) current account; olL*- 
j^ !l J^x_-» h. sunduq at-t. savings-bank 
accounts; <Jj>J»ja oL> blocked account; 
4-jji oLjL^- (dobya) double-entry book- 
keeping; Sj£l\ V UU (Sarqt) the Julian 
calendar; Jjii\ ^LJ-I (garbi) the Gregor- 
ian calendar; iJLL*. Jp Ul (leb.) I am f 
at your service 

jU>- hisdbi arithmetical, mathematical, 

oLoL-p- hisabiyat arithmetic 

4—-L^ muhdsaba pi. -af accounting; 
clearing (com.); bookkeeping; request for 
accounting; examination of conscience 
(theol.) | L-Lil p-J g»i,9wi aJ-m. accounting 
department, comptroller's office; clearing * 
house; 3L*UJLI jt^jj audit office 

<_jLX»J ihtisdb computation; calcula- 
tion, consideration, reflection; debiting; 
crediting; valuation; contentedness, sat- 

^-*-U- hasib pi. -un counter, reckoner, 
arithmetician, calculator, computer; — 
(pi. -at) calculating machine | c-~-l»- 
tijj^ll (Uiktroni) electronic calculator, » 

V.*-* mahsub pi, -£«, ^o-U. ma/wM> 2 
protege, pet, favorite; kiJb^~£ your obe- 
dient servant; — enjoying s.o.'s protec- 
tion or shelter; calculated; measured, 
sedate (movements of a person, gestures, 

"Li > wtf. mahsubiya esteem enjoyed by 
s.o., position of distinction; patronage, 
favored position, favoritism 

xw&o jjy jl Cuio JbOJuLo jj OU-5-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^'j"^ cPVa ^Sssxa 


w^-l^ mukdsibpl. -un accountant, book- 
keeper; comptroller, auditor 

,_— ££ muhtasib (Tun.) bursar, treasurer 
(of a university, etc.) 

t^~» L& muhtasab that for which one 
can expect reward in the hereafter (e.g., 
suffering, loss, etc.) 

,>- hasada u (hasad) to envy, grudge (* s.o., 
Jp or a, be envious {* of s.o., Jp 
or a because of VI to envy each 

JL-P- hasad envy 

$y^>- hasud pi. jl*j- husud envious 

ju-1^ tahdsud mutual envy 

juU- hdsid pi. -&«■, jL-»- hussdd, *JU*- 
hasada envious; envier, grudger 

^— ^ mahsud envied; smitten by the 
evil eye 

^ hasara u i (hasr) to pull away or off, 
remove (jp a, a cover, a veil, from); 
to uncover, lay bare, unveil (jp; 
— u i (jj~. >- husur) to be uncovered, 
bared; to become dim (sight); — hasira a 
(hasar, lj~>- hasra) to regret (Jp,), 
be grieved, be pained (Jp by; to 
sigh (Jp over; — hasara i, hasira 
a (hasar) to become tired, fatigued II to 
fatigue, tire, weaken, sap (» s.o.); to 
grieve, sadden (<■ s.o.), oause pain or 
grief (o to s.o.); to remove (a a cover, 
jp from), lay bare, unveil (jp V to 
be distressed, be pained, be grieved (Jp 
by); to sigh (Jp over) VII to be pulled 
away or off, be removed (jp from); to 
be rolled up, be turned back (sleeve, jp 
from the arm); to fall, drop (e.g., veil, 
water level); to recede, subside, abate 
(flood, etc.); to disappear suddenly (jp 
from); to drop one's veil; to become 
apparent, be unveiled, be revealed; to 
unveil, cause to become visible (jp 

j~»- hasar fatigue, debility, weakness | 

j^aJ\ j^~ h. al-basar nearsightedness, 

j^>- hasir grieved, sad; fatigued, lan- 
guid, weary, tired 

* ,— »■ hasra pi. hasardt grief, sorrow, 
pain, distress, affliction; sigh | S^-^J L 
yd la-l-hasrati alas! unfortunately ! <3j~*- L 
yahasrati and alj,™*- \j wd hasratdh what 
a pity! too bad! 

jw~ hasir pi. i$j~>- hasra tired, weary, 
fatigued, exhausted; dim, dull (eye), 
nearsighted | j^sJ\ j~~*- h. al-basar near- 
sighted, myopic 

jj~p- husur nearsightedness, myopia 

L>\j~»- hasrdn regretful, sorry, sad, 
distressed, grieved 

j~JZ- tahassur sighing; regret 

^U hasir pi. j~*\jp- hawdsir 2 bared, 
denuded; uncovered, bare; unveiled 
(woman, her hair and face; invar, for 
gender) | j*aJ\ j~*U- h. al-basar near- 
sighted, myopic; ^J I ^-U- h. ar-ra's bare- 
headed, hatless 

«*- hasak (coll.; n. un. 5) thorns, spines; 
spikes, pricks; fishbones; awns, beard 
(bot.); name of several prickly herbs, esp. 
of the genus Tribulus 

Jj— >- luisaki thorny, prickly, spiny 

»- ha soma i (hasm) to cut, sever, cut off 
(a; to finish (a, put a stop or 
end (a to; to terminate (a e.g., a 
poor state of affairs, a nuisance) ; to decide 
(a a question); to settle (a an argument); 
to deduct, discount (a an amount from 
a sum of money) VII to be severed, be cut 
off; to be finished, be completed, be 
terminated ; to be settled (argument) 

*-*■ hasm finishing, stop, end, termi- 
nation; decision; settling, settlement (of 
an argument) ; discontinuance, shutdown, 

xw&o jJV j I Cuio JbOJLLo jj Olfr 3-03-0 ijAi-03 p3^£-o <j^j-o cr **» j-oljJ3 Jj^£ ^Svsta 


closing down; deduction, discounting 
{of an amount) 

fL*- huaam sword, sword edge 

rj-*- husum fatal, trying, grueling (pi. ; 
days, nights, also years) 

--U- h&sim decisive; final, peremp- 
tory, conclusive, definite, definitive 

j**- hasuna u (hum) to be handsome, 
beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to be 
expedient, advisable, suitable, proper, 
fitting; to be in a proper state, be in a 
desirable condition [ dioJ j~*- Jt in h. 
ladaiba if you like it, if it seems all right 
to you ; o\ jJLj ( j~^ it is to your advantage 
that you . . . ; you ought to . . . ; j-*- 
J ait-usJ he was all willing to ... II to 
beautify, embellish (a; to adorn, 
decorate (a; to improve, put into 
better form, ameliorate, better (a; 
to make a better presentation (a of; to present in a favorable light, 
depict as nice or desirable (J a to 
s.o.); to sugar-coat, make more palatable 
(a unpleasant, disadvanta- 
geous) III to treat (a s.o.) with kindliness 
IV to do right, act well; to do (* 
well, expertly, nicely; to know (a how to 
do, be able (a to do; to 
master (a, have command (a of, be proficient (* in; a lan- 
guage, an art, a handicraft, etc.), be 
conversant (a with; to do good, be 
charitable; to do favors, do good (J 1 or 
c-> to s.o.), do ( Jl or ^ s.o.) a good turn, 
be nice, friendly (Jl or ^ to s.o.); to give 
alms, give charity (Jl to s.o.) j <c— ».! L 
ma ahsanahu how good he is ! how hand- 
some he is! cJL*-l aksanta well done! 
bravo! JuillVI £~*-\ (alm&nlya) to master 
the German language, know German well; 
jLtf-Vl t>~*-' to make a good choice or 
selection; JUJUlJI j—^I to aim well or ac- 
curately; &)jJL* j-*»~' (ma$uratahu) to 
give good advice; 4JLJaj j-^~l to make a 

good practical application of; j-*-l 
w jkJI (zanna) to have a good opinion of 
. , ., judge favorably; *JUU» j-*-l 
(mu r dmalataku) to treat s.o. well; ^j-*-! 
4*4* (fahmdhu) to grasp or understand well; o\ ^~* V (yuhsinu) he is not 
capable of . . ., he is not able to . . . 
V to become nicer, more handsome, 
more beautiful; to improve, ameliorate, 
get better X to deem (a nice, etc., 
or good; to regard (a as right, ad- 
visable or appropriate; to approve (a of, sanction, condone (a; to come 
to like, to appreciate (a, find pleas- 
ure (a in,); also = IV: j«»w-l 
ij^JLtVI (ingiliziya) to know English well; 
pass, ustuhsina to be good, commendable, 

j-»- httsn beauty, handsomeness, pret- 
tiness, loveliness; excellence, superiority, 
perfection j ]ai~\ i yJ~ li-h, il-hazz fortu- 
nately; iyUI j—*- good manners, good 
behavior; good conduct; t\jU\j j*Jl j-*- 
(h. as-sair) an irreproachable life; j«»- 
Js^axJl h. at-tasarruf discretion, individual 
judgment; jlaJl ( y^- h. az-zann good 
opinion, favorable judgment; jwdl j— *- 
euphemism; (3-jJl) JL-aJUl ^ h. al-qa$d 
(an-niya) good intention, good will, good_ 
faith; «Ji-^j ^ >■ h. yusuf beauty spot, 
patch; ^*J~\ C— sitt al-husn a kind of 
bindweed (Convolvulus cairicus L.; hot.); 
deadly nightshade, belladonna 

l y~>- Hasan pi. jL*~ hisdn beautiful, 
handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good, 
agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite; 
lw*>- Jutsanan well, splendidly, excellently, 
beautifully; jUJ-1 the ladies; — high 
sandhill | il c*Ui I— *-j (fa'altu) how well 
I did that I . . . ! 

j^JLJ- 1 al-hasaniyun the Hasanides, 
the descendants of Hasan, son of 'AH 
and Fatima 

^-1 ahsan* pi. j^UI ahasin 2 better; 

s^u&js jjV jl CJlq Jj&Jma jj OU-3-O3-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


nicer, lovelier, more beautiful; more 
excellent, more splendid, more admirable | 
^a VI*- J--*"' ,y» he is better off than 
they are; j~»-l ^ JJL» (bi-Uati) in a 
friendly manner, amicably, with kindness 

»L-*- hasna 2 pi. 61— >■ his&n (of a wom- 
an) beautiful, a beauty, a belle 

J-J-l al-husna pi. ~ctt (f. of l j~*~VI 
al-ahsan) the beat outcome, the happy end- 
ing; fair means, amicable manner j ,^-i-lj 
amicably, by fair means, in a friendly 
manner; ^-J-l »Lr*Vl (asma*) the 99 at- 
tributes of God 

ii», *- hasana pi. -of good deed, bene- 
faction; charity, alms; pi. CjU-**- advan- 
tages, merits 

Oy~»- hassun pi. ^J^>- hasdsin 2 gold- 

4L~£ maksana nice, good; 
advantage; pi. ^j-Ut mahasin 2 beauties, 
charms, attractions, merits, advantages, 
good qualities | l 1 s-l^>-\ ,y*\£ (Alg.) social 
privileges, services, social benefits 

<>«^ tahsin pi. -at beautification, em- 
bellishment; improvement, amelioration, 
betterment ; processing, refining, finishing ; 
(pi. (>-Ui tahdsin 2 ) ornament, decora- 
tion | JwJjl j>w£ t. an-nasl eugenics 

"kJ\£ muhasana friendly treatment, 
kindliness, amicability 

d[~*-\ ihsan beneficence, charity, alms- 
giving, performance of good deeds 

t y-^ tahassun improvement, amelio- 
ration | jj— *jJI j on the way to recovery 

OL^i-l istihsdn approval, consent; 
acclaim; discretion; application of dis- 
cretion in a legal decision (I si. Law) \ 
ol— »w-l !j>lfi s. istihsdn certificate of 
achievement, citation of excellence 

j— £ muhassin embellisher, beautifier, 
improver; pi. oL~j£ ?nuhassindt cosmetics 

t j-< muhsin beneficent, charitable 

l y m j n ^ m s mustahsan approved, commend- 
able; pleasant, agreeable 

(j-*-) t~p~ hasd u (hasw), V and VIII to 
drink noisily, sip, slurp (a 

j~>- hasw soup, broth 

»j,~*- haswa pi. hasawat a sip 

9j— *- huswa pi. husuwat, huaauxit, 4 r -*-l 
ahsiya a sip, small quantity of liquid; 
soup, broth: bouillon 

•L»- ftofio' soup; broth | J-**J' »l«>- A. 
al-basal onion soup; *UUUJl #L*>- A. atf- 
tamdtim tomato soup; ,^-JUll »L*- h. al- 
r (tdas lentil soup; *J- #Lo- A. Za&m and 
ryJS\ ^ #Lo- consomme, bouillon 

( t5 -»-) *Lo-VI al-ahsd' Al Hasa (province and 
administrative district in E Arabia) 

^i*- faz&fa it (haSS) to mow, cut (> II to 
smoke hashish 

JjJl*. haSIS (coU.) pi. JSH^ haSd'iP 
herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Can- 
nabis sativa L. ; bot.) f hashish, cannabis; 
stillborn child | jUjaJI J^r-*- %» ad-dindr 

1&jJL» hasisa (n, un.) herb | i£jJL>. 
jbjJl hop (forf.) 

(jJLi*- haSS&S pi. -«n smoker or chewer 
of hashish, hashish addict 

^Sli*- hu&0$, <ili*- huSQSa last breath, 
last spark of life 

haHSi (eg.) sap-green, reseda- 


^i^- mihaSS, *-!L£ mihaSia pi. ^l* ma* 
/ioi^ 2 sickle, scythe; fire iron, poker 

ii^ mihas~§a pi. -ai (egr.) tool for 
weeding, weeder 

mah§a§ f JuU- tJ UL^ m.-kana hash- 

ish den 

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mahsasa pi. j£Al£ mahdsii 2 
hashish den 

*- hasada i u (ha&d) to gather, concentrate, 
mass (a esp. troops), call up, mobilize 
(a an army); to pile up, store up, accu- 
mulate {*, Jl at a place) II to amass, 
accumulate (a, mass, concentrate (<> 
esp. troops) V and VIII to rally, come to- 
gether, assemble, gather, crowd together, 
throng together; to be concentrated, be 
massed (troops) ; to fall into line (troops) 

jJl>- hasd pi. i^lfl- huSud assembling, 
rallying; gathering, assembly, crowd, 
throng; concentration, massing (esp. of 
troops; mil.); summoning up, mobiliza- 
tion (e.g., of all powers, means, possi- 

xL£ tahassud pi. -at concentration {of 

jLij*-l ihtisad pi. -at gathering, crowd; 
concentration (of troops) 

JUU- hits' id numerous (of an assembly), 
crowded (of a public demonstration) 

O SjlAU- hasida battery (el.) 

i>- ha Sara i u (hasr) to gather, assemble, 
rally (o people); to cram, crowd, pack, 
jam (together); to squeeze, press, force, 
stuff, tuck ((>j or J a into) | jt»- 


(nafsahu) to push one's 

way through the crowd 

jiX I pj yaum al-haSr the day of con- 
gregation (of the dead), the Day of Res- 

IjZ*- hasara pi. -at insect; pi. vermin, 
insect pests j cJyiJ-1 ]* 'Urn al-h. ento- 

iSj^>- hasari insectile, insectival, insect - 
(in compounds); entomologic(al) 

r t^- hairaja and II tahasraja to rattle in 
the throat 

haSraja rattling, rattle in the 


V to be dressed shabbily, dress slovenly 
iJlI*. kaSaf dates of inferior quality 
• haSafa glans (penis; anat.) 

ha£aka i (kaik) to cram, jam, squeeze, 
stuff (<j a into) 

p- haiama % (kaSm) to shame, put to shame 
(* s.o.) II and IV do. V and VIII to be 
ashamed to face s.o. (,y or ^); to be 
reticent, modest, shy, bashful, diffident 

~*~ haSam servants, retinue, entourage, 

i*JL»- hiSma shame, bash fulness, timid- 
ity, diffidence; modesty; decency, de- 

-Jt^- hasim pi. *\±»- huSama 2 modest, 
timid, bashful, shy, diffident 

^L^ mahaMm 2 pubes, genitals 

J&- tahasSum and *Ul»-l ihtiSdm 
shame, shyness, modesty, reticence, de- 
cency, decorum 

~X£- muhlasim shy, bashful; modest, 
reticent, decent, decorous 

J^~) U*» hasd u (has'w) to stuff, fill, dress 
(<_> a with; esp. fowl, etc.); to fill 
in (a; to load (a a firearm; a a with, e.g., a camera); to fill (a 
a tooth); to insert (a II to inter- 
polate (a; to insert {a; to 
provide (a with a margin; to hem 
(a a dress); to supply (a a book) with 
marginal notes or glosses III to except, 
exclude (,y » s.o. from) V to keep away, 
stand aloof, abstain (j* from), avoid, 
shun (^, beware {j* of), be on 
one's guard (^ against) VI to keep away, 
abstain {^e. or ^ from), beware (a or 
je- or j* of), avoid, shun (* or ^ or j* 

s^u&js jjV jl CJlq Jj&Jma jj 01^5^54 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


jt»- haSw that with which is 
stuffed or filled; dressing, stuffing (of 
fowl, etc.); filling (of teeth); insertion; 
O infix (gram.); parenthesis; inter- 

a^»- hahva pi. -at filling, stuffing 
(cushion, cookery, etc.); load (of a 
cartridge), charge (of a mine); panel, 
inlay, inserted piece (in paneling, in a door) 

Li*. haSan pi. »Li*-l ahSd" bowels, 
intestines; interior, inside; pi. »Ll>-l in- 
terior of the body; womb | *LU-1 j in 
the interior of, within, in 

■ haSan ■■ 


bLi>. haMya 

«L-i*- haSiya pi. -at, 
cushion, pillow; mattress 

UU, ^U kdSd (with genit., ace. or J) 
except, save | Zi ^U, Zi LiU God forbid! 
ul dJJ UU far be it from you that you . . . ; 
Jk ^iU, <iJU ^U {haSa) = -ai LiU, iU UU ; 
J*iJ ui ^U far be it that you do it, 
(but with pers. suffix in connection with 
1st pers. of the verb) J*»l jl <jUU (kaSa- 
ya) far be it that I do it 

l-iJ- tahsiya insertion; interpolation 

S-iU hdstya pi. J^\j»- haxvasin border; 
seam, hem; edge; margin {of a book); 
marginal gloss; marginal notes; com- 
mentary on certain words and passages 
of a book, supercommentary; footnote; 
postscript; retinue, entourage, suite, 
servants; dependents; pi. J^]^- critical 
apparatus | S^iUl jJj and ^[^\ JJj 
nice, polite, courteous, gracious, amiable, 
kindly, friendly; JLiUI *5j riqqat al-h. 
niceness, amiability, graciousness 

jJL£ mahSuw filled, dressed; stuffed; 
loaded (firearm); pi. c>\jt£- mahMwat 
filled, or stuffed, dishes 

□ && makSiy (colloq. mah&i) filled, 
stuffed (food) ; stuffed meal, a dish filled 

with rice, chopped meat, etc.; ZJ^- mak* 
Mya pi. -at (eg.) candy with a filling 

»*- hassa u to fall as a share (» to s.o.) 
Ill to share (* a with s.o.) IV to 
allot s.o. (a) his share 

,j^>- huss saffron 

a^cl>- hissa pi. ^a^- hisas share, portion, 
allotment; share (fin.); contingent, quota; 
span of time; lesson, class period j X^>~ 
f\ J' <j b' f* r-rabh dividend (fin.); Q 4^a>- 
^^-cji founders' share; O ja^-I >>UL> 
quota system, apportionment; 4^>- j 
*y*rj m a short time 

tahsis quota system, apportion- 


i*»lrf. muhassa allotment; sharing (with 
s.o.), partaking, participation 

oULa*- see 


-**»- hasaba i u to cover or i strew with 
pebbles or gravel (a ground); to macad- 
amize (a ground), metal (a a road); 
• — hasiba a and pass, husiba to have the 
measles II to cover or strew with pebbles 
or gravel (a ground); to macadamize 
(a ground), metal (a a road) 

i r -*w- hasab road metal, crushed rock, 

*Lm**- hasbd' 2 (coll.) pebbles; gravel 

4-^**- Araa&a measles (merf.) 

<Lm*U hasiba storm, hurricane 

u>*^2*- hashasa to be or become clear, plain, 
manifest; to come to light (truth) 

da i u (hasd, ;U> hqsad, hisdd) to 
harvest, reap (a; to mow (a 
IV, VIII and X to be ripe 

-L^w- hasd and jUa>- hisdd harvesting, 
reaping, harvest; ->L^>- harvest time 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlo Jj&Jma jj OU-3-O3-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° 'CHi- cr* 4 ' J^f'j^i cP^ ^Svpwo 


■ hasid, SJL^aa- hasida pi. -tfUi>- 7w* 
sd'id 3 crop, harvest yield | .U^o^-j r'S 
everything without exception 

iUa*- hassad reaper; harvester 

j^aA mihsad pi. -U»U- mahdsid 2 sickle 

O Si La*- hassada and O »-U^ mi/** 
satfa mowing machine, mower | O <oL*^>- 
i-1ji (darrdsa) combine 

•U* U- Adsid reaper 

O S-JU»U- hasida mowing machine, 

^ut mahsud harvested, reaped, mown 
ju«£ muhsid and x^»*z-~* musiahsid ripe 

,**- hasara i u (ha$r) to surround, encircle, 
encompass, ring (a; to enclose 
(a; to parenthesize (a a word); 
to blockade (a, » s.o.,; to besiege, 
beleaguer (a, » s.o.,,); to detain, 
deter, restrain, contain, hold back (o s.o.) ; 
to limit, restrict ( j # or u to) ; to 
condense, reduce in scope (a; to 
narrow down, confine (j a to, also 
a suspicion to s.o.); to bring together, 
compile, arrange (,3 a under a 
rubric) ; to enter (J * in a list) ; to 
put together, set up, list, enumerate 
(a; to comprise, contain, include, 
involve (a; — hasira a (hasar) to 
be in a fix, be in a dilemma III to en- 
circle, envelop, enclose (* s.o., esp. ene- 
mies); to beleaguer, besiege (a a place); 
to blockade, cut off from supplies (a, 
s.o.,; to press hard, corner (* s.o.), 
put the screws (* on s.o.) VII to be strait- 
ened, confined, narrowed in ; to be or be- 
come restricted, limited (Jp or J to); 
to limit o.s. (J* or J to); to be con- 
densed (J to), be concentrated (J in); 
to be or become united (e.g., «uSo- c^- 
under s.o.'s rule); to be reducible (<j to), 
be expressible (J in terms of), consist (j 

j&- hasr encirclement, encompass- 
ment, enclosure, corralling; parenthesiz- 
ing; blocking, blockading, beleaguering, 
siege; detention, determent; restraint, 
retention, containment, check; limita- 
tion, restriction, confinement; narrowing; 
gathering, collecting (of scattered), 
compilation; enumeration, listing, count- 
ing, computing; inventory, stock-taking 
(e.g., of goods, money, libraries); centrali- 
zation, concentration; (tobacco) mono- 
poly I j*ok L strictly speaking ; J~u- Jt 
j^\ exhaustively; iij-^ y-**- £• ai ' 
lamivin rationing; j^.^ V^ 'alamatal-li. 
parentheses, brackets (typ.) ; £*£> J>-Aj V 
j*a±-\ (yadkidu) or <J j**- ^ (hasra) 
boundless, infinite, immeasurable, innu- 
merable; j^X\ 3j&i yafuqu l-husra do.; 
O s*^-\ »JW-' ijazat al-h. patent on an 
invention; fJLixJIj id! j**»- *jlil idarat A. 
at-tibg wa-t-tumbak Government Tobacco 
Monopoly (Syr.) 

_ / ^a»- husr retention (of urine) ; consti- 

jju- hasar dyslogia, inability to express 
o.s. effectively 

hasir pi. j*a*- husur mat 

Ij^a*. hasira pi. J\*a»- has&ir 2 mat 

jU«**- hassdr pi. -un mat weaver 

jLa>- hisar encirclement; blockade; 
siege J ^iUaiSl jL«- economic blockade 

%j**[£- muhasara encirclement; block- 
ade; siege 

j Lasi I inhisdr restrictedness, limitation, 
confinement; (tobacco) monopoly; O ob- 
session (by an idea; psych.) 

jyA^ mahsur blocked, blockaded; 
beleaguered, besieged; limited, restricted, 
confined ( J to) ; narrow ; narrowly circum- 

^cSja jj^ j I £Jm JbOJuLo jj OU^o^a $yti>A$ P5^Lo <jJj-o cr *> j-oljj^ Jj^£ kS^jh 



{j~**~ hisrim (coll.; n. un. «) unripe and sour 
grapes {syr.) 

.Jj-^u*. hasufa u (a* La*- hasafa) to have sound 
judgment, be judicious, discriminating 

,Jua»- /«m/ endowed with sound judg- 
ment, judicious, discriminating 

*J*y#+- /itm/ endowed with sound 
judgment, judicious, discriminating; down- 
to-earth ; (pi. *\Jl^o9- husafa 2 ) realist 

4JU*>- hasafa sound judgment, judi- 

J™<**- ha$ala u (Jj.-a>- husul) to set in; to be 
there, be existent, extant; to arise, come 
about; to result, come out; to happen, 
occur, transpire, come to pass, take 
place; to happen, occuj* (J to s.o.), come 
(J upon s.o.), befall, overtake (J s.o.); to 
originate, emanate, derive, stem (^ from), 
be caused, be produced ( j* by) ; to attain, 
obtain, get, receive, achieve (J*, 
win (J* &.th., e.g., a prize); to come into 
possession (J* of; to collect, re- 
cover (Jp a debt), call in (Jp funds); to 
receive, take in (Jp II to cause (a) to happen or set in; to attain, 
obtain (a, Jp; to acquire (a, Jc, also knowledge); to infer, deduce 
(a; to collect (a a fee, fare, etc.), 
levy (a taxes, fees, etc.), call in (a money) ; 
to summarize, sum up (a V to 
result (^ from), come out (sum); to be 
obtained, be attained; to be raised, be 
levied, be required, be demanded; to be 
taken in, come in (fees, taxes, funds); 
to be collected (taxes); to procure for 
o.s., get (Jp; to attain, receive, 
obtain (Jp; to acquire (Jp; 
to collect (J* fees) X to procure for o.s., 
get (Jp; to attain, receive, obtain 
(Jp; to acquire (Jp; to levy, 
collect (a money, fees) 

J^oj- husul setting in, occurrence, in- 
cidence, happening (of an event or pro- 

cess); obtainment, attainment (Jp of; achievement (Jp of; acqui- 
sition ( Jp of 

haslla pi. JjUw- kasa'il* result; 
yield; winnings; amount collected, pro- 
ceeds, returns; revenue, receipts 

J-«y-, ~&^»y>- and ^Laj^*- look up alpha- 

SJUw- hassdla pi. -at collection box, 
alms box; money box; cashbox 

J~*£ mahsal result, outcome, upshot, 

J^-a^ tahsil pi, -at attainment, obtain- 
ment, gain; acquisition (also of knowl- 
edge); learning, studying, scientific stud- 
ies; collection, raising, levy(ing), call- 
ing in (of funds, taxes) ; income, revenue, 
receipts, returns, proceeds; resume", sum- 
mary, gist (of a speech or opinion) | J ; ^a^ 
Jms'JJ tautology 

£■ tahsilgi (eg.) = J-a£. muhassil 

J~*U- pi, J**j>»- haimsil 2 setting in, 
occurring, taking place, happening; re- 
sult, outcome, sum, total, product (also 
math.); revenues, receipts, proceeds, 
gain; income, returns; crop, harvest; 
warehouse, storehouse, granary, depot, 
magazine; main content, purport, gist, 
essence, substance (of a speech); — (pi. 
-un) holder (Jp of, e.g., a certificate); 
J^J-I briefly, in short; pi. otit^U- pro- 
duet^), yield, produce, production (econ.) 

J^£ mahsul pi. -at, J~**l^ mahdsil 2 
result, outcome, issue; yield, gain; 
product, produce; crop, harvest; pro- 

J-*£ muha§$il collector; tax collector; 
cashier; (bus, streetcar) conductor 

«uip J~-2^ muhassal "alaihi received, 
attained, acquired 

ss*C&*a jjy j) Cuio Jj&Jma jj Olc-3-03-0 ^jAi-03 P.5^° < (IHJ- cr* O^JiS d^^ &S*s*js> 



J-^t>^u mutdhassil yield, revenue, pro- 
ceeds, receipts, returns (j- from) 

j^a*- hasuna u (4JU«- hasdna) to be inac- 
cessible, be well fortified; to be chaste 
(woman) II to make inaccessible (a; 
to strengthen (a ; to fortify, entrench 
(a; to immunize, make proof (.u* 
didda against) IV to make inaccessible 
(a}; to fortify, entrench (a; 
to be chaste, pure (woman); to remain 
chaste, be of unblemished reputation 
(woman) V to strengthen one's position, 
protect o.s.; to be fortified; to be secure, 
be protected 

^a*- hisn pi. dj^u- husun fortress, fort, 
castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, 
entrenchment; protection | J\l* ^a^- Fly- 
ing Fortress 

jLea- hisan pi. j^-s^- husun, Si-m**. I ahsina 
horse; stallion | j>^\ OLa*- h. al-bahr 
hippopotamus; ^jU 1 . <l)La>- (bukdri) iron 
horse; jUw- ly quwwat A., or oUa*- 
alone, horse power 

,>-»- Aasin inaccessible, strong, forti- 
fied, firm, secure(d), protected; immune, 
proof, invulnerable (Ju^ didda against) | 
(jwJ-l j~*i-l {hisn) stronghold (fig.; e.g., 
of radicalism) 

^aX-\ y\ abu l-husain fox 

*jLa>- hasdna strength, ruggedness, 
forbiddingness, impregnability, inaccessi- 
bility; shelteredness, chastity (of a 
woman); invulnerability, inviolability; 
immunity (of deputies, diplomats ; against 

^Jt- tahsln pi. -at fortification, en- 
trenchment; strengthening, cementing, 
solidification; immunization 

OL^WT^cmblamelessncss, unblemished 
reputation, integrity (Isl. Law); chastity 

^a^- tahassun securing, safeguarding, 
protection, protectedness 

f ya^- muliassan fortified; entrenched; 
immune, proof (ju^ didda against) 

ii^i muhsina, mulisana sheltered, 
well-protected, chaste; of unblemished 
reputation (woman; Isl. Law) 

*J~**-, (Jj~**~ 

see under 


^**~ IV to count, enumerate (a; to 
calculate, compute (a ^ from); to 
debit, charge (J* a to s.o.'s ac- 
count), hold (a Jp against s.o.) | V 
^o^- [yuhsd) innumerable 

lS ^>- hasan (coll.) pebbles, little stones 

2 Lop- kasdky ej~a»- haswa pi. hasawdt, 
oLs?- hasay&t little stone, pebble; cal- 
culus, stone {med.) | SJ^j »La>- {baldly a) 
cystic calculus; hj\ji^> »La»- {safra* 
wiya) gallstone, biliary calculus 

jLJ tj^az- hasd lubdn, jUUa»- rosemary 

ijj-a*- hasawi stony, pebbly, gravelly 

»La*-l ihsd? pi. ~dt count, counting; 
enumeration; calculation, computation; 
statistics | olSs — il *La^l i. as-sukkdn census 

t$La*J ihsd'l statistic(al) ; (pi. -uri) 

4JUa*-1 ihsd'iya pi. -at statistics 

^Ji*. hadda u (hadd) and II to spur on, incite 
{t> s.o., Jp to), goad, prod (* s.o., Jp to 

J*>- hadd incitement, inducement, 
prodding, prompting, instigation 

A r M^- hadid pi. ^jkjv- hudud, Zj^\ 
ahidda foot of a mountain; lowland; 
ground; bottom; lowest point; perigee 
{astron.); depth; state of decay | Jl J> 
jj^vii-1 to sink low (fig.); ^^ii-l Jl aSj 
(dakkahu) to ruin completely, run, into the ground 

j~Ju- hadara u {jjju-hudur) to be present (a 
at), be in the presence (o of s.o.); to 

ss*C&*a jjy jl Cuio Jj&Jma jj OU-5-O3-0 ^jAi-03 P.5^° * J^j- cr* 4 ' J^'j"^ cP^S ^Sssta 


attend (a; to be present (a in s.o.'s 
mind), be readily recalled (* by s.o.); to 
take part, participate (ULf majlisan 
in a meeting); to come, get (Jf or a, « 
to s.o., to a place), arrive (Jl or * at a 
place); to visit (a a place), attend (a a 
public event), go (a to a performance, 
etc.); to appear (^Ll before a judge, etc., 
Jf in, at), show up (Jl in, at); to betake 
o.s., go ( Jf j* from ... to) ; — (SjUi*- hadd- 
ra) to be settled, sedentary (in a civilized 
region, as opposed to nomadic existence) 
II to ready, make ready, prepare (a, also, e.g., a medicine = to com- 
pound), make, produce, manufacture 
(a; to study, prepare (a a lesson); 
to fetch, get, bring (* s.o., a, 
procure, supply (a; to settle (o 
s.o.), make s.o. (o) sedentary; to civilize 
{a s.o., a Ill to give a lecture, 
present in a lecture (» to s.o.); to 
lecture, give a course of lectures IV to 
fetch, get, bring (a, « s.o.,, procure, 
supply (a; to take (» s.o., a, 
J! to a place) | <*** v*""' to have 
with one, bring along V to prepare 
o.s., ready o.s., get ready (J for); to 
be ready, prepared; to become settled, 
be sedentary in a civilized region; to be 
civilized, be in a state of civilization ; to 
become urbanized, become a town 
dweller VIII to come (e to s.o.), be in the 
presence (» of s.o.); to live in a civilized 
region; pass, uhtudira to die X to have (a) brought, to call, send (a, o for 
s.o., for, have s.o. (*) come; to 
summon (o s.o.); to fetch, procure, 
supply, get, bring (a; to conjure, 
call up, evoke (a a spirit); to visualize, 
envision, call to mind (a; to carry 
with o.s., bring along {a; to pre- 
pare (a, e.g., a medicinal preparation) 

jjt*- hadar a civilized region with towns 
and villages and a settled population 
(as opposed to desert, steppe); settled 

population, town dwellers (as opposed to 

ijjJv- hadari settled, sedentary, res- 
ident, not nomadic, non- Bedouin, like 
urbanites; civilized; urban; town dweller 

0jJu>- kadra presence j t^J**- j in the 
presence of . . .; LUI S^i-' ( f aliya) His 
Highness (formerly, title of the Bey of 
Tunis); fjj<M>" a- respectful form of ad- 
drc3s, esp. in letters; j^Soil IjJu* cf. 
Fr. Monsieur le docteur 

jjji>- hudur presence; visit, partici- 
pation, attendance; (as one pi. of ^L-) 
those present [ ojjJi^ in his presence; 
UirL I jj^>- h. al-hajla attendance of the 
celebration ; ^AJl j jj&- h. ad-dihn presence 
of mind; jj~a*- *:jj waraqath. summons 
{jur t ); jyLJl jjJu- those present in the 
salon; ^fiil jj~&>- A. al-maqhd the cus- 
tomers present in the cafd 

sjjjji.>- hudurl: hjjju* (►!£>- 1 (ahkam) 
judgments delivered in the ^presence of 
the litigant parties after oral proceedings 
(jut,); \jjjJi>- huduriyan contradictorily 


ajLi*- hadara pi. -at civilization; cul- 
ture ; — settledness, sedentariness 

^jL*»- hadari civilizational ; cultural 

lj\Ju^ hadira pi. J\^>- hada'ir 2 a small 
group of 6 to 12 people (specif., the 
smallest unit of boy scouts — patrol); 
section (mil.) 

..Jl£ mahdar presence ; attendance, com- 
ing, appearance (of s.o.); assembly, meet- 
ing, gathering, convention; (pi. jJ>\£- ma* 
hadir 2 ) minutes, official report, proces- 
verbal, record of the factual findings | 
,5,-U jJz£~ in. al-jard inventory list ; j*e.>*£, 
<Cw. bi-mahdarin minim in s.o.'s presence 

j-*jt£ tahdir preparing, readying, making 
ready; (pi. -at) preparation (J for; also 
e.g., for an examination); making, prepa- 

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ration, cooking (of food, etc.), production, 
manufacture; {Magr.) dressing, finish, 
sizing (of textiles) 

&***£ iatidlrl preparatory, prepara- 
tive | Ji-JLJ hj^as^i\ ^;Ia1I {muallimm) 
preparatory institutes for teachers, teach- 
ers* colleges {Eg.) 

ljj»\£. muhadara pi. -at lecture 

jUa»-l ihdar procurement, supply, fetch- 
ing, bringing 

jjjt- tahaddur civilized way of life 

jLi^-l ihtidar demise, death 

jLL^lJ istihddr making, production, 
manufacture; preparation; summoning | 
r\jj^\ jUis^s-l isti}jddr al-arwah evoca- 
tion of spirits, spiritism 

^iU hddir pi. jj*- huddor, j^J^ 
hudur present; attending; ^LU the 
present (time); prepared (J for); ready; 
(pi. jLa»- hudddr, «jJu- hadara) settled, 
sedentary, resident, village or town 
dweller, not nomadic | j-^U-l j or cJj\ j 
^LU at present, now; JsJd\ jJ>\=- h. 
al-fikr quick-witted, quick at repartee; 
y-*U- -JL4J (naqd) cash, ready money; 
^iU-Lj in cash, for cash; S^iLaJl 4-iuy ^ 
S-*U- ocfda /. as-saldti hadiratan to per- 
form the prescribed prayer promptly and 
on time (within the stipulated interval) 

S^U- hddira pi. ^l^- hawddir 2 capi- 
tal city, metropolis; city (as a center 
of civilization) 

jjJisZ mahdur possessed, haunted or 
inhabited by a jinni; demoniac 

jja£~ muhaddtr maker, producer, manu - 
facturer; dissector (med.) 

jji£- mvhaddar ready, at hand 

jjt\£. mnhadir lecturer, speaker; (Jr.) 
university lecturer; (Eg.) reader (at a 

jJl£- muhdir court usher 
, mutahaddir civilized 

muhtadar dying, in the throes 
of death, on the brink of death; a dying 
person; haunted or inhabited by a jinni; 

jji^c—* mustahdar pi. -at preparation 
(chem., pharm.) \ <j\j$ jJu»z~*a (dawa'i) 
medicinal preparation 

>V*»- hadramaut 2 Hadhramaut 

kJ x ^>- hadrami pi. f jU*>- hadarim 2 man 
from Hadhramaut ; Hadhramautian (adj.) 

hadana u (hadn, *JLi>- hidana) to clasp 
in one's arms, embrace, hug (» s.o.); 
to nurse, bring up, raise (o a child); 
{hadn, j'-^»- hiddn, ajLa>- hidana, 
bjJ*>- hudun) to hatch, brood, incubate 
(a an egg; of a bird) VI to embrace one 
another, cling to one another, nestle 
against each other VIII to clasp in one's 
arms, embrace, hug (a, * s.o.,; to 
hold or carry in one's arms (a an object); 
to harbor in one's bosom (a feeling); to 
hatch, concoct, contrive (a; to bring 
up, raise (o a child); to include, enclose, 
encompass (a; loan translation of 
Engl, to embrace, Fr. embrasser) 

jja*- hidn pi. <L>La*-i ahddn breast, bosom 
(between the outstretched arms); armful, 
that which can be carried in one's arms | 
jp^i-L) dJLi (qabilahu) he received him with 
open arms; <L>Ui*-l Cfti anc * <^^"' J amid, 
among; with, in the presence of (s.o.); 
t\j^s}\ oLa»-l J (sahra) in the heart 
(or folds) of the desert; L$JL^-1 {ju jX>-\ 
she took me in her arms 

Z\«Jl>. hidana, hadana raising, bringing 
up, nursing (of a child); hatching (of 
an egg), incubation | iiUii-1 jta children's 
home, day nursery, creche 

^Jt^ hadin embraced, hugged, resting 
in s.o.'s arms 

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<— *la>- 

^Jt£- mahdan pi. ^l£ mahadin 2 
children's home, day nursery, creche 

jL*£»l ihtiddn embrace, hug(ging), 

aIs^Ip- hddina pi. J-^[p- hawadin 2 nurse- 
maid, dry nurse 

&*£&■ muhtadin embracing, hugging; 
tender, affectionate 

)e*- hatta u {halt) to put, place, put down, 
set down (a; to take down (a a 
load, burden); to lower, decrease, di- 
minish, reduce (a or ,y; to de- 
preciate (ajii j* min qadrikl or <cuJ j* min 
qimatihi the value of | JU-JI J«- 
(nTwzZa) to halt, make a stop, dismount, 
encamp (while traveling on horseback, 
camelback, etc.) ; — u (hatt, \?J&>- hutut) 
to sink, descend, go down; to alight 
(bird); to land (airplane); to drop (price) 
II to put down, set down, take off, un- 
load (a a load) VII to sink, descend, go 
down; to decrease, diminish; to decline, 
decay, wane VII 1 to put down, set down, 
take down (a 

U4»- halt (act of) putting or setting down; 
depreciation, belittling, derogation, dis- 
paragement (tj* of; reduction, 
diminution, decrease (<y of 

JU- hitla alleviation, relief, mitigation; 
abasement, debasement, demotion, deg- 
radation (in rank, dignity, prestige) ; 
humiliation, insult, indignity 

iu-l aJmtt 2 lower; meaner, viler, more 

l\sAt>~ hatlta price reduction 

U£ mahatt place at which is 
put down or deposited; stopping place, 
stop; pause, fermata, hold, concluding 
strain, cadence (mus.) | JU*V1 J^-i object 
of hope, that on which one's hopes are 
pinned; jUij^l J«* jtf to attract the 
glances, draw attention to o.s, ; f^Jl J^£ 

w. al-Icaldm sense, or meaning, of one's 

AJaii mahatta pi. -at stopping place, 
stop (also of public conveyances); station, 
post; railroad station; broadcasting sta- 
tion, radio station | jL-Ji Jj^ ^^ 
iv. iahwll at4ayydr transformer station; 
(iJsl^Jl) itiJVl <la5t m. al-idaa (al-ld- 
silkiya) broadcasting station, radio sta- 
tion; transmitter (station); v-jjj ^^ 
(ra'isiya) (railroad) main station; iLri 
oijUVl signal post; JU^ 4l*£- 
m . irsdl broadcasting station (radio, TV) ; 
<j^U iUy^J *ia£ (li-l-ar§dd al-jawwlya) 
meteorological station, weather station; 
i_*j^\ ^ia^ m. as-sarf {Eg.) pump station 
(for drainage); power, plant; JUa^-^! ">&*£■ 
receiving station (radio); IL&L-V ~Aa£- 
r-i^.V' vwaS (Id-silklya qaslrat al-amwdj) 
short- wave transmitter station; AJy V&£- 
• Li^^SOl m, taulld al-kahraba and ik^ 
^Jl^T power plant; ^ijl "4a£- (ardiya) 
ground station; <t>j£ '<&*£■ research sta- 
tion; *-»jb£ <ks£ m. tajdrib experimental 
station; *J> "Aa£- m. dakk pump station 
(oil industry); *L*i ik£ m. fada space 
station; ±j»j "^aA to. waqud and j>y> &£• 
m. banzln gas(oline) station 

JelLt^l inhttdt decline, fall, decay, de- 
cadence; inferiority | 1*11*^ VI ^L^l 
ihsds al-inh, sense of inferiority 

^Iksd inhitati postclassical writer 

\z>*L» munhatt low, base, low-level, low- 
grade; fallen, degraded (woman); mean, 
vile, vulgar; inferior 

^- hat aba i to gather firewood 
<u_*- ^ (ft hablihi) to support s.o., stand 
by s.o., back s.o. wp VIII to gather 

i_A&- hatab pi. .-jILs-I ahtab firewood 

i_jliw- hattdb wood gatherer; wood- 
cutter, lumberjack; vendor of firewood 

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tahtib singlestick fencing (a 
popular game, esp. in rural areas; eg.) 

^J*U- hatih wood gatherer ; woodcutter, 
lumberjack; vendor of firewood | ^J&& 
JJ ka-hdtibi lailin lit.: like one who 
gathers wood at night, i.e., blindly, at 
random, heedlessly (said of s.o. who does 
not realize, or think about, what he is 

*W haiama i (hatm) and II to shatter, 
smash, wreck, demolish (a II to 
split (a atoms) ; to break (a a record, s.o.'s 
pride); to dispel (a discord), break down 
(a enmity) V to break, go to pieces; to 
be broken (also of a record; sports), 
be smashed, be shattered; to crash (e.g., 
airplane, structure, etc.); to be wrecked 
(ship) VII - V 

<Ja*- hipma pi. *Iw- hitam particle, 
small piece, shred, bit, morsel; 

/»LL>- hutam debris, rubble; fragments, 
shards, broken pieces; wreckage, wreck 
(of a ship or plane), crashed airplane; 
ruins, demolished site, shambles; razed 
house (by explosives, etc.) J LJ-tfl j»lk>- h. 
ad-dunya the ephemeral things of this 
world, the vanities of the world 

Jap- hatlm smashed, shattered, wrecked 

Ja^ tahtlm smashing, shattering, 
wrecking, breaking, demolition, destruc- 
tion, disruption j Q xJi-l d*£ <c- r a* J 
icebreaker (naut.); SjJUl Ja^ U ad-darra 
nuclear fission (phys.) 

A*4- tahattum crumbling, disintegra- 
tion; crash (of an airplane); collapse, 

I»i»U- hdtima: Q oJLL I iLLU- icebreaker 

Ja^ muhattim crashing, thundering, 
roaring (of an explosion, etc.) ; — muhai- 
tam broken (language) 

<Ja^t muhattima: <L*»Jj ^Ja£ (taljlya) 
icebreaker (naut.) 

]k=- hazza a (hazz) to be lucky, fortunate 
IV = I 

lb- hazz pi. i^Ib- huzuz part, portion, 
share, allotment; lot, fate, destiny; good 
luck, good fortune; affluence, wealth, 
fortune; prosperity; pleasure | j^ Jb- ji 
endowed with; JlU l yJ~ li-husni l-h. 

and iii-1 

fortunately, luckily; 

lb-i +y* su* al-h. bad luck, misfortune; 
lb- 1 *^ sayyi' al-h. unlucky, unfortu- 
nate; JbU *yJ unfortunately; j-*- y 
jjb- luckily for me, fortunately; ^ j£* 
u I <db- f j^j>- he was lucky in that he ... ; 
lib- If* J-* 3 -' o~^ ne * s no better off than 
she is; ]p ^y 4J Jb- V (hazza, f ilm) he 
has absolutely no knowledge; lb- L$J ^ 
Jjie j* C^gO she has no brains at all 

Jblb- haziz lucky, fortunate 

i^orf- mahzuz lucky, fortunate; con- 
tent (ed), happy, glad 

l>- hazara u (hazr) to fence in, hedge in 
(a; to forbid (a J* to s.o., 
prohibit (a J* s.o. from doing 

jib- hazr forbiddance, interdiction, pro- 
hibition, ban; embargo | J^xJI J^- h. 
at-tajawwul barring of traffic, traffic ban 

j Lib- hizdr>hazar wall, partition, screen; 
fence, palisade, railing 

sj^lb- hazlra pi. J" lib- hazair z enclo- 
sure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; 
compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, 
pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, 
domain, realm (fig.) | v^ib- j (with foil, 
genit.) inside of, within; .o^lb- J I <u-U- 
(jadabalm) to bring s.o. under one's in- 
fluence; *u>-U-j <L4b- (zujdjiya) show 
case; OJjL- lj&>- h. sayydrdt (saud.-ar.) 
car garage; £j\JVlA\ j-'llb- aircraft han- 
gars ; ^jUJI S^Jb- h. al-quds Paradise 

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j&£- tahzir ban, prohibition, inter- 

jj*£> mahzur interdicted, prohibited, 
forbidden (J* to s.o.); embargoed; pi. 
£j\jjb£ forbidden things, restrictions 

{J&>- and Ji»-) Ji*. haziya a [*J*>» huzwa, 
hizwa) to enjoy the favor or good graces 
of s.o. (-Lp), be in s.o.'s (-Lp) favor or 
good graces; to acquire, obtain, attain, 
gain, win [^ 

lj&>- huzwa, hizwa favored position, 
role of favorite ; precedence ; favor, grace ; 
good will, benevolence; prestige, credit, 
standing, respect, esteem | .Up lje&- Jt> 
(^jJ) to find favor with s.o. 

J»- haziy enjoying (ui s.o.'s atten- 
tion or interest), favored (^ by 

yb- haziya pi. UU**- hazdya paramour, 
mistress, concubine 

^t£- mahziy pi. -un favorite, darling; 
favored (by s.o.) | o& Ja£ (bi-tiqatihl) 
enjoying s.o.'s confidence 

LU^ mahzlya pi. -d£ paramour, mis- 
tress, concubine 

(_i>- haffa u {haff) to surround (<_-» a, » s.o., with, also ^ and Jj>- s.o.,, 
enclose, encompass, border (t_->, a; 
to line on both sides (a e.g., a street); to 
depilate (a a part of the body), unhair 
(a the skin); to trim, clip (* the beard); 
to chafe, rub off, abrade (a; to 
wipe (4jJj yadaihi one's hands, «-> on | Jj-aJ1 *i 0& he is the object of 
admiring glances, he is the center of 
attention, all eyes are upon him; <j <Ja4 
y*]l JJLi (tiba) he is obviously a good 
person ; — i (»Jui»- hafif) to rustle II and 
VIII to surround (J>*-, v> a, » s.o.,, 
enclose, encompass, border (J^-, v» * 

«J»li>- /ii/d/ pi. 5i»-l ahiffa border, side; 
O sidewalk 

^Juis- hajlf rustle, rustling 

<a£ mihaffa (also mahaffa) pi. -df litter, 
stretcher; roller stretcher; sedan 

J»U- &dj(f: JsU- >^ (M>3) plain bread 
(without anything to go with it) ; see also 

4»U haffa pi. -d£, J>\y~ hawaff 2 border, 
fringe, hem, edge ; rim (of a plate, etc.) ; 
brim (of a hat); bank (of a river), shore; 
see also hdfa (under J>j>~) 

Jsjist mahfuf: ^UJL J»ji^ (makafir) 
surrounded by dangers 

JUi>- hafld pi. aLU-I a^/di, S-uU- hafada 
grandson; descendant, offspring, scion 

SJLis- haflda granddaughter 

^ hafara % {hafr) to dig (a; to drill 
(for oil); to excavate (archeol.); to carve 
(a; to engrave, etch (a metal) | 
Jbbi. jA>- to dig trenches; Sji*- ^^ {^w/* 
ratan) to prepare a pitfall, prepare an 
ambush VII pass, of I; VIII to dig 

jA*- hafr digging, earthwork, excava- 
tion (also archeol.); unearthing; drilling 
(for oil); carving, inscribing (e.g., of 
letters); engraving, etching; graphic 
arts (etching, wood engraving); scurvy 
{syr.) | jj3~\ jl|>- jahdz al-h. oil rig; oil 

lj&*- Jiufra pi. jJu- hufar pit; hollow, 
cavity, excavation; hole 

(SjA*- hafri excavation (in compounds) ; 
drilling (in compounds); graphic (art) | 
hy*- Jl>l graphics; \j&>- CjUL^ ( r ama* 
liyat) excavations ; drilling operations 

*ijj^ hafrlya digging, excavation; 
O gravure; pi. Cj\jjA*~ excavations 
(archeoL) ; archaeological finds | ^ 

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oljjii-l e ilm al-h. archaeology; paleon- 
tology; objjlU oLJLp excavators 

jU*- haffar pi. -««. digger; excavation 
laborer (arcAeo/.); engraver; graphic 
artist; driller; drill crew member (oil 
industry); stone mason | jj^ jU>- 

»jtU- haffara pi. -at drilling rig, drill 
tower (for oil production); drilling ma- 
chine; ditching machine; tractor 

j^i» haflr dug, dug out, excavated, 

«>■ hafira pi. j\k*- haf&'ir* 
excavated or unearthed; pi. excavations 

jji*-1 uhfur pi. ^iU-1 ahjtfir 2 ex- 
cavated; fossil; pi. excavations (archeoL) | 
j\iU-VI jp r ilm al-a. paleontology 

jk£. mihfar pi. ^U- maMfir 2 spade 
_^iU- hafir pi. yj^- hawdfir 2 hoof | ( *5j 

yLU J* ^U-l to coincide, happen to 
correspond exactly; yU-i Jp on the 
spot, right away, at once 

(j^iU- hafirl ungular, ungulate 

yU- fyqfira original condition, be- 
ginning | SyUJ -Up on the spot, right 
away, at once; aj^U- Ji a>-j to revert 
to its original state or origin 

jy& mahfur dug; inscribed, engraved; 

carved; pi. cAjjte- graphics (woodcuts, 

*- hafaza i {hafz) to pierce, stab (& s.o., ^ 
with the spear) ; to incite, instigate, urge, 
prompt, induce (J* or Jl * s.o. to 
V to prepare o.s., get ready, be ready, 
be about to do (J or Jl), set out to do (J or Jf); to get ready to jump, 
make a running start; to listen, pay 
attention VIII to be about to do, 
be ready (J for) 

^jJ- tahajfuz preparedness, readiness; 
vim, dash, verve, sweep, &an 

j»U- hdfiz pi. j$\j»- hatvdfiz 2 spur, drive 
(Jp to do, incentive (Jp to); initia- 
tive; stimulus, motive 

jk>*z+ mutahafflz ready, prepared (J for) 

»*- hajiza a (hifz) to preserve (a; to 
protect, guard, defend (• s.o.); to observe, 
bear in mind (a, comply (a with, be mindful, be heedful (a of; 
to keep up, maintain, sustain, retain, 
uphold (a; to hold, have in safe- 
keeping (a, take care (a of; 
to keep, put away, save, store (a ); 
to conserve, preserve (a; to retain 
in one's memory, remember, know by 
heart (a; to memorize, learn by 
heart, commit to memory (a, esp. 
the Koran); to reserve (a 4-jU for 
o.s.; to stay, discontinue, suspend 
(jJL^zJI a judicial investigation; jur.) \ 
*ii I 4ki*- may God protect him! -u ^JL Jii>- 
to hold in care of general delivery 
(a; ik-jJl j ]kJ&- (yuhfazu) in 
care of general delivery, poste restante ; 
*xJS"]aJ^- (kalimataku) to keep one's word ; 
J #iyi lau>. (wafaa) to be loyal to s.o., 
keep faith with s.o. II to have s.o. ■(») 
memorize (a Ill to preserve, keep 
up, maintain, uphold, sustain (J*; 
to supervise, control (J*, watch 
(Jp over; to watch out (Jp for), 
take care, be heedful, be mindful ( Jp of), 
look (Jp after), attend, pay attention 
(Jp to); to keep, follow, observe, bear in 
mind (Jp, comply (Jp with), 
conform (Jp to); to protect, guard, 
defend (a and Jp, also ^ IV to 
vex, annoy, gall, irritate, hurt, offend 
(» s.o.) V to keep up, maintain, preserve 
(l-j; to observe, keep in mind 
(^, be mindful, be heedful, take 
care (^ of, be concerned (t-j with); 
to be cautious, be wary, be on one's 

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guard; to be reserved, aloof; to have 
reservations; to impound, take into 
custody, seize {J*; of the police); 
to arrest, take into custody (J* s.o., e.g., 
a murder suspect) VIII to maintain, up- 
hold (^> or *, e.g., uyi*> one's rights); 
to keep up, maintain, retain ((_> or *, e.g., a posture, a characteristic); 
to take care, take over custody (^ of 
s.o.), protect, guard (<_j s.o.); to defend 
(against encroachment), hold, maintain 
(cj a possession); to preserve, sustain, 
continue, keep up {«_;; to hold, 
possess (<~>; to put away, hold, 
have in safekeeping (i_j, take care 
(^ of; to keep, retain (<^; 
4u^aJ ]Le^~\ to keep for o.s., appro- 
priate, reserve for o.s. (i_j or *, 
take complete possession (a of) X to 
ask s.o. (ft) to guard or protect {* or Jp,); to entrust (J* or a & to s.o., 
commit (Jp or a) to the charge of 
s.o. (.) 

Jiia- hifz preservation; maintenance, 
sustentation, conservation, upholding; 
protection, defense, guarding; custody, 
safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; 
observance, compliance (with); memoriz- 
ing, memorization; memory; (jur.) dis- 
continuance, stay, suspension (of legal 
action, of a judicial investigation) [ 
jLj^I jii#- preservation of ancient mon- 
uments (Eg.); CjUUV' Jaui»- h. al-amanat 
deposition for safe-keeping; checking of 
baggage ; 4*waJI j£i»- h. as-sihha hygiene, 
sanitation; Jaii-1 JU-j police; ]aJu>- ~^y- 
gurfat h. archive of a governmental 
agency (Eg.) 

ilLto- hifza anger, indignation, resent- 
ment, rancor 

hafiz attentive, heedful, mind- 
ful; preserving, keeping, guarding (J* 

~&Ji>- haflza pi. Julia- hafd'if grudge, 
resentment, rancor; — ov**^ ^M*" 
(Saudi Ar.) identity card 

llii^. mahfaza, mihfaza pL -at, Jiil^ 
■mahdfiz 2 folder, bag, satchel, briefcase, 
dispatch case, portfolio; etui; wallet, bill- 

«ki£ mihfaza capsule 

^aJiJ- tahflz memorization drill, incul- 
cation (esp. of the Koran) 

J^U^ hifdz defense, protection, guard- 
ing (esp. of cherished, sacred things); 
preservation, maintenance (Jp of inter- 
ests); keeping, upholding (of loyalty), 
adherence (to a commitment); (pi. -at) 
dressing, ligature, bandage | *J-\ J?U>- 
h. al-kaid sanitary napkin 

4&U- muhafaza guarding; safeguard- 
ing; preservation; protection, defense; 
conservation, sustaining, upholding; 
retention, maintenance (Jp of 
oonservativism (pol.), conservative atti- 
tude; following, observance (Jp of, 
compliance (J* with, adherence 
(J* to) ; guarding (,y against misfortune), 
saving {j* from misadventure); garrison 
(mil.); (pi. -at) governorate, adminis- 
trative district; province (in Eg. one of 
the 25 administrative districts, each with 
its own governmental agencies); office of 
the mukajiz (see below) | u Jcl\ Jp SliiUJJ 
self-preservation; SliiUM uJ»Ju madhab 
al-m. conservative movement, conserv- 
ativism, Toryism; &J1 Jp ^loiUJLl (bia) 
preservation of the environment ; &iUJLl 
*\jj}\ SjUJ Jp (naqdwat al-hawa) preven- 
tion of air pollution 

Jii^ tahaffuz caution, wariness, re- 
straint, reticence, reserve, aloofness; 
preventive custody (Jp of s.o.); — (pi. 
•at) precaution, precautionary measure; 
reservation, limiting condition, condi- 

^Sjo jj^ j I £Jm JboJuLo jj 01^3-03^ ^jAi-03 p5^Lo <j^j-o ,— -*> j-oljj^ Jj^S kS^jh 


tional stipulation, proviso | Jii»*dl ** 
with full reservation 

( jLtj£ tahaffuzi precautionary, pre- 
ventive; cautious, reserved, with reser- 
vation | yLi< O \*\j>- \ (ijra'at) pre- 
cautionary measures; ( J^^- «JL* {9U>lk) 
settlement before action, preventive 
settlement {jur.) 

^\Jo-\ ihtifaz guarding, safeguarding; 
preservation; retention, maintenance, 
continuation, conservation, defense, pro- 
tection, vindication, sustaining, up- 
holding; keeping, holding, safekeeping, 
custody (t_-> of 

JaiU- hafiz keeper, guarder, guardian, 
custodian, caretaker; (pi. Jjlb- huffaz, 
&JU- hafaza) one who knows the Kcran 
by heart (formerly an honorific epithet) 

&iU» hafiza memory; — (pi. -at, -&}>>- 
hawdfiz 2 ) wallet, billfold; coupon of a 
money order, etc., receipt-slip (Eg.) 

J^i£ mahfitz kept, held in safe- 
keeping, deposited, guarded, preserved; 
memorized, committed to memory, etc. ; 
conserved, preserved (food); reserved; 
ensured, secured, safeguarded; — pi. 
£>\&jj£ canned goods, conserves ; records 
(of an agency); archives; memorized 
material, what s.o. knows by heart | 
Sj^-^ail £jU?ji?JLl jta the Egyptian Public 
Record Office; olbji>J.I t-Jif records 
clerk, filing clerk; '<&>ja£ oV^TL con- 
serves, canned goods; ^irf- JijiJ-l *~s~, 
all rights reserved 

JaiUi nvuhafiz supervisory, controlling; 
observing (J*, complying (J* with), 
etc.; conservative (poL), u^UM the 
Conservatives, the Tories ; (pi. -un) keeper, 
guarder, guardian, custodian; governor, 
president of a province (muhdfaza; Eg,); 
mayor (Cairo) ; (as Brit, governor) director 
general, president 

JLmu mutahaffiz vigilant, alert, wary, 
cautious; reticent, reserved, aloof; staid, 

]oJl*£~. * mustahfaz pi. -at reserve (mil.) 

JjU- hafala i (hafl) to gather, assemble, 
congregate; to flow copiously; to be 
replete, teem, superabound (<-> with); 
to pay attention, attend, give one's 
mind (»-> or J to, concern o.s, 
(»_j with), make much (^ of), set great 
store (<-> by) | <u JjU- V (hafla) indifferent, 
of no consequence II to adorn, decorate, 
ornament (<-j * with) VIII to gather, 
rally, throng together; to celebrate (<~>, s.o.); to concern o.s. (<_j or <J 
with), attend, pay attention, give one's 
mind («_> or J to; to honor, wel- 
come, receive kindly (t-> s.o.) 

JjU- hafl gathering, meeting, assem- 
bling; assembly, congregation, throng, 
crowd; performance, show, public event; 
celebration; feast, festival | ^U^- Ji>- 
(kitdml) and aU>- Jjb- closing ceremony; 
ts-'kj J^ (riyadt) sports festival; JjU- 
j*L* soiree; evening celebration; Ji*- 
*-lsxil opening ceremony 

4JLU- hafla pi. -at assembly, gathering, 
meeting, congregation; party; (social or 
public) event; show, performance (the- 
ater, cinema); concert; festivity, cere- 
mony, festival, festive event, celebra- 
tion I ,juuJI iLU- commemoration, com- 
memorative ceremony for a deceased 
person; JjVI alii- 1 (via) premiere; 
UiU- SJLb- numerous assembly; h js±- ili*- 
(kairlya) charity performance, charity 
event; jsjJI aJU>. h. ad-dafn funeral 
ceremony, obsequies; aJo* aJU^- (dmiya) 
religious ceremony, Divine Service; <Li>- 
S^U evening party, evening gathering, 
evening show or performance, soiree; 
j*>* a\jl>~ h. samar evening party, soiree; 
Ljjjjy *U>- motion -picture show; iii>- 

^SjO JJ^ J I C^Lo JbOJuLo jJ Olfr3-05A ^jAi-03 P5^L0 <jJJ-0 ,— -*> J-oljJ3 Jj^S 6&&iA 


jUJl tea party; ^jJI "Aa*- A. al-'urs wed- 
ding; JLa^-*^ aU>- (public) reception; 
SJL*-j> Hip- concert 

J~a^ Aa/iZ eager, assiduous, diligent 

Ji£ mahfil pi. JiLtf. mahajil 2 assembly, 
congregation, meeting, gathering; party; 
body, collective whole; circle, quarter | 
J^-U Ji£ Masonic lodge; S-C^i J*^ 
(Ajj-lyJl) (rasmiya, siydslya) the official 
(political) circles or quarters 

Jlii>-i ihtifdl pi. -of celebration, cere- 
mony, festival, festivities 

(JUifl-1 ihtifali ceremonial, festive 

J*U~ 7w/iZ pi. Ji*- huffal, Ji^p- liawdfil 1 
full (<_-> of), filled, replete (i_j with); 
abundant, copious, lavish; eventful, rich 
in content (history); much frequented, 
well attended (by visitors, participants, 
etc.), numerous (of attendance); solemn, 
ceremonial, festive 

SiiU- hdfila pi. -a(, Ji)^ hawdfil 2 
autobus; streetcar | Jii aJUU A. naql bus, 
city bus 

Juix£ muhtafil: bJJcM the participants 
in a festive event, the celebrators 

Ji:^ muhtafal assembly place, gather- 
ing place; party; «o Jix* celebrated 

ji*. ha f ana u to scoop up with both hands 
(a; to give a little (<J to s.o.) 

oi*- hajna pi. hafanat handful 

l (_ji*- and J*-) J»- kafiya a (*jU>- hafawa) 
to receive kindly and hospitably, to 
welcome, receive with honors, honor (l-j 
s.o.) V to behave with affection, be 
affectionate (<-> toward) VIII do.; to 
celebrate (^ an occasion, a festival) 

j*. Aa/iy welcoming, receiving kindly, 
greeting (^ s.o., 

ftjU>- liafawa friendly reception, wel- 
coming, welcome, salutation (<_j of s.o.) 

»Lb»-l ihtifa reception, welcome, sal- 
utation (^ of s.o.); celebration, festivity 

2 ^>~ hafiya a (*U»- hafd') to go barefoot; to 
have sore feet 

J»U- kafin pi. «U»- A«/aft barefoot (ed) ; 
— (eg.> leb.) kaf dry (bread); plain and 
simple, without anything else 

£- haqqa i u to be true, turn out to be true, 
be confirmed; to be right, correct; (also 
pass, huqqa) to be necessary, obligatory, 
requisite, imperative (Jp for s.o.), be 
incumbent (Jp upon s.o.); to be ade- 
quate, suitable, fitting, appropriate (Jp 
for s.o.); to be due (J s.o.); 4) J^ he 
is entitled to it, he has a right to it; J^ 
j I <d he has every reason to ... ; <dL Jp- 
he deserved it (punishment); — « to 
ascertain (a, make sure, be sure 
(a of; to recognize, identify (» 
s.o.) II to make (a) come true; to 
realize (a, e.g., a hope), carry out 
(a e.g., a wish), carry into effect, fulfill, 
put into action, consummate, effect, 
actualize (a; to set, establish (a a 
record; sport); to implement (a e.g., 
an agreement); to produce, bring on, 
yield (a results); to determine, ascertain, 
find out, pinpoint, identify (a; to 
prove (a) to be true, verify, establish, 
substantiate (a; to establish, re- 
cognize the true nature (a of ; to con- 
firm, assert, aver, avouch, affirm (a; 
to be exact, painstaking, meticulous, care- 
ful (a in doing, e.g., J&& jS»- {na= 
zara) to look closely; to study, examine, 
investigate, explore (a, look, in- 
quire (a into; to verify, check (a 
or J; to edit critically (a a text; 
pkiL); to investigate (J; police); 
to make an official inquiry (a into, institute an investigation (a of 
or into; court; jur.)\ to interrogate (^* 
s.o.), conduct a hearing (~ of s.o.; jur.) 
Ill to contend for a right (« with s.o.), 

^Sjo jj^ j I Ctiio JbOJuLo jj 01^3-03^ $yijji$ Ps^° i C>i.J A a^ Oti^MS d^^ &&&a 


contest or litigate a right (e against s.o.) 
IV to tell the truth; to be right (J in; to enforce (a, e.g., a legal 
claim); to make into a duty (a, of 
God) | jJ-l Jp-1 {haqqa) to help truth 
come into its own V to prove true, turn 
out to be true, be confirmed, prove to be 
correct; to materialize, become a fact; to 
be realized, be effected, come into effect ; 
to be examined, be explored; to ascertain 
(a, also j-), make sure, reassure 
o.s., gain proof, convince o.s., be convinc- 
ed, be sure, be certain (a of; to 
check, verify {a or ,y,); to be serious 
(lj about X to be entitled, have a 
claim (a to; to claim (a, lay 
claim (a to); to deserve, merit (a, 
be worthy (a of); to require, demand, 
necessitate, make requisite (a; to 
fall due, become payable (sum of money), 
mature, become due (note); to be due (J 
s.o.) \J?^\ J>^— J (dikra) worth mention- 
ing, noteworthy; ~>J\ 4JU J>«x— j V 
(rasmu) not subject to a fee, free of 

Jp- haqq truth; correctness, Tightness; 
rightful possession, property; one's due; 
duty; proper manner; true, authentic, 
real; right, fair and reasonable; correct, 
sound, valid; ji-1 an attribute of God; 
(pi. jijJfc- huquq) right, title, claim, legal 
claim (J to); pi. 3j*- {Magr.) fees, dues, 
duties, taxes (loan translation from Fr. 
droits); i3jJbU law, jurisprudence, legal 
science; UU- haqqan really, in reality, 
in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, 
in truth; justly, rightly, by rights | 
?d!!S Uto-I is that (really) so? really? j* 
justly, rightly, by rights; jJ-l> truly, in 
reality, actually; properly, appropriately, 
in a suitable manner; J*~ bi-haqqi and 
J*- J as to . . ., as for . , ., with respect to, 
concerning, regarding; Jp-j wa-haqqi by 
the truth of . . ., j^-jJlSJl «y^ j*-j {qid- 
dlsin) by all the saints, by all that's holy! 

#UJI jp^ by the truth of heaven! Jp ja 
j*- he is in the right; *il*. Jp-I you are 
right; *iLU jJ-l you are wrong: Jp- y> 
ciJLJL it is your duty; Cit J»- IJU you 
owe this to me; <dp l$i±. Utt^ ( r irfdnan) 
in recognition of what he owed her ; «u>. 
what he can claim, what is his due; «u>- j- 
he is entitled to it, it is his due; j* OK" 
ji <u>- he should have..., he ought to 
have...; J ji-l «d he is entitled to ...; 
JUj jk\j {yuqal) one may say, it must be 
admitted, it's only fair to say, say what 
you will..., ...though (as a parentheti- 
cal phrase); *ijA\ Jp- J»^ {haqqa 
l-ma'rifa) to know exactly, know for 
certain, know very well, also iJt J*- J* 
{haqqa l-'ilm) ; -$iJ! Jp- -gi fahima haqqa 
l-fahm to understand precisely, com- 
prehend thoroughly, be fully aware; 
(JoJtxJI j»- author's rights ; ^jaUI J*, inter- 
national law; ^iJl 3ja>- h. at-tab' print- 
ing rights, copyrights; j^ai\ j^J& Jp- 
(t. al-ma$ir) right to self-determination; 
SJjlII JyU-1 (madaniya) civil rights; 
j^i-1 (-j-s-Utf claimant, one entitled to a 
claim; jj*J-l yS" kulllyat al-h. law school, 
faculty of law; — (as attrib. of a fern. n. 
also variable for gender) aIL I S jUJI (sa f * 
ada) true happiness, uuM L&jJl (wata* 
niya) real or true patriotism 

^ Aiwjg hollow, cavity; socket of a 
joint (ema(.); also = <u>- huqqa 

<a>- huqqa pi. jl>- huqaq, J>U>- hiqnq, 
JUa-l ahqdq small box, case, pot or jar; 
receptacle, container; — (pi. -at, jpU- 
huqaq) a weight (£yr., PaZ.) = 4»t itg^a; 
y^JU-l ^- — 1.280 kg (/r.) 

J-i*- Arag'ig' pi. *U*-1 ahiqqa' 2 worthy, 
deserving (^ of, fit, competent, 
qualified; entitled {<_-> to) 

UJb- haqlqa pi. Jj*U*- haqaiq 2 truth, 
reality (also philos.); fact; the true state 
of affairs, the facts; true nature, essence; 
real meaning, true sense; haqiqatan 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlq Jj&Jma jj 01^3-03-0 ^jAJ-03 P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



really, in reality, in effect, actually, in 
fact, indeed, truly, in truth [ <caJi>- J* olj 
I saw its true nature, as it really is; 
^\ DLji*- J in reality, really, actually; 
<i~A>- *j ^^jJ it does not really exist, it is 
not real 

J-i~ haqiqt real, true; actual; proper, 
intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic; 

jji*- Augugi juristic(al); 
jurist, jurisprudent, lawyer 

(pi, -un) 

J*- 1 ahaqq 2 worthier, more deserving 
(o> of,); more entitled (i_-> to; 
Jp-Vt s.o. having the better (or best) legal 
claim, the preferential claimant 

aJU-I ahaqqiya better legal claim, pre- 
ference, priority 

JU>- haqqdni correct, right, proper, 
sound, valid, legitimate, legal 

llU>- haqqdnlya justice, law | Sjjjj 
oLU-l Ministry of Justice (formerly Eg.) 

jjJa^ takqiq realization, actualization, 
effectuation, implementation; fulfillment 
(of a claim, of a wish, etc.); achievement, 
accomplishment, execution; conduct (of 
a press interview); setting (of a record; 
sport) ; ascertainment, determination, 
identification, verification; substantia- 
tion; assertion, affirmation, confirmation; 
pinpointing, precise determination; ex- 
actness, accurateness, precision; (= jJ*^ 
jkJl t, an-nutq) precise pronunciation; 
critical edition (of a text; phil.); — (pi. 
-at) verification, check, checkup, in- 
vestigation; official or judicial inquiry, 
inquest | i>\ ,3^*Ji it is a matter of fact 
that ..., it is certain that .,.; J~i»^i Jp 
properly speaking, strictly speaking, 
actually; exactly, precisely; positively, 
definitely; J^a^JI jlp properly speaking, 
strictly speaking, actually; L^a^JLli JJ^a^ 
L as-sakslya identification (of a person), 

proof of identity; ^L^k-iJI jJa^ »^U^ 
sahddat t. aS-Saksiya identity card; 
l^^J^l i }JiJ- IS qalam t. a$-$. bureau of 
identification; v'-^' Js^ '* ctd-ddtiya 
identification; jJa^Jt ^U examining 
magistrate; ijLJl Cj\jua£- t. an-niydba in- 
vestigations of the public prosecutor's 
office; jS^- iJ- lajnat t. committee of 
inquiry; A>j^\ J^ realization of pro- 
fits (stock market); J^A^dl ^j JlSxtl 
(rahna) detention pending investigation 
(jur.); jJL>»iJl «_^T kutitb at-t, critical 
editions of texts (phil.) 

i3U*-l ihqdq: ^ 1SU»~I ihqdqan li-l- 
haqq (so) that truth may prevail 

£a£ tahaqquq ascertainment, making 
sure; conviction, certainty, certitude; 
verification, check, checkup 

(3Ub*x*-l istihqdq pi. -at worthiness, 
deservingness, merit; one's due or desert; 
maturity, payability, falling due (of a 
sum of money); re-claiming or calling in 
of due, demand of a right; claim 
(of s.o., J for a payment, a possession, 
etc.); vindication (Isl. Law), replevin, 
detinue | JsU^J ^ deservedly, justly, 
by rights; ,3L&>w-t j^JU undeservedly; 
jU>»^VI £jIj date of maturity (e.g., of 
a bond); JLJUI JUUw-Vl (lubndni) name 
of a Lebanese order of merit 

3ja£- mahquq worthy, deserving (<_j, 
J of), fit, competent, qualifying (<_j, J 
for); wrong, at fault, on the wrong 

jJbt muhaqqtq pi. -un investigator; in- 
quirer; examining magistrate; editor (of 
a text), editor of a critical edition (phil.) 

£&£■ muhaqqaq sure, certain, beyond 
doubt, unquestionable, indubitable; as- 
sured, established, accepted, recognized | 
Ol Ja^\ £» it is certain that..,, it is a 
fact that . . . 

^Sjo jj^ j I £Jm JbOJuLo jj 01^3-03^ $yti>A$ p5^Lo <jJj-o cr *> j-oljj^ Jj^S kS^jh 


$£ muhiqq telling the truth, in the 
right, being right 

jl>»i* mutahaqqiq convinced, sure, cer- '• 
tain, positive ; 

j*o-** mustahiqq entitled ( j to a pay- j 
ment, etc.); claiming; beneficiary (of a 
wakf); deserving, worthy; due (a sum, 
payment, J* to s.o.'s debit) | aJjOI J^^u-* 
m. ad-daf due, payable (sum), mature 
(bill); ***J\ ,>>»=-*» m. ar-rasm subject or ! 
liable to charges; <uU aamjuII < r J\ J J$\ \ 
the taxes which he owes, which are due i 

t^Ji*- VIII to put into one's bag, to bag (a 

<*Ja*- kuqb pi. t-jU*-t ahqdb, ^U*. Mqdb 
long stretch of time, long period 

iJt>- hiqba pi. <~ r ^- hiqab, hiqabdt, ^U*-l 
ahqdb long time, stretch of time; period, 
age, historical epoch | oL*jJl j* <Jb- hiq* 
baton min az-zamdn for quite a time, for 
some time 

<_Jt>- haqab pi. i^Ub-l ahqdb a kind of 
ornamental belt 

«_jIa»- hiqab pi. i_-~i>- huqub a kind of 
ornamental belt 

!LJi>- haqlba pi. <_^jU>- haqd'ib 2 valise, 
suitcase, traveling bag; leather bag; brief- 
case, portfolio; handbag j S^LjLj ^J*>- 
diplomatic pouch; *jjc}\ «LJi>- porte- 
monnaie, change purse; -Ul 2 ? Ja*. A. a?- 
yad ladies' purse, handbag 

Xh- haqida a, haqada i (haqd, hiqd) to harbor 
feelings of hatred (J* against) IV to 
incite to hatred or resentment, embitter, 
envenom {« s.o.) V — I; VI to hate one 

Xap- hiqd pi. ali-l ahqdd, *ja*- K'aqud 
hatred, malice, spite, resentment, rancor 

SjJU- haqida pi. AjU*- haqdHd 2 hatred, 
malice, spite, resentment, rancor 

i^Ja*- haqud full of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, rancor- 

JbU- hdqid full of hatred, spiteful, 
resentful, malicious, malevolent, rancor- 
ous; pi. -tin, SoJb- haqada haters, malev- 
olent people 

_^i>- haqara i {haqr) to despise, scorn, disdain 
{* s.o., a; to look down (a, a on), 
have a low opinion (a, e of); — haqura u 
to be low, base, contemptible, despicable; 
to be despised, degraded, humiliated 
II to disparage, decry, depreciate (* s.o.), 
detract, derogate (* from s.o.) ; to degrade, 
debase, humble, humiliate; to regard 
with contempt, despise, scorn, disdain 
(» s.o., a VIII to despise, scorn, 
disdain (» s.o., a, look down (a, » 
on) X to regard as contemptible or 
despicable, disdain, despise (a s.o., *, look down (a, & on) 

jvb- haqir pi. *\ji*- huqard' 2 low, base, 
mean, vulgar, vile; little, small, paltry, 
inconsiderable, poor, wretched, miserable; 
despised; despicable, contemptible 

Ja>-\ ahqar 2 lower, baser, more con- 

SjU>- haqara lowness, vulgarity, base- 
ness, vileness, meanness; smallness, pal- 
triness, insignificance, poorness, wretched- 
ness, miserableness ; despicability, con- 
temptibleness; ignominy, infamy 

jj& tahqlr contempt, disdain, scorn; 
degradation, humiliation, abasement 

jli^l ihtiqdr contempt, disdain, scorn | 
jUi^V' i>*J 4*11 jlii (bi- c aini l-iht.) to 
regard s.o. with contempt, look down 
one's nose at s.o. 

JJcJ- muhtaqar despised ; contemptible, 

Jjb- haql pi. J^b- huqul field (also fig. — 
domain); arable land, acreage; oil field; 

^cSja jj^ j I £Jm JbOJuLo jj 01^3-03^ ^jAi-03 p5^Lo <jJj-o ,— -*> j-oljj^ Jj^S ^5^-o 



rubric | Jj^Jt Ji*- h. al-bitrol, CojJI JJi>- 
h. az-zait, }**}\ JJU- h. an-naft oil field; oil 
area; wjUJt J>**- experimental fields; 
JL^^T Ji- (fcaAra&a't) electric field; Ji»- 
aUJI minefield (mt7.) 

Ji>- Aogft field- (in compounds) 

*i»l* muhaqala sale of grain while still 
in growth, dealing in grain futures (IsL 

J**- haqana % u (haqn) to hold back, with- 
hold, keep back, detain, retain (a; 
to suppress, repress, restrain (a; to 
keep to o.s. (^Jl as-sirra the secret); to 
spare («u.a damahu s.o.'s blood or life); to 
inject (* in, JjyJI in the reins, <~>; to squirt, inject (a, j in); to 
give (e s.o.) an injection (med.) | jA^x oU- 
(bi-mukaddir) to give s.o. an anesthetic 
injection VIII to become congested (esp. 
blood); to suffer from strangury; to take 
an enema, a clyster; to be injected | 
<4>-j ( yz^.\ (ivajhuhu) his face was 
flushed, his face turned red 

<y*~ haqn retention , withholding ; 
sparing; injecting, injection (med.) \ 
jJU-U Li*- haqnan li-dimdHhim in order 
to spare their blood; •kjjh J ja?~ 
intravenous injection (med.); »LLI ji» 
water injection, jUJI Ja>- gas injection 
(j into the field, oil industry) 

"<J>- hvqna pi, jx*- huqan injection 
(med.); hypodermic | ***-j£ iJs>- (§ara* 
jlya) clyster, enema 

4Lo£ mihqana pi. Ji{£ mahaqin 2 
syringe (med,) 

oUr*-l ihtiqan congestion | * jlJI oU=*-I 
iht. ad-dam vascular congestion 

t jJb£ muhtaqan reddened by blood 
congestion, flushed, red (face) 

ja»~ haqw pi. »U>- hiqd'f »Li»-i ahqd' loin, 
groin | 4J_^i>- ^JLi Saddada haqwaihi to 
gird one's loins 

1 vfJU» hakka u (hakk) to rub, chafe; to scrape; 
to scratch; to rub off, scrape off, scratch 
off, abrade (a | *jJU* j dL»- (sadrihl) 
it impressed him, affected him, touched inside him IV to itch V to rub o.s., 
scrape, chafe (<_j against); to pick a 
quarrel (<--> with s.o.) VI to rub or scrape 
against each other VIII to rub o.s., 
scrape, chafe (v against); to be in con- 
tact, in touch (l-* with) | #j-u? J dJb>-l 
(sadrihi) it impressed him, affected him, 
touched inside him 

tiJU- hakk rubbing, chafing; friction; 

5S^ hikka itching; scabies, itch (med.) 

litS^- hakkak lapidary 

dl£ mihakk touchstone; test | J* c-jj 
Js&}\ iil£ tabata 'aid m. an-nazar to 
stand a critical test 

iS^- mihakka currycomb 

il\J- tahdkk (reciprocal) friction 

iJtSc^-l ihtikdk pi. -at (reciprocal) fric- 
tion; close touch or contact; friction 
(fig., — dissension, controversy) | ji- ^ 
£jt&»-l min gairi hi. frictionless 

tJ'lS^-i ihtikdkl friction (in compounds), 
frictional | J'lSc^i Cjj^» fricative (phon.) 

jj£*£ muhakkak chafed, worn away 

*'&>*- hukka (tun.> — huqqa) pi. di£»- hukak 
small box, case, pot or jar 

j£>- VIII to buy up, hoard and withhold, 
corner (a a commodity); to monopolize 
(a a commercial article); to have exclusive 
possession (a of, hold a monopoly 
(a over 

^So- hukr monopoly (Jp for s.o.) 

j£>- hikr, hukr and j£X\ S^i ujrat al-h. 
ground rent, quitrent 

J&*- hakar, hukar hoarded 

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*j&>~ hukra hoarding (of goods) ; mo- 

SjjTU- hdkura small vegetable garden 

jtSJ^I ihtikar pi, -at cornering, buying 
up; monopoly; preferential position; 
supremacy, hegemony | &\\ sjbc j&>-i 
iht. t. al-bunn coffee-trade monopoly; 
J$U\ jlSo»-l iht. as-sukkar sugar monop- 
oly; <SJ^r jl&»-t (tijdrl) commercial 
monopoly; JU*-Tjl jlS^*-VI monopoly 

t^jtSo*-! ihtikdri rapacious, grasping, 
greedy; monopoly (in compounds) 

hj\$^j>-\ ihtikariya monopolism 

J&&- muhtakir pi. -un monopolist, 
owner of a monopoly 

£*- hakama u (hukm) to pass judgment, 
express an opinion (^, j on, judge 
(J*,, <_-» by, from); to decide, give a 
decision, pass a verdict, pass sentence 
(Jp on); to sentence (Jp s.o., u to a 
penalty; said of the judge), impose, 
inflict («-> a penalty) on s.o. (Jp); to 
pronounce a verdict or judgment, deliver 
judgment, rule (J in s.o.'s favor); to 
adjudicate, adjudge, award (t-> J to s.o.; to take (^ as a standard or 
norm; to have judicial power, have 
jurisdiction, have authority (Jp and » 
over); to govern, rule, dominate, control 
(» s.o,); to order, command (<_>; to 
bridle, check, curb (*, *, s.o.); to 
determine, judge, decide (<_j with masdar, 
that is the case, exists, or must 
happen) J ^ 1-LpVIj <J& £»- (hukima, i r ddm) 
he was sentenced to death; obL j£*- 
{bi-idanatihl) to convict s.o., find s.o. 
guilty (jur.); &*\ju SC*- (bi-bara'atihi) to 
acquit s.o. (fur.); 4X*«^aj {!»- (bi-$ihhatihi) 
to determine that is right, correct, 
appropriate; fj^s* V js>- he decreed it 
to be forbidden, ruled that it should be 

considered unlawful {hi. Law); £» 
J>vJl J-f^ he decided that the man 
should be declared jahil, i.e., non re- 
sponsible for his actions; 6 1 Jp C- 
he judged or decided that ... II to ap- 
point (» s.o.) as ruler; to choose (» s.o.) as 
arbitrator, make (* s.o.) the judge ( j over 
or in, j^j between) III to prosecute 
(a s.o.) ; to arraign, bring to trial, hale into 
court (« s.o.); to interrogate, hear (* s.o.); 
to put on trial, take severely to task 
(* s.o., * IV to make (* firm, 
strong, sturdy, solid; to fortify (*; 
to strengthen, consolidate (*; to do 
well, do expertly, master (a field, work), 
be proficient (a in) | ^1 C«-l (amrahu) to 
do thoroughly, carefully, properly; 
ejyl-G C»-l (taddbirahu) to plan one's 
actions precisely, organize well; *k)j £»-1 
(rabtahu) to tie, bind up tightly; 
.sj-lJI S^-l to erect solid barriers, take 
strong safety measures (against an 
enemy); u^UI JiS S^-l (qafla l-bab) to 
lock the door firmly; UJ j£*-1 (lugatan) to 
master a language V to have one's own 
way (J in), proceed (J with) at random, 
at will, handle ( j arbitrarily ; to pass 
arbitrary judgment (j on); to make o.s. 
the judge ( Jp of), pass judgment (Jp on); 
to decide (t^ on); to rule, reign, hold 
sway (J over); to dominate, control 
( j, be in control, be in command 
( j of) VI to bring one another before 
the judge (fli-l Jl); to appeal (Jl to) 
for a legal decision; to be interrogated, 
be heard (in court) VIII to have one's 
own way (j in), proceed (j with, in at will, at random, handle ( j 
arbitrarily, judge arbitrarily; to rule, 
reign, hold sway (Jp, J over); to be in 
control, be in possession (Jp of); to 
appeal {Jl to) for a legal decision, seek 
a decision (Jl from), have s.o. { Jl) decide 
X to be strong, sturdy, solid, firm; to 
become stronger, be strengthened, be 

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consolidated; to take root, be or become 
deep-rooted, deep-seated, ingrained, in- 
veterate, marked, pronounced (feeling, 

Js>- hukm pi. #th>.t ahkdm judgment, 
valuation, opinion; decision; (legal) 
judgment, verdict, sentence; condem- 
nation, conviction; administration of 
justice; jurisdiction; legal consequence 
of the facts of a case (1st Law) ; regulation, 
rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; 
legal provision (also Isl. Law); judi- 
ciousness, wisdom; judgeship; com- 
mand, authority, control, dominion, 
power; government, regime; pi. *(£*-! 
statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, 
provisions, stipulations, principles, pre- 
cepts; t&- hukman virtually; legally | 
Sv£ bi-hukmi by virtue of, on the 
strength of, pursuant to; by force of; 
oLLy fe- bi-h. wazifatihi ex officio; 
%*- <J as good as, all but, e.g., £*- J y. 
pAjJI (fl hukmi l-adam) it is as good as 
nothing, it is practically nonexistent; 
jjstiS £»*- J r^r^ asbaha jl hukmi l-mu? 
qarrar it is all but decided; C*. j <jlT 
* iS ti\ also: to be subject to ; *£>- Jp Jy 
to give in, yield to s.o.; 2.1^1 C»- A,. aZ- 
bard'a acquittal; ^jj^b- S^- (hudurl) 
judgment delivered in the presence of 
the litigant parties, after oral proceed- 
ings (jur.); J*£ £»- (mahalli) local ad- 
ministration; ^^ £>- (&zr'i) sentence, 
verdict, judgment based on the Sharia; 
plA*Vlj ^i-i (i'rfam) death sentence; &~ 
jLi (giydbi) judgment by default (jur,); 
JUis £*- (qadd'i) legal verdict; «uill £>- 
h. aqalluja minority rule; jlJUl &-I ({£&») 
self-determination, autonomy (poJ.); CU 
(^jj^J-I (jumhuri) the republican form 
of government, the republican regime; 
jlUI O.I (mutlaq) the absolute, i.e., 
authoritarian, regime; jLJl JLtl (niyabl) 
the parliamentary regime, parliamen- 
tarianism; CM iJ- lajnat al-h. board of 

examiners, review board; -oil >*15^1 God's 
commands; v./^ /•LSC-V1 ('urftya) mar- 
tial law; yLUl /»l5o-l (intiqallya) pro- 
visional regulations (?«r.); \JvJ- pl5C»-l 
(kitdmlya) final regulations (?'w\); >lx>-i 
3Ls*U- (&&ssa) special regulations; j* JS^J 
<JC>- (swn) every age has its own set of 
rules, must be judged by its own stand- 
ards; >»IS\»-I hjjdb (li-d-darura) neces- 
sity has its (own) rules, (approx.: neces- 
sity knows no law); >»LSs>-Vl i*- Him aha, 
judicial astrology 

L? £- hukmi legal 

j!^X>- (eg.; pronounced hikimdar) com- 
mandant; chief of police 

4jj1ji£o- (eg.; pronounced hikimddriya) 
commandant's office 

SCp- hakam pi. ^ t£»- hukkdm arbitrator , 
arbiter; umpire, referee 

<£>- hikma pi. £*- fo'&am wisdom; 
sagacity; wise saying, aphorism; maxim; 
underlying reason | ikJ- (with foil, genit.) 
on account of, because of 

^^- hikmi gnomic, aphoristic, ex- 
pressing maxims | LJ? S\J-1 ^^1 (si r r) gnomic 

i£>- hakama pi. -at bit (of a horse's 

JZj*- liaklm pi. »l£» hukamd' 2 wise, 
judicious; wise man, sage; philosopher; 
physician, doctor 

^L^S^- hakimbd£i senior physician, 
chief surgeon 

<j»j£i>- hukunia pi. -at government 

t/jSC^ hukumi of government, gov- 
ernmental; official; state-owned, state- 
controlled, of the state, state- (in com- 

C.-1 ahkam 2 wiser 

~&j£ mahhama pi. JfUs. maAaHm 8 
court, tribunal | .JsbJ^-Vl iK^- m. <x£- 

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isti'ndf and 4JbJkJ ife- court of appeal, 
appellate court; aJUI "S^ {ahliya) indi- 
genous court (formerly, Eg.; jurisdiction 
limited to Egyptian nationals); lS^ 
y|j£*1 (ibtidaiya) court of first instance; 
SjjiJl i£* m. at-taura revolutionary 
tribunal; tjj>- a&- (juzlya) district 
court; summary court; 0LI1M *X£ m. 
al-jindydt criminal court; Jl^»-Vl jfl* 1 
^■■jt.V*H (Sakslya) courts dealing with vital 
statistics; iLixk *5G£ (muktalita) mixed 
court (formerly, Eg.; with jurisdiction 
over residents of foreign nationality); 
X&jZ> "<&£• (sar'iya) canonical court 
(administering justice on the basis of the 
Sharia), court dealing with family 
matters of Muslims; ^wJl *X£ m. us- 
$a*b people's court; aj^^L-p aS^J- ( f aska* 
riya) and U^ "&£- {'urjiya) court-mar- 
tial; 4J.U tfe (madaniya) civil court; 
ijjS^ '•&*£■ (markaziya) county court; 
t^jliV' »LaiJl &£ m. (d-qada al-idan 
administrative court; fl/Vlj o^^' *^ 
m. an-naqd wa-l-ibrdm Court of Cas- 
sation, the highest court of appeal in 
Egypt; >J^I a^£ Court of Cassation 
(Syr., Leb.= flr/^j ^^ '&£ in Eg.); 
jf UM oU-U tribunals 

(S^ tahkim appointment of an ar- 
bitrator; arbitration; arbitral decision, 
award; carrying out the duties of a 
referee or umpire (sport); pi. O^xsi 
fortifications | JU-I ^fJ- starting from 
the present state of a court's findings 
(hi. Law); J>i>mzi\ <tjs> haiat at-t. board 
of arbitration; jury (in competitions; 
sport, art), committee of judges, commit- 
tee of umpires ; committee of referees (in 
mil. maneuvers); <?*££■ iJ- (lajna) do. 

"<&[£• muhdkama judicial proceeding; 
trial, hearing (in court) ; legal prosecution 

fl£;=-1 ihlcam perfection; accuracy, 
exactness, exactitude, precision; exact 
performance, precise execution | *l£^b 

accurately, exactly, precisely; j ^Jb 
flSv>-Vl of highest perfection 

5^£ tahakkum arbitrariness, arbitrary 
powers or action ; despotism ; domination, 
dominion, rule; power of disposal (J^over; authoritative attitude; imperious 
tone; regulation, control ( j of, also 

JCs£ tahakkumi arbitrary; despotic 

>t£*^-l istihkdm intensification, in- 
crease, strengthening; consolidation, sta- 
bilization; fortification; pi. oLts^w-1 for- 
tifications; see also i>»>- hujja 

jfV hakim judicious; ruling; decisive; 
— (pi. -un, f IS^s- hukkdm) ruler, sovereign; 
governor; judge | a^lj |fU- (bi-amrihi) 
autocratic; autocrat, dictator; pU TU- 
( r dmm) governor general; aijLil TU- h. 
al-mubardh umpire, referee (athlet.); fl»- 
«ivJl h. as-sulh (Syr.) justice of the peace; 
a^UI jfU- h. an-ndhiya judge of a local 
court; OyjS^i\j *l£M the rulers and the 
ruled, the governors and the governed 

ijTU- hdkimiya domination, dominion, 
rule, sovereignty; judgeship, judicature, 
jurisdiction (ir.) 

(j&- mahkum governed, ruled, etc.; 
<lc *j£# sentenced (lj to) [ ^JU {jj&*U 
flJipSfl* (i'ddm) those sentenced to death; 
JJLaJU 4-U rj£*- (fasal) doomed to fail 

O- muhakkam pi. -un arbitrator, ar- 
biter; umpire, referee (jf in, over) 

So^ muhkain strengthened, reinforced; 
firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfect, 
masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow, 
hit); accurate, precise, exact | _/j*^1 £^ 
well-planned, well- contrived; &£■ iL^ 
{kiitta) fixed plan; 3X£ <UaJ^ presci'ibed, 
obligatory religious duty 

^Sjo jj^ j I £Jm JbOJuLo jj 01^3-03^ ^jAi-03 p5^Lo <j^j-o ,— -*> j-oljj^ Jj^S ^5^-o 



C»»l. mutahakkim controller, control 
system (techn.); — mutahakkam: C^u 
<ui controllable, under control 

C**x-~* mustahkam reinforced, fortified ; 
strengthened, consolidated, strong; in- 
veterate, deep-seated, deep-rooted, in- 
grained (custom, trait, etc.); pi. ^liC>^.* 
defenses, fortifications 

jiXC-, 4jj\a&>- see C- 

J1^£>- see 5^- 

£*~ hakd i (<jI£o- hikaya) to tell, relate (a,), report, give an account (a of); to 
speak, talk (syr,, leb.); to imitate, copy 
(a; to resemble (a, o s.o., Ill to 
imitate, copy (a, assimilate o.s. (a 
to); to be similar (a to), be like (a), 
resemble {a, be attuned, adjust- 
ed, adapted (a to), be in harmony 
(a with) 

£*• haky (syr., leb.) speaking, talking; 

4jISC>- hikaya pi. -at story, tale, nar- 
rative; report {of occurrences), account; 
(gram.) literal quotation (of the words of 
others) | \^ <>J&*- (sa'blya) folk tale, 
fairy story 

Jlj£>- Imkawati (syr.) popular story- 

»l£»- hakka narrator 

SlTlrf. muhdkdh imitation; similarity, 
resemblance; harmony | O Cj\j^^\ SlTUi 
echolalia (psych.) 

iiU- hdkin narrator, storyteller; phono- 

^£ mahkly imitated, imitation (adj.); 
(syr., leb.) spoken 

^L+S*- see £»- 

1 J» halla u (hall) to untie (a a knot), unbind, 
unfasten, unravel, undo (a; to 

solve (a a problem, a puzzle); to de- 
cipher, decode (a to dissolve in 
water (a; chem.); to resolve (a 
into its components), analyze (a; 
to melt (a; to decompose, dis- 
integrate (a; to disband, break up, 
dissolve (a an organization or party, 
parliament); to open, unpack (a a 
package, and the like); to loosen, relax 
(a; to release, set free, let go (a, « s.o.) ; to clear, exonerate, exculpate 
(j- « s.o. from), absolve (« s.o., ^ from 
his sins; Chr.) ; pass, hulla to be free; to be 
relaxed; — i u (Jji»- hidul) to dismount, 
alight, stop, halt; to settle down, stay 
(<_j at a place, also J and a; Jp with 
s.o., at s.o.'s house), come (for a visit, J* 
to); to take up residence (a in a place 
or country); to descend, come down; to 
descend (Jp upon s.o.; wrath); to over- 
come, overwhelm (Jp s.o.; sleep); to 
befall (<-> and Jp s.o.; punishment, 
suffering), occur, happen (^ to s.o.); to 
become incarnate (J in s-o.; God); to 
set in, arrive, begin (time, season); — i 
to pass into solution, dissolve; to fade 
(color); — i (hill) to be allowed, per- 
mitted, permissible, lawful; to be due, 
payable (debt) | ^~a^> j J*- (mansib) to 
take over or hold an office; Wtt J>- he 
came in third place (sport); ^ J>- 
(mahallahu) to be in the right place; 
o^i Jj£ Jj^, F^ill Jj£ J*- (mahalla) to take 
the place of s.o. or, replace, super- 
sede s.o. or, substitute for s.o. or; *^ «uii J cJU- (qalbihi) she held a 
place in his heart; <uuJ jOasII Jafc J*- 
(mahalla t4aqdlri ladaihi) to enjoy s.o.'s 
high esteem; J^ *\y&\ ^ysi ^ J>- 
oL*-i-Vl (min nufusi l-qurrai mahalla 
l-istihsdn) to appeal to the readers, meet 
with the readers' approval II to dissolve, 
resolve (into its component parts), break 
up, decompose; to analyze (a; to 
make a chemical analysis (a of; to 
be dissolvent, act as a solvent (a on; 

^cSja jj^ j I Ctiio JbOJuLo jj OU^o^a $yijji$ Ps^° i C>i.J A a^ Oti^MS d^^ &&&a 



med.); to discharge, absolve, clear, 
exonerate, exculpate (* s.o.); (aJL^ takilla) 
to expiate an oath; to make permissible 
or lawful, legitimate, sanction, justify, 
warrant (a; to declare permissible 
or lawful, allow, permit (a IT to 
discharge, release, absolve, disengage ( j* *> 
s.o. from); to declare (a lawful, 
legally permissible, permit, allow (a; to cause to set in or occur, bring 
about, produce, cause to take root, 
establish, stabilize (a; to cause (a to take or occupy the place (a of), 
shift, move, translocate (a a, e.g., a 
tribe, to a place); to settle (<>.> a a- 
mong) | *X£ 4JUI (mahallahu) to cause s.o. 
or to take the place of s.o. or else, 
replace s.o. or by, substitute s.o. or for, take s.o. or as substitute 
for; ijbjJl Jj£ fr^l J*-! (mahalla Vinaya) 
to pay attention to, make one's 
concern V to dissolve, melt, disintegrate; 
to disengage o.s., disassociate o.s., 
extricate o.s., free o.s. (j* from) YII to 
be untied (knot); to be solved, be un- 
raveled (problem); to be dissolved, be 
broken up, be disbanded (also, of an 
organization, a party, etc.); to dissolve, 
melt; to become slack, limp, weak, loose, 
relaxed; to disintegrate; to melt away 
VIII to settle down (a at a place); to 
occupy (mil., a a territory); to assume, 
take over, occupy, hold, have (a a place, 
a rank, an office) | Jj^l jl&l Js»-1 (al- 
makdna l-aurwala) to occupy the foremost 
place; *J1>1 J^l (a'mdlahu) to take over 
s.o.'s functions X to regard v a as 
permissible or lawful, think that one 
may do (a); to regard as fair game, 
as easy prey, seize unlawfully, mis- 
appropriate, usurp (a 

J*- hall pi. JjJU- hulul untying, un- 
fastening, undoing (of a knot); solution 
(of a problem, of a puzzle, etc.); un- 

riddling, unraveling, explanation; solu- j 
tion (chem.); dissolution, disbandment, \ 
breaking up (of an organization, etc.), j 
abolition, cancellation, annulment; re- 
lease, freeing, liberation; decontrol, re- ; 
lease, unblocking (e.g., of a blocked \ 
sum); discharge, clearing, exoneration, 
exculpation; absolution (Chr.) | JJt Jjli 
soluble, solvable; O j^! J^' (taifi) 
spectral analysis; Xa*)\j JJ-I Ja! ahl al-h. 
wa-l- e aqd or ^J\j JJ-1 JaI (rabt) influential 
people, those in power; <dU-j-j <*JU~ j 
(tarhdlihi) in all his doings, in everything 
he did; »ji-£Jl J>- h. cd-Ufra decoding, 

J*, hill: (jp) ^ J^ j dtf (hillin) he 
was free to .,., he was at liberty to ...; 
he had free disposal of ...;,> J»- j cJl 
you're free to . . ., you may readily . . . 

«L- halla pi. JJU- hilal low copper 
vessel; cooking pot (eg.) 

iJU- hilla way station, stopping place, 
stop, stopover; encampment; absolution 
(Chr.); dispensation (Chr.) 

iL- hulla pi. JJU- hulal clothing, dress, 
garb ; vestments (ecclesiastic; Chr.); (com- 
plete) suit of clothes; (Western) suit | 
\s"j U>- (rasmiya) uniform; o^JI 5JU- h. 
as-sahra formal dress 

J^»U- haldl that which is allowed, 
permitted or permissible; allowed, per- 
mitted, permissible, allowable, admis- 
sible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; 
lawful possession | J*>U- j,\ ibn h. legiti- 
mate son ; respectable man, decent fellow 

J^JU- hulul stopping, putting up, 
staying; descending, coming on, be- 
falling, overtaking; incarnation; setting 
in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a dead- 
line), beginning, dawn; substitution (for 

JJU halil pi. »^U-I ahilla' 2 husband 

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iJLJU halila pi. JJ^U haWil 2 wife 

JJU-1 iAZtZ outer opening of the 
urethra; urethra {anat.) 

J*£ mahatt pi. -a£, Jl£ mahaffi place, 
location, spot, site, locale, locality, 
center; (place of) residence; business; 
business house, firm, commercial house ; 
store, shop; object, cause (e.g., of dis- 
pute, admiration, etc.); gear (automo- 
bile)! *UJ^ and ^U^JU- 1 see J>- 1 and IV; 
<U (mahallahu) in his (its) place ; «d£ <_j 
in his (its) place, in his (its) stead, 
instead of him; 4& j 6E~ to be in the 
right place; to be appropriate, ex- 
pedient, advisable; to be justified, 
warranted; «d£ j& j improper, mis- 
placed, unsuitable, ill-suited; out of 
place; inappropriate, inexpedient, in- 
opportune; <U- <J».sL* sddafa mahallahu 
to be convenient, be most opportune; 
J J^ V (mahalla) there is no room 
for . . . ; it is out of place, quite d^place ; 
J^JI J*, m. al-amal place of employ- 
ment; 4*lSVl Ji* m. al-iqdma (place of) 
residence, address; ^jU: J^ (tijdrl) 
business house, commercial house; 
4jjUd!j 4~y**JI coUM ('umumiya, ti* 
jariya) public utilities and commercial 
houses; J^l —,\ ism al-m. firm; 
£j\Sj*j Jjt m. ruhunat pawnshop; O"^ 
U-LJI m. as-siyaha travel agencies; 
cA^ja j£ w. murattibdt refreshment 
parlor; _^J1I j£ m. al-lahw and J^i 
,3*^11 m. al-maldhl (pi. Jl£) amuse- 
ment center; ^l>' J*i m. niza' object 
of controversy, controversial matter; 
«--»«*J ^# ^jl ^ la ard m. li-'ajabin I 
don't see any reason for amazement, 
there is nothing to be astonished 
about; J& J^ m. nazar deserving 
attention, a striking, remarkable thing; 
s* £&£ mahallak sir (eg.) in place, march! 
(command; mil.); ^x* J* (handasi) 
geometric locus (math.) 

J^- mahalli local; native, indigenous; 
parochial; pi. oLJL< local news, local 
page (of a newspaper) 

J^ mahill due date ; date of delivery 

4i^ mahalla pi. -at way station, 
stopping place, stop, stopover, en- 
campment; camp; section, part, quar- 
ter (of a city) | ^j£j| ;UI (£«6rd) 
Mahalla el Kubra (city in N Egypt) 

JJ>i tahlil dissolution, resolution, 
breaking up, decomposition, specifica- 
tion, detailing, analyzation; (pi. -at, 
JJl^ tahdlU 2 ) analysis (chem. and gener- 
al); — absolution (Chr.) | JJU-dU in 
detail; JJ*i J^*. ma'mal t. laboratory 
for chemical analyses; JJ^JI JJ^ factor 
analysis; Jl>^ JJ^: (kahraba'l) elec- 
trolysis; (jUUI) ^^Ul JJU=J! (nafsl) 
psychoanalysis; JJy JJU: (imzifi) func- 
tion analysis 

JJUi tahlili analytic(al) 

J^*-l t*A£aZ substitution (e.g., phon.) 

JJU- tahallul dissolution, breakup ; sep- 
aration, disengagement, disassociation 

J^Ul inhildl dissolution, breakup, 
decomposition; disintegration; decay, 
putrefaction; slackening, exhaustion, 
prostration, weakness, impotence 

J^-! ihtildl occupation (mil.) \ JSj^*- 
J}b>-Vl occupation forces 

ch>b»-i ihtildli occupying, occupation 
(used attributively) ; advocate of foreign 

J jJU- mahlul solved ; dissolved , 
resolved, broken up; loose; untied, 
unfastened, unfettered, free, at large; 
weakened, prostrate, exhausted, lan- 
guid; (pi. JJUt mahalli 2 ) solution (liquid; 
chem.) \j^\ ijji*. m. aS-Sa'r with loose, 
disheveled hair 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlq Jj&Jma jj OU-3-O3-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 



Jl£ muhallil pi. -un analyzer, analyst | 
iS ^iJ JJL* (nafsi) psychoanalyst 

J#*^» munhall solved; dissolved, re- 
solved, broken up; disbanded; lan- 
guid, prostrate, weak; permitted, al- 

Jrf muhtcdl occupying (mil.); occupied 
(zone; mil.) | ^Jb^ ,J>j^r occupation 
forces; &£ Uku (mintaqa) occupied 

2 4J^L- see J^- 

1 i_JU- halaba i u (halb) to milk {a an 
animal) | #^k-*' j*^' <— ^- halaba d-dahra 
asturahu he has seen good and bad 
days V to run, drip, trickle, ooze, seep, 
leak; to water, drool (mouth, with 
appetite) | «|yVI «d ^JU^j (afwdh) 
making the mouth water, appetizing; 
Jt j ljUUI ^U (al-lu'abu fl fami) and 
J; j wJ^ (riqi) my mouth was watering 
VIII to milk (a an animal) X do.; to 
squeeze juice (a from) 

cJU- AaZ6 milking 

<_JL- Ma& milk 

<JL»- halba pi. AaZa6a< race track; 
arena; dance floor; race horses; round 
(in boxing) | ,yt*)\ -U*- h. ar-raq$ dance 
floor; 2ULLI jjfc j- Lr J 4jl he is not made 
for that, he doesn't belong there, it is 
not in his line; *_j «UU ^jU a master of, 
excelling or outstanding in 

*JU- hulba fenugreek (Trigonella 
foenum-graecum ; bot.); tonic, j>repared 
of yellowish grains, for women in 
childbed [eg., syr.) 

<_~1>- hallb milk | (_Jl>- ^J laban h. 
cow's milk (eg.) 

^jJL*. hallbl made of milk 

c^^JU- halub lactiferous | <-?J^- «^; 
(baqara) milk cow; *-^L^~' <L£U! (wid 
&"^a) dairy cattle 

ij*iU hilaba dairy farming 
l-j^jU- halldb milker 

<j"iU- hallaba milkmaid, dairymaid; 
dairywoman; milk cow 

*_Jji mahlab mahaleb (Prunus maha- 
leb; bot.) 

t_JU- hdlib ureter 

t^JUfci-^ mustahlab emulsion | *_JU«i.«,. 
JjJJI to. al-lauz almond milk 

2 ._JU- halab 2 Aleppo 

JU- ^Za6* coming from or originating 
in Aleppo; an inhabitant of Aleppo | 
^JU- jz~s (fustuq) pistachio, pistacia vera 

C~cL~ hiltit, haltit asafetida (Ferula assa- 
foetida; bot.) 

»JL- halaja i u (halj, ~JL>- halij) to gin (a 

jJU- halj ginning (of cotton) 

«JU- halij ginning (of cotton); 
ginned (cotton) 

4*-*^»- hildja cotton ginner's work or 

r^>- halldj cotton ginner 

£«i£ mihlaj, l*A£ mihlaja pi. £l£ 
mahalij 2 cotton gin 

rwLi mahlaj pi. Ms£ makdlij 2 cotton 

J>JU- kalhala to remove, drive away, shove 
away II tahalhala to stir from one's 
place; to move, stir, budge 

jj^U- halazun snail; spiral 

*JjjJU- halazuna (n. un.) snail; spiral 

<jjjb- halazunl spiral, helical, volute, 

^Jj*- halisa a to remain, stay permanently 
(^ at a place), stick ((_-> to a place) 

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^^-1*- hils pi. cr -"^»-l aAZas (with foil, 
genit.) one addicted or given to, 
one adhering to | jji\ ^^U-l a. 
al-lahw people given to pleasure and 
amusement, bona vivants, playboys 

^JU hils pi, ^^-1 aAZas, ^jb- hulus 
saddle blanket 

Lr A*-\ ahlas 2 , f. #UL>. halsd' 2 bay, 
chestnut (horse) 

<jJL- halafa i {half, hilf) to swear (<ojLj by 
God) | L;X <-^»- (yaminan) to take an 
oath II to make (<> s.o.) swear; to put 
to oath, swear in (* s.o.); to adjure, 
entreat earnestly (e s.o.) Ill to enter 
into a confederation, into an alliance 
(» with s.o.), become an ally (» of s.o.) 
VI to commit one another by oath (J* 
to do, join in alliance; to ally, 
make an alliance (^* with) X to make 
(o s.o.) swear, exact an oath (o from 
s.o.) ; to adjure, entreat earnestly (» s.o.) 

iJ«JU- half, hilf swearing, oath | ^JaJU- 
^\ taking the oath 

ij»l>- hilf sworn alliance; pact (pol), 
treaty; (pi. uJ*>Ul ahldf) ally | <JJU- 
g^L^ (*askari) military alliance; «_iU-l 
Jdi»y\ (atianti) and ^^UkVI J»l»- (ra#cwi) 
the Atlantic Pact ; j+j\j CA»- A. warso the 
Warsaw Pact 

tJJU- Aaii/ pi. »UJL- hula fa'* con- 
federate; ally; allied | »ULU the Allies 

ajoJU- hali fa pi. -a< f. of iJuL»- 

JsjJU halluf^l, <JJ">U- halalif 2 {magr., 
eg.) wild boar; pig, swine 

*UL- feaZ/a und UJU ^aZ/a (6o(.) alfa, 

JaA& tahllf swearing in | tJi-i>*Jl ci- 
Za??wtf a«-(. (obs.) the jury (in court) 

iiJUi. muhalafa alliance 

(JiiUc tahaluf state of alliance; al- 

(Jj^ muhallaf sworn, bound by oath; 
(pi. -tin) juror (in court) | Ojil*JJ and 
^iJUJil iLft ^at'erf aZ-m. the jury (in court) 

.JJUw mutahalif interallied, allied 

jJU- halaqa i {halq) to shave (* the head, 
the face); to shave off (a the beard) 
II to circle in the air, hover ; to fly, soar 
(bird, airplane, also of pilots; Jp and Jiy 
over or above; to round, make 
round, circular or ring -shaped (*; to 
ring, surround, encircle (Jp s.o.,; 
to clothe V to form a circle, sit in a 
circle; to gather in a circle (Jp around 

ji>- halq shaving, shave; (pi. <5j^>- 
huluq, tjbUl ahlaq) throat; back of the 
throat; pharynx; (fig.) chasm 

JJU- halgi guttural; laryngal (phon.); 
laryngeal, pharyngeal; see also halaql 

jU halaq rings (coll.) ; (pi. uUtU hulqan, 
eg.) a pair of earrings 

UJL- halqa pi. halaqat ring (e.g., a metal 
ring of a door, also fig., of spies, criminals, 
etc.); link (of a chain); circle (also of 
people) ; group of students studying under 
a professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., 
at Al Azhar University); seminar; part 
of a sequence or series; installment of a 
TV series; ringlet; disk; decade; market | 
SUJI iiJU h> an-najah life buoy, life 
preserver; JL^jVI *aU- h. al-ittisdl and 
k*J\ SaU h. al-wad connecting link 
(<>. between; fig.); IsyubS SiLU the 
missing link, the intermediate form; 
6jf ^* luoUl ItfU-i j Cumrihl) in the 
sixth decade of his life, in his fifties; 
£JU*V aaU fish market; jJaSJl *5l»- h. 
al-qutn cotton market; *~*\j* *^*- (dird^ 
slya) seminar, tutorial class; ^pJJl lai>- 
h. ad-dihr (pi. jlfiVI oUJU- h. al-adkar) 
collective liturgical exercise by a group 

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of members of an order (Sufism), see 
jTi dikr; *ijk» ill>- (mufraga) vicious 
circle; oUJU *LJL ailsilat h. broadcast 
series, TV series; J-^j oUL- A. ba$al 
onion rings 

JJU- halaqi, halqi annular, ring-shaped, 
circular; cyclical 

Jj^U- halldq pi. -?m barber | ^^ j"^ 
(^t'Mt). S>— Jl J*>U- A. a$-9ihha barber- 

J-L- Aa^ shaved, shaven, shorn 

43*iU- hildqa shaving, shave; barber's 
trade | 4oU~l 6jjU» sa&w«. aZ-A. shaving 
soap; ihU-l C)jJL» barbershop; ^i 
JWJ-1 ^a'atf aZ-A. do.; O *bU-i i^l. 
and O SfcU-l 2JT safety razor 

jjk- mihlaq pi. jJl* mahaliq 2 straight 

jJ^ ta&Hg flying, flight (of an air- 
craft ; Jp and <5y over a country) ; 
take-off (of an airplane); O laryngaliza- 
tion (phon.) 

jJU- ,ja min haliq from above 

-^UL- hulqum pi. J>^b- AaZagim 2 throat, 
gullet | f^ji^U «U-b ?*oAai al-h. a kind of 
sweet made of cornstarch, sugar, 
mastic and pistachios (eg.) 

*iiU- halika a (halak) to be pitch-black, 
deep-black XII tfJjL-l ihlaulaka do. 

*£JUb- AaZafc intense blackness 

i£JU- hulka intense blackness 

*iiL- /iaZi& pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

iS^JU- huluka gloominess, darkness; 

*£]JU- hdlik pitch-black, deep-black; 
gloomy, murky 

1>- halama u to dream (^» or j^ of; ol j 
of being, becoming, doing, etc., in the 

future); to muse, reflect, meditate (y 
on; to attain puberty; — haluma 
u to be gentle, mild- tempered VIII to 
attain puberty 

1>- hulm pi. f^U-l ahlam dream; pi. 
irreality, utopia | &JLJI L_ h. al-yaqza 

( jl»- hulml dream- (in compounds), 
of or pertaining to dreams 

i>- hulum sexual maturity, puberty j 
LLI iJLj to attain puberty 

i>- htlm pi. jojJU hulum, vsU-l ahlam 
gentleness, clemency, mildness; for- 
bearance, indulgence; patience; in- 
sight, discernment, understanding, in- 
telligence, reason | W*-V1 jUv* simple- 
minded people, simple souls 

1>- halam (coll.; n. un. *) tick; mite; 
nipple, teat, mammilla (of the female 

^JU- halami parasitic; mammillary, 
nipple -shaped 

JL- halim pi. #\i>- hulamd"'* 
mild-tempered, gentle; patient 


>jJU- halum, r^JU- hdlum a kind of 
Egyptian cheese 

iU- hdlim dreamy, dreamlike; (pi. -un) 

ls£ muhtalim sexually mature, pu- 
bescent, marriageable 

j>*^>- halangl (eg.) swindler, cheat 

(jl»- and J*-) /mZwifa u, haliya a, ^>- AaZa 
u (tji*- haldwa, jlJU- AttZwan) to be 
sweet; to be pleasant, agreeable (J to 
s.o.) I t^\ 4) ">U he enjoyed the thing; 
jl <d ^ it pleased him that..., he 
was delighted that . . . ; 4J J^ If--*- 
(hasabamd) at his discretion, as he 
pleases; — J»- AaZa i to adorn, grace; 

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— ■ J>- haliya a to be adorned (<_j with) 
II to sweeten (a, e.g., a beverage 
with sugar); to adorn, bedeck, embel- 
lish, attire, furnish, provide (*, * s.o.,, <-» with) | ***jj> J*- (dirsahu) to eat 
a sweet or sweet food, eat one's dessert 
V to adorn o.s., be adorned, decked out, 
embellished, graced, endowed, furnished, 
provided (<-> with) X to find sweet or 
pleasant, like (a, be delighted (a by) 

*>l»~ halan sweetness, pleasantness 

jL~ hulw sweet; pleasant, nice, 
charming, delightful, pretty | du-bU ^i>- 
a gifted raconteur, amusing, entertain- 
ing; SjJU-1 S-Ull (gudda) pancreas (anat.) 

Js- haly pi. J>- huliy piece of jewelry, 

LL- hilya pi. Ja- hilan, hulan dec- 
oration, embellishment, finery; trinket; 

(£jJU- halwa pi. <£f&>~ haldwd candy, 
confection, confectionery, sweetmeats ; 
sweet pastry; dessert 

fljJU- halwa' 2 candy, confection, con- 
fectionery, sweetmeats 

J\ji>- halwa I confectioner, candy deal- 
er; pastry cook, fancy baker 

objJU halwaydt (eg.), hulwiydt (syr.- 
leb.) sweets {in general); sweet pastry; 
candies, confectionery, sweetmeats; — 
halawlydt (eg.) delicacies, titbits of 
slaughtered animals, esp. kidneys and 

o/^U- haldwa sweetness; candies, 
confectionery, sweetmeats ; grace, grace- 
fulness, charm, refinement, wittiness, 
wit; present of money; ransom | ej->U- 
\~aJi- (hummusiya) a sweet made of 
roasted chick-peas; Vr'J? *j*^- [fa* 
hlnlya) a sweet made of sesame-seed 
meal; i>jjJ »j*>^- (lauziya) a sweet 
made of almonds; rjj\ *jy&- euphoria 

b\jh- hulwdn present of money, 
gratuity, tip 

uljl*. hulwdn* Helwan (town south of 

jljJU- hulwarii (syr.-leb.), hilawdnl (eg.) 
confectioner, candy dealer; pastry 
cook, fancy baker 

J^l U ma uhaild oh, how sweet 
is ..., oL#-t t» oh, how sweet he is! 

XXd tahliya decoration, embellish- 
ment, ornamentation; sweetening | li^ 
sUl (. al-miydh desalinization of water, 
production of fresh -water 

J^ muhallan sweetened; decorated, 
embellished, adorned, ornamented (<_-» 

**- ham, pi. »L?-I ahma? father-in-law; pi. 
relatives of the wife by marriage, in- 
laws of the wife 

l\jt- hamdh pi. d\yi- hamawat mother- 
in-law; see also \j^ and 2 j>- 

2 <s- huma see 2 yt- 

3 j- hamma u (hamm) to heat, make hot 
(a; pass, humma to be feverish, 
have a fever; — u (p^ humum) to decree 
{a, said of God) | j-UJl *^- humma 
l-qadr the fate was predetermined, the 
decision was already made; dJIi <d j- 
(humma) that was decreed to him, that is 
his lot, his destiny II to heat, make hot 
(a; to bathe, wash (a or * s.o. or IV to heat, make hot (a X to 
bathe, take a bath 

«- hamma hot spring 

dj- humma blackness, swarthiness, 
dark coloration; fever 

jh humam magma ; lava ; embers, cinder 

jh humma f., pi. oLs- hummaydt 
fever, fever heat | Joi^LxJl ^^-i and 
ZJu6\ ( _ ? J-1 (tifiya) typhoid fever, 

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typhus fever; jAll jt- h. d-diqq hectic 
fever; «jJ1 j*- h, r-rib e quartan fever; 
**rLr^ ^J-l relapsing fever ; AjJi~a}\ ^^J-l 
or hj\jJLd\ (J J-\ (safra\ safrawiya) 
yellow fever; t^jJi j^ h. l-gibb tertian 
fever; l~**J}\ L$ J-\ (fahmiya) anthrax; 
<jj^iJI (j^J-l (qirmiziya) scarlet fever; 
J&\ j*- k. 1-qaU hayfeVer; SLfoUJl (J J-\ 
(quWiya) foot-and-mouth disease ; ( _ S J- ! 
*S^}\ !LiM {mukklya, Saukiya) cere- 
brospinal meningitis; Is^j^lS L? J-1 
(mutamawwija) undulant fever, Malta, 
fever, brucellosis; ^L-UJI {J J~\ {nifa* 
siya) puerperal fever, childbed fever; 
O *~ZJ?\ iS ^~\ (namaslya) spotted fever 

^ humml feverish, febrile, fever- 
fin compounds) 

pU- hamam (coll.; n. un. S) pi. -at t 
^\j- hamaim 2 dove, pigeon | J>-^ r^*~ 
carrier pigeon; ^\ JU bugloss, 
oxtongue (Anchusa officinalis; bot.) 

j»b- himdm (fate of) death 

/•La- hammam pi. -at bath; swim- 
ming pool; bathroom; Oriental bath- 
house; spa; watering place | ^r* >»U* h. 
Sams sunbath; \j& ol*U- (bahrlya) sea- 
side resorts 

^9- hamim pi. »\j-\ ahimma' 2 close 
friend; close, intimate; — hot water; the 
water reserved for sinners in hell 

j-1 ahamm 2 , f. ,[*■ hamma" 2 , pi. *- 
humm black 

jt mihamm hot-water kettle, cal- 
dron, boiler 

A^J\ istihmam bathing, bath 

i.L>«xJ (n. vie.) bath (which one takes) 

f^*j£ mahmum feverish, having a 
fever; frantic, hectic 

1 !j- hama'a a to clean out, dredge (* a well) 

U- hamcC , llr- ham" a mud, mire, 
sludge; pi. o!?- hama'dt masses of mud 

z'jr- hamia to be or become angry, 
furious, mad (Jp at s.o.) 

p*j?- hamhama (4^»*> hamhama) to neigh, 
whinny (horse) 

i*^j- hamhama neigh(ing), whinny- 
ing, whinnies 

f*j*~ Mmhim oxtongue, bugloss (An- 
chusa officinalis; bot.) 

JU- hamida a (hamd) to praise, commend, 
laud, extol ( Jp » s.o. for, a II to 
praise highly (» s.o.) 

-U- hamd commendation, praise, 
laudation | <us JUi-1 al-hamdu lillah 
thank God! praise be to God! praised 
be the Lord! 

jl*- hamid praiseworthy, laudable, 
commendable; benign, harmless (dis- 

.iy- hamud praiseworthy, laudable, 
commendable, praised 

Xs--\ ahmad 2 more laudable, more 

4jJLs-V! **jy5Jl as-sarVa al-ahmadlya 
Mohammedan Law 

»-Ui£ mahmada pi. JuU- mahdmid 2 
commendable act; pi. Jul* praises, 

.ij.** mahmud praised; commend- 
able, laudable, praiseworthy | <_JI^*JI j>** 
having favorable results, having a good 

JU* muhammad praised; commend- 
able, laudable 

t^JU* muhammadl pertaining or 
attributable to Mohammed 

J.U- hamdala to pronounce the formula 
am -uJ-l "Praise be to God!" 

3JJL3- hamdala the formula <ui JlJU 
(see above) 


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y- II to redden, color or dye red (* ; 
to roast {*; to fry (*; to 
brown (* flour in preparing a roux) 
IX to turn red, take on a reddish color, 
redden, blush 

jt- humar asphalt 

^jS- humari asphaltic, asphalt, tar, 

If hurnra redness, red color(ation), 
red; rouge {cosm.); brick dust, brick 
rubble; erysipelas, St. Anthony's fire 
(med.) | Ijf £r*>\ ™ba r h. lipstick 

j\jh kimar pi. jf hamir, j*- humur, 
'oj*-\ ahmira donkey, ass | J*~J\ j^ 
h. al-wahs and J^j jL*- {waUl) wild 
ass, onager; j^J-1 -- samm al-h. oleander 
(Nerium oleander; hot.) 

SjU- himdra pi. J\*- hamd'ir 2 she- 
ass, female donkey 

jjt- humur red, red color(ation), 

ij#» humaira redstart {zool.) 

j Li- hammdr pi. I donkey driver 

jh\ ahmar 2 , f. >[f- hamrd' 2 , pi. y 
humr red, red- colored, ruddy; rosy, 
pink; bloody, violent; excited, heated up 
(crowd) | y-VI cJ- t >*-VI Oj> infrared; 
^\ j>J\ the Red Sea; y*"sM ^-~M 
the Red Cross; y-VI ^ (mawf) 
violent death; y-NI ^>l (Aaioa) 
sexual intercourse; o^*iM {"the 
two red ones", i.e.) wine and meat; 
j*-y\j *jj)l\ {"the black and the red", 
i.e.) all mankind; oUiJI y 1 and (egr.) y-l 
(JuUiJI lipstick 

»l^ hamrd' 2 smut, rust (disease 
affecting cereals); J^J-1 Alhambra, the 
Citadel of Granada 

jj+4- yahmur red; deer, roe, roe- 
buck; wild ass; hemoglobin (physiol) 

j\jt-\ ikmirdr reddening, blush(ing), 
redness, red coloration; erythema 

j^ muhammar roasted, panfried | 

lj+£ ^Uaj {batdtis) fried potatoes 

^ hamaza i (hamz) to bite, or burn, the 
tongue (taste) 

^ hamisa a {*A*- hamdsa) to be zealous, 
ardent, be enthusiastic; to be valiant, 
courageous II to fill with enthusiasm 
(o s.o.) V to get heated, worked up; to be 
excited; to be enthusiastic (J about), have 
a passion (J for); to advocate fervently 
(J; to be overzealous {J in 

^ hamis unflinching, ardent, eager, 
zealous, lively; enthusiastic, full of en- 

^U- hamds enthusiasm, rapture; zeal; 
elan, fighting spirit 

L-U- hamdsa enthusiasm, fire, ardor, 
fervor, zeal; valor, bravery, heroism; 
i-.Ui-l the Hamasa (a famous collection 
of Arabic poems) 

-*li- hamdsl enthusiastic, ardent, 
fiery, zealous, enraptured; enrapturing, 
stirring, rousing 

ijm *>\ ahmas 2 , f. »L-»- hamsa**, pi. ^ 
hums unflinching, tenacious, valiant; 
strenuous, zealous; enthusiastic 

^^J. tahammus unflinching zeal, 
enthusiasm (J for), fanaticism 

u ~**c* mutahammis enthusiastic, ar- 
dent, fiery, zealous; — (pi. -«») ardent 
follower, fanatic adherent, fanatic; fan 
(J e.g., of a sport, of a trend in art) 

Jj>~ hamasa u to excite, irritate, infuriate, 
enrage (■« s.o.) 

l*j- hamsa catgut {med.) 

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1 ( j**- II to roast (a, esp. coffee) ; to toast 
(a bread) 

^ himmi§ t himma$\ (colloq.) hum- 
mus (coll.; n. un. 5) chick-pea; — hummu§ 
a dish made of ground chick-peas with 
sesame oil, etc. 

mihma$a coffee roaster 

2 ^jaJh hims 2 Horns (the ancient Eniesa, 
city in central Syria) 

ij*3- hamuda u Q~J>y~ humuda) to be or 
become sour II to make sour, sour, 
acidify, acidulate (a; to develop 
(a a photographic plate, a film; phot.); 
to cause (a to oxidize 

^yojt- hamd pi. ^1>1 ahmdi acid 
{chem.) | dji q**- (bauli) uric acid 

lS £*- j& sajar hamdl citrus trees 

hamdlya pi. -at citrus fruit 

humuda sourness, acidity | 
Xj>jJ-\ jSja muwallid al-h. oxygen 

,^U- hummad, f^Ajt- hummaid sorrel 

Kj *~*£- tahmid, souring, acidification; 
development (phot.) 

^U-l ihmad jocular language, joking 

**\*- kdmi# sour, acid; acidulous; 
(pi. ^aj^j*- hatvdmid 2 ) acid (chem.); pi. 
,;<**!>>■ citrus fruits | j*Ji}\ u ^*\^~ h. al- 
fahm carbonic acid; ^jf iJ J^\>- (kibriti) 
sulphuric acid; 0>*JJt ^-i^l*- 
citric acid 

J»l> hamdt (saud.-ar.) figs 

J*- hamiqa a and hamuqa u (humq, 4*U- 
hamdqa) to be stupid, silly, foolish, 
fatuous; to become angry or furious 
II and IV to regard (# s.o.) as a fool, 
consider (« s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic 

VI pretend to be stupid VII to become 
angry or furious X to consider (* s.o.) 
dumb, stupid, idiotic 

£t~ humq stupidity, silliness, fool- 
ishness, folly 

isl?- hamdqa stupidity, silliness, fool- 
ishness, folly; anger, wrath; pi. ol*U- 

JU- humaq > hamdq smallpox, variola 

J*-1 ahmaq 2 , f. »Uj- hamqa' 2 , pi. J*- 
hum(u)q } J*- hamqa, JU- hamdqa dumb, 
stupid, silly, foolish, fatuous; fool, sim- 
pleton, imbecile 

oUu- hamqdn dumb, stupid, silly, 
foolish; angry, furious 

Jj- hamaki i (haml) to carry, bear (a; 
to lift, pick up (a in order to carry 
it), load up and take along (a; to 
hold (a, in one's hand); to carry 
on or with one, take or bring along 
(a; to transport, carry, convey 
(a; to bring, take (Jf or j a 
to s.o.) ; to take upon o.s. (jc instead of 
or for s.o., a a burden), carry, assume 
(a the burden, je- of s.o. else), relieve 
(a (j* s.o. from, take (a a burden, 
a grievance, etc.) from s.o. ( jp) ; to extend, 
show, evince, cherish, harbor (a a feel- 
ing, J toward s.o.); to become or be 
pregnant (,y by s.o.); to bear fruit 
(tree) ; to induce, cause, prompt, get 
(J* o s.o. to do, make s.o. («) do (J*); to convert, bring around, win 
over («uTj Jp a s.o. to one's opinion), 
convince (ajIj Jp » a.o. of one's opinion) ; 
to attack (Jp s.o.), also Jp *U- J^ 
(hamlatan) to launch or make an at- 
tack on; to know by heart (a a book); 
to relate, refer (Jp a to), bring (a to bear (Jp upon, link, 
correlate, bring into relation (a, Jp 
with); to trace, trace back (Jp a 

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to); to ascribe, attribute, impute (Jp a to s.o.); to make (a a word) agree 
grammatically (Jp with another) | Jj" 
<u-ij j to feel annoyed, be in a mel- 
ancholy mood, feel blue; a — o Jp Jj*- to 
pull o.s. together, brace o.s.; J*£ Jp **JLs- 
(mdhmali) to take to mean..., 
interpret or construe in the sensn 
of . . ., as if it were . . . ; &*£■ jf Jp aL> to 
misinterpret, misconstrue; J*^- <*Ju- 
jU-I (mahmala Ujidd) to take 
seriously, take at face value; Jr- 
f*A-V to be a carrier of Islam (of a people 
or nation); olj^xT^JI J** (doktordh) to have 
a doctor's degree; lii+Z J^ (sahadatan) to 
carry a certificate with one or on one's 
person; S^SCi Jj*- (fikratan) to be a car- 
rier, upholder of an idea; uT,5Ji J> to 
know the Koran by heart ; LaJ J>- {iaga= 
6an) to hold a title; SJ.U Jj- (madanlya^ 
tan) to be a carrier of a civilization II to 
have or make (o s.o.) carry or bear (a, load, burden, charge, task (a, * 
s.o. or a with), impose (a o on 
s.o. V to bear, assume, take upon 
o.s. (a, e.g., oliiJI an-nafaqat the 
expenses, aJjJ-JLI al-ma$'ullya the re- 
sponsibility); to bear up (a under), bear, 
stand, sustain, endure, tolerate, stomach 
(a; to undergo, suffer (a; to 
be able to stand (o s.o.) or put up (o with 
s.o.); to hold up (a against abuse), sus- 
tain (a, e.g., heavy usage or wear); 
to set out, get on one's way; to de- 
part VI to maltreat, treat unjustly (Jp 
s.o.), be prejudiced, be biased, take 
sides (Jp against s.o.); to struggle to 
one's feet, rise with great effort | Jp J*U: 
^Jsj (nafsihi) to brace o.s.; to pull o.a, 
together, take heart, pluck up courage 
VIII to carry, bring (*; to carry 
away, take away, haul off, lug off (*; to suffer, undergo, bear, stand, 
endure, sustain {a; to allow, permit, 
suffer, tolerate, brook, stomach (a, 

acquiesce (a in), put up, bear (a with; to hold (a, have capacity 
(a for); to imply that (a) is possible, 
permissible, or conceivable; pass. J*z^ 
yuhtamcUu {it is) bearable, tolerable; (it 
is) conceivable, possible, probable, likely 

Jj- haml carrying, bearing; induce- 
ment, prompting, encouragement (of 
s.o., Jp to); delivery; transport, trans- 
portation, conveyance; portage, carry- 
ing charges; - — (pi. JU-1 ahmal, Jb- 
himal) foetus; pregnancy | J-i-l /»Ap 
r adam al-h. sterility (of a woman) 

Jj- himl f (colloq.) haml pi. Jl*-I ahmal 
cargo, load, burden | ^- J*- (ha-yy) pay 
load, commercial load, live load; £*~* Jj- 
(mayyit) and jS~L- J> dead load, dead 
weight; ojl^» J?- (muwazin) counter- 
poise, counterweight 

Js- hamal pi. j^U- humldn, JU-1 
ahmal lamb; (unconsecrated) Host (Chr.- 
Copt); JJ-I Aries, Ram (sign of the zo- 
diac; astron.) ; the first month of the solar 
year [Saudi Ar.), counted from the Hegira 
and beginning on the 21st of March 

<b- hamla pi. hamaldt attack (Jp on); 
offensive ; campaign ; military expedition ; 
expeditionary force | ^jofa Si*- (ta'di* 
blya) punitive expedition; v^ ^*" 
(sihdfiya) press campaign; LsLI&lJ Sis- 
(istiksdfiya) reconnaissance raid (mil.); 
^SCjISL* U?- motorized detachment (mil.); 
V.U»xJl U> (intikdblya) election cam- 
paign; j\^u ib- clean-up campaign (pol.); 
4J.U Hit* ("dlamlya) worldwide campaign; 
\*ji Us- h. tau'iya campaign of enlighten- 

Jj- hamall pi. -iya ambulant water 

J^j" hamil foundling; child in the womb, 
fetus; guarantor, warrantor 

J* 4L3- hamila r ald a burden to, 
completely dependent upon 

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Jy- hamul (m. and f.) long-suffering; 
patient, tolerant in suffering (of hardship, 
burdens) ; gentle, mild-tempered 

<JU- hammal pi. -tin, 2 porter, carrier 

ills- himdla work and trade of a 
porter or carrier 

*JU- hammdla (carrier) beam, girder, 
support, base, post, pier, pillar; suspend- 
ers | jJLs-aJJ aJU* (?adr) brassiere 

*jj*- humula pi. -at load capacity, 
load limit, capacity; tonnage (of a 
vessel); portage, freightage, transport 
charges; (pi. JjU- hamd'il 2 ) family (Ir.) 

Ji*- 1 ahmal 2 more tolerant or patient in 

J*^ mahmal see JlJ- kamala; aJso 
Ai-I J^j£ Jp but JUU (wi. il~jidd) to take seriously 

J»^ mahmil, (colloq.) mahmal pi. J«U- 
mahamil 2 camel-borne litter; mahmal, 
a richly decorated litter sent by Islamic 
rulers to Mecca as an emblem of their 
independence, at the time of the hadj; 
O bearing (techn.) | O ^hj? S*^~ m * ^ u * 
raiyat ball bearing (techn.) 

^J. iahmll burdening; encumbrance; 
imposition; loading (of ships; of goods); 
shipping, shipment 

SL*j£ tahmila pi. J**l^ tahamil 2 sup- 
pository (med.) 

J^ tahammul taking over, assump- 
tion (of burdens) ; bearing, standing, suf- 
ferance, endurance; durability; strength, 
hardiness, sturdiness, solidity (of a ma- 
terial); pi. Cj%Ji assumed duties or tasks, 

J-.U^ tahamul prejudice, bias, partiali- 
ty; intolerance 

JJJj-l ihtimal bearing, standing, suf- 
fering, sufferance, toleration; durability, 

endurance (of a material or of goods); 
probability, likelihood, potentiality; pi. 
oVUs»-l probabilities; possibilities | 
Jl(0-*yi i_*w* {§Q> r ty hard to bear, oppres- 

J*»U- hdmil pi. SJL»- hamala porter, 
carrier; bearer (of a note, of a check, etc.; 
of an order or decoration); holder (of 
an identification paper, of a diploma, of a 
certificate, an academic title, a qualifica- 
tion, an idea); holding device, holder, 
clamp, fastener, hold, support (techn.); 
fighter (J* against); (pi. J*l^>- hawamil 2 ) 
pregnant | Jb^Jl J*U- courier; rf— VI ii> 
h. ai-ashum shareholders; bj^KJl J-.U- 
h. al-bakdloriyd holder of a secondary 
school diploma (Magr.); s.o. having the 
degree of Baccalaureus ; LJl J-.U- h. al- 
'alam standard bearer, flagman; J*U- 
<_*iJU1 A. aUlaqab titleholder (sport); Si*- 
**$3^\ the publicists, the writers; J^U- 
diil *^T h. kalam allah one who knows the 
Koran by heart; J^U- jLJ (tatjydr) car- 
rier current (el.); 4JLU- oU^. (maujat) 
carrier waves (el.) 

*JL*U- hdmila pi. -at device for carry- 
ing, carrier; rack | ^Uj^ a1*U- map case; 
olyll* U»Ls- h. tairdt aircraft carrier; 
JjU «LU- bomber plane, bomber 

J>*£ mahmul carried, borne; bear- 
able, tolerable; load weight, service 
weight, cargo; tonnage (of a vessel); 
predicate, attribute (logic), 4JU J^-*^ 
subject (logic) | ^j^f- Sit. (musdh) 
motorized infantry (mil.); \j>- L)jij*j£ :>^i*- 
(jawwan) airborne troops (mil.) 

J*^ muhammal loaded, laden, heavily 
charged, burdened (»_-> with), encumbered 
(- by) 

J*^£ muhtamal bearable, tolerable; 
probable, likely | 61 J^»Jll J- probably 

jU- hamlaqa (4aU> hamlaqa) to stare, gaze 
(J or «_> at) 


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\s)\jh- himaldyd Himalaya 

1 jjf- hartiu (construct state of j- ham) and *U- 

hamah see 1 s- 

s (_j^» and ^*- ) j- hamiya a to be or become 
hot; to glow (metal); to flare up; to fly 
into a rage, become furious (Jp at) | t y- 
^pJlUjJI fierce fighting broke out II to 
make hot, heat (a; to heat to 
glowing (a metal); to fire up (a a stove); 
to kindle, inflame, stir up, excite (a ; 
to bathe (= 3 ^- II) IV to make hot, heat 

yi- hamw heat | J-jJl y>- h. an-nll 
prickly heat, heat rash, lichen tropicus 

j** humuw heat 

A*- huma pi. -at, jh human sting, 
stinger (of insects); prick, spine (of 

jf* hamiy hot, glowing; heated, 
j* hummd see 3 /- 

Xjh hamiya zeal, ardor, fervor; enthu- 
siasm, ardent zeal, fanaticism; violence, 
vehemence; passion, rage, fury; heat of 
excitement; temper, temperament | SyJ-l 
A^jiJl (qaumiya) chauvinism 

Lf- humayyd heat; excitement, agita- 
tion; enthusiasm; fire, passion, impet- 
uosity, vehemence; fury, rage; wine 

lj\jt~ hamawa heat 

f j*£> mahman fire chamber, furnace 
(of a stove, oven, etc.) 

U- hdmin hot; heated, violent, fierce 

(e.g., a battle); 
fiery; burning 

glowing, passionate, 

Vj- hama i (hamy, X>\x~ himdya) to defend, 
guard (a, » s.o.,, ,y against), protect, 
shelter, shield (a or ^ a, * s.o., from) ; 

to deny {^i^ the patient) harmful 
food (a; = to put him on diet); to forbid 
(Ol o s.o. to do Ill to defend (j* s.o. 
or, also, of a lawyer in court); to 
shield, protect, support (js. s.o. or, 
take up the cause of (je), stand up for 
iCf) VI to keep away (a from), shun, 
avoid (a VIII to protect o.s. («, a 
from, from s.o.), defend o.s., cover 
o.s. (t^ with, seek protection, seek 
shelter or refuge (*_-> with s.o., also Alt; 
^ from) ; to entrench oneself (4; in or at 
a place) 

j- himan protection; defense; sanc- 

Zjs- himya that which is defended; 

lAjf himdya pi. -at protection; patron- 
age, sponsorship, auspices; protectorate 
(pol.) | &J! ZA*- h. al-bta environmental 

sUUt muhdmdh defense (jur,); legal 
profession, practicing of law | SULil «La 
hai'at al-m. the bar 

»|^-l Ultima* seeking cover, seeking 
protection; cover, shelter, protection 

fU- hdmin pi. Sb- humdh protector, 
defender, guardian; patron | v^"' ^J^ 
(daula) protecting power (of a protector- 

1L.U- hamiya pi. -at patroness, pro- 
tectress; garrison (mil.) 

^^ makmiy protected («-> by); being 
under a protectorate, having the status 
of a protectorate | i-*^ *ik-. (mintaqa) 
protectorate (country) 

"**+£- mahmiya pi. -at protectorate 
(country; pol.) 

* Ut muhdmin pi . Oja \& muhdmun 
defense counsel, counselor-at-law, lawyer, 
barrister, attorney (at law), advocate 

IL.U. muhdmiya woman lawyer 

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l£- muhtamin one who seeks pro- 
tection; protege; being under a pro- 
tectorate, having the status of a pro- 

2 SU-, a I** hamah Hama (city in W Syria) 

tfjt- hamawl pertaining to, or stemming 
from, Hama 

j\*- himyar 2 the Himyaritea 

iSjj* himyarl Himyaritic 

0*- hanna i {^^- hanin) to long, yearn, 
hanker (Jl for), crave (Jl; — (k^- 
hanna, Oli>- handn) to feel tenderness, 
affection, sympathy (Jp for s.o.); to 
sympathize, commiserate (Jp with), 
feel compassion (Jp for); to pity ( Jp s.o.), 
have mercy (Jp on) II to move, touch, 
fill with tenderness, soften, fill with 
compassion (*JS qalbahu s.o.'s heart) ; 
to blossom, flower, be in bloom (tree) 
V to feel sympathy, feel pity, feel compas- 
sion (Jp for s.o.), commiserate (Jp with 
s.o.) ; to be tender, affectionate 

i>- hanna sympathy; commiseration, 
compassion, pity; favorable aspect, ad- 

ob>- handn sympathy, love, affection, 
tenderness; commiseration, compassion, 
pity; i£JLiU»» handnaika have pity! have 
mercy ! 

*jL>- hanana compassion, pity, com- 

(>:b- hanin longing, yearning, hanker- 
ing, nostalgia, craving, desire ( Jl for) 

jy>- hanun (m. and f.) affectionate, 
loving, softhearted, tenderhearted, com- 
passionate, merciful; tender, soft, gentle, 
kind, moving, touching (voice) 

0L»- hanndn affectionate, loving, 
tender; compassionate, sympathetic 

il>L^ tahndn pity, compassion; sym- 
pathy, affection 

j^ tahannun tenderness, 


\i>- II to dye red (a, with henna) 

►L»- hinna* henna (a reddish-orange 
cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks 
of the henna plant) [ *U-I _^jI abu l-h. 
robin (redbreast); #U-I j* (colloq. tamr 
el-hinna) henna plant (Lawsonia inermis; 

SJl*. look up alphabetically 

J^ hanbali Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to 
the madhab of Ahmad ibn Hanbal; 
puritanical, strict in religious matters; 
(pi. *LL>. hanabila) Hanbalite 

SJLJJ al-hanballya the Hanbalitic 
school of Islamic Law 

o^L^, JyU- look up alphabetically 

<L^>- hanita a (hint) with <c~jc ,3 or 4^*^ : to 
break one's oath V to practice piety, 
perform works of devotion; to seek 
religious purification; to scorn sin, not 
yield to sin 

iij>- hint pi. it>b*-\ ahndt perjury; Bin 

Ij^s- hanjara pi. j>-\±»- hanajir 2 larynx, 

jy^- hunjur pi. j\>-L>- hanajir 2 larynx, 

J»ijj»- lianjala to prance (horse) ; to caper, 
gambol II tahanjala to dance, caper, 
gambol, frisk 

^x*- hindis pi. ^^>- handdis 2 dark night 

*3y£*- handaquq {bot,) melilot, (yellow) 
sweet clover (Melilotus) 

lJ tis>~ hanas pi. ,jSb»-l ahnds snake 

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Ja^>- II to embalm (« a corpse); to stuff (a a 

*kj»- hinta wheat 

{ Ja^~ hintl wheat -colored, golden brown ; 

&bj«- hincita embalming 

1*£ tahannut mummification 

}*££■ muhannat mummified 

jji»l»- hantur (eg.) horse carriage with folding 

Jk>- hanzal (coll.; n. un. 3) colocynth 
(Citrullus colocynthis; hot.) 

,Ju*». hanafa i to turn or bend sideways 

<JlJj- hanif pi. *Uo- hunafa 2 true 
believer, orthodox; one who scorns the 
false creeds surrounding him and pro- 
fesses the true religion; true (religion) | 
iJljJ-I ^-Jl {din) the True (i.e., Islamic) 
Religion, also *U»*-Jl iijJ-i (samha) 

J^- hanafi pagan, heathen, idolater 
(Chr.); Hanafitic (see \JCs>-); (pi. -un) 

<Jcj>~ hanafiya paganism, heathendom 
(Chr,); iji^l the Hanafitic school of 
Islamic Law; — (pi. -at) faucet, tap; 

IoLJ-1 al-hanlflya the True (i.e., 
Islamic) Religion 

JjCj^\ ahnaf 2 afflicted with a distortion 
of the foot 

Jl» haniqa a (hanaq) to be furious, mad, 
an gry; to be annoyed, exasperated, 
peeved, irritated (J^ or J4 at, by), be 
resentful (J* or ^ of) IV to infuriate, 
enrage, embitter, exasperate, irritate 
(* s.o.) 

Jpj»- hanaq fury, rage, ire, wrath, anger, 
exasperation, resentment, rancor 

£*-'haniq furious, mad, angry; resent- 
ful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, exas- 
perated, peeved 

JpU- kdniq furious, mad, angry; 
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed, 
exasperated, peeved | SU-I Jp JjU- 
(hayah) weary of life, dispirited, dejected; 

►L-DI Jp j^U- (nisd*) misogynist 

£j£ muhnaq infuriated, enraged; 
embittered, bitter, angry, exasperated, 

JJcj>- hanaka i u, II and IV to sophisticate, 
make experienced or worldly-wise through 
severe trials (said of fate, time, age) 

<iii>- hanak pi. fJb>-1 ahndk palate 

^*- hanaki palatal 

c*Jb»- hunk, hink and SSc*- hunka world- 
ly experience, practical ability won 
through experience ; prudence, smartness, 

dL£ muhannak experienced, worldly- 
wise, prudent, clever | dJL. • <iJb^ (muban* 
nak) shrewd, smart, sharp 

(j^- and J»-) b- hand u to bend, curve, twist, 
turn; to lean, incline (J* or Jl toward 
s.o.); to be attached (Jp to s.o.), have 
affection (Jp for s.o.); to feel for s.o. 
(Jp), sympathize (Jp with s.o.), com- 
miserate, pity (Jp s.o.), feel compassion, 
feel pity ( Jp for s.o.) ; — L*- and J*- hand % 
to bend, bow, flex, curve, crook (a | 
*Aj &- (ra'sahu) to bow one's head 
down IV to sympathize (Jp with s.o.), 
feel compassion, feel pity (Jp for s.o.), 
commiserate, pity (Jp s.o.) VII to bend, 
curve, twist, turn; to be winding, be 
tortuous, wind, meander (e.g., a road); 
to turn, deviate, digress (jp from); to 
bow (J to s.o.); to lean, incline (Jp or 
3ji over, Jl toward s.o., toward; to devote o.s. eagerly (Jp to; 
to contain, harbor (Jp | ^fjL* o\ 

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ji^ Jp J*jJ V [dulu'i, dign) I harbor no 
grudge, I feel no resentment 

j^>- hanw bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting, 

J^>- kinw pi. »bj»-1 akna* bend, bow, 
turn, twist, curved line, curve, contour; 
pi. ribs | l£ ] c*-\ ^j in her bosom 

_y*~ hunuw sympathy, compassion, 
tenderness; loving affection (Je for s.o.) 

J>- hany bending, deflection, flexing, 
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting, 

bend, turn, curve 

<^ hanlya pi. bb>- handya arc; 
camber, curvature | ojJU» bl^- <j in his 
bosom; <u»ij Uli»- J in his heart, deep 
inside him 

iiL*- kinaya curving, curvature, twist- 
ing, turning, bending 

^£ mahnan pi. uU=- mahdnin curva- 
ture, bend, flexure, bow, turn, curve 

#L*i1 inhinS pi. -at bend, deflection, 
curvature; curve; arc; inclination, tilt; 
bow, curtsy 

U\i^\ inhind'a (n. vie.) bow, curtsy 

Jl^J-l al-kawdni the longest ribs; (fig.) 
breast, bosom | ^Lp - *Jjc bi-miVi h. 
(they shouted) at the top of their lungs, 
with all their might 

^ mahniy bowed, inclined (head); 
bent forward, stooped (person); benb, 
curved, crooked 

j»*l. munhanin bent, curved, crooked, 
twisted; inclined, bowed 

Js-^4 munhanan pi. oLj^x* munha* 
naydt bend, flexure, deflection, curvature; 

turn, twist, break, angle; curve (of a 
road, and math.) ; slope 

*\y~ hawwa 2 Eve 

<~>y>~ V to abstain from sin; to lead a pious 
life; to refrain, abstain (j- from 

h_y>~ hauba sin, offense, misdeed, out- 

*{jj>- hauba* 2 soul 

C>j>- hut pi. jl^- hltdn, C>\y-\ ahwdt fish; 
whale; — C*ji~\ Pisces (sign of the zo- 
diac; astron.); the twelfth month of the 
solar year (Saudi Ar.; cf. Jj- hamal) \ 
o\X* Cjj>- h. sulaimdn salmon (zool.) 

(i>^-) X to dig out of the ground (a 
ti»L>«x**4 mustahat pi. -at fossil 

■ry- IV ahwaja to have need, stand in need, 
be in want (Jl of, need, require, 
want (Jl; to put (o 9.0.) in need of 
(Jl), make necessary (Jf « for s.o., 
require ( Jl * of s.o., compel, oblige 
(Jl » s.o. to); to impoverish, reduce to 
poverty (0 s.o.) | Jl a^-j^\ L. (ahivajahu) 
how much he stands in need of . . . ! how 
urgently he needs . . . ! VIII to have need, 
stand in need, be in want (Jl of; also J 
or a), need, want, require (Jl, also J 
or a, », s.o.) 

rj>- hauj need, want, lack, de- 
ficiency, destitution 

4^-U haja pi. -at need (Jl or <-j of); 
necessity, requirement, prerequisite; na- 
tural, bodily need; pressing need, needi- 
ness, poverty, indigence, destitution; 
object of need or desire; desire, wish, 
request; necessary article, requisite; 
matter, concern, business, job, work; 
thing, object; — pi. 4}j*- haivaif needs, 
necessities, necessaries; everyday objects, 
effects, belongings, possessions, stuff; 
clothes, clothing | (J) Jl 4»»U. J ulT to 
stand in need, be in want of (, need, 

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require (; (J) Jl 4*-U- V (hdjata) 
... is not necessary, not required, there 
is no need of...; «o J S>-U- V I don't 
need it; 4»-U-l au if (or when) necessary, 
if need be, in case of need; *>-[>• jd- ^ 
(gairi hajatin) unnecessarily; 1U-U-I <u L. 
the essentials; i>-U-l J^ mahall al~h. the 
essential passage, the gist, the substance, 
the crux, the interesting part (of an 
exposition); <c*-U~ JU sadefa hdjatahu to 
meet s.o.'s needs, provide for s.o.'s 
needs; o»-U- j^uf g 1 *^ hdjatahu to fulfill 
s.o.'s wish; iU-LLI ^^ii to relieve nature 

oL*-U- hdjiyat everyday commodities, 
utensils, utilities, necessaries, necessities; 

ry-\ ahwaj 2 in greater need (Jl of; more necessary 

r-Lis-l ihtiyaj want, need, requirement, 
(pre)requisite, necessity; pi. -at needs, 
necessities, necessaries 

£jl£ mahdwij 2 (pi. of ry£ muh* 
wij) needy, poor, destitute people 

■A^- muhtdj in need, in want (J! of, requiring (Jl; poor, destitute, 

<ti>-^>- haujala pi. J*-'j*- hawdjil 2 phial (chem.) 

[*y) jU- Aada it (/wm«2) to turn aside, turn 
away (jfp from), turn (^ off) II to turn 
off, take a turning 

»*y hauda turn, turning 

(ijp-) jU- Aarfa u (haud) to urge on, spur on 
(a animals) IV 2>y\ ahwada do. X jpJ*-l 
istahwada to overwhelm, overcome, over- 
power (Jp s.o.; esp. emotions), get the 
better of (Jp), gain mastery (J* over); to 
capture (J* the market); to seize (a, J* 
on), take possession (a, Jp of), usurp (a, 
J*, J: to hold (a s.o.'s attention) 

^y hudi pi. -%ya coachman, cabman, 
^i'ly hudiya coachman's work or trade 

(jy) jU- hara u to return (Jl to); to recede, 
decrease, diminish, be reduced (Jl to) 

II to change, alter, amend, transform, re- 
organize, remodel, modify (a or j*; 
to roll out (a dough); to make white, 
whiten (a; to bleach (a a fabric) 

III to talk, converse, have a conversation 
(« with s.o.); to discuss, debate, argue 

IV (with \j\y jawdban) to answer, reply 
(with negations only) V to be altered, 
changed, amended, transformed, re- 
organized, remodeled, modified VI to 
carry on a discussion 

jy hawar white poplar (also pro- 
nounced haur); bark-tanned sheepskin, 
basil; marked contrast between the 
white of the cornea and the black of the 

SjU- hara pi. -at quarter, part, section 
(of a city); (Tun.) ghetto; lane, alley, 
side street (with occasional pi. (jj\y 
hawdri) | jlJI SjU- A. as-sadd blind alley, 
dead-end street 

jy\ ahwar 2 , f. *\jy haurd' 2 , pi. jy 
hur having eyes with a marked contrast 
of white and black, (also, said of the 
eye:) intensely wHte and deep-black 

h\y kaivwdra (hawaral) cretaceous 
rock; chalk 

iSj]y hawdrl pi. -un disciple, apostle 
(of Jesus Christ) ; disciple, follower 


huvrwdrd cretaceous rock; chalk 

\jy huriya pi. -at, jy hur houri, 
virgin of paradise; nymph; (pi. -at) 
young locust j »Ul \jy water nymph, 

/wSs-o jj^ j I CJLo JboJuLo jj £j\s>yb$A £j£JLo5 P5^a <j^j-o <— -*> j-oljj^ Jj^S k&&£> 



o\jy>- hauran 2 the Hauran, a moun- 
tainous plateau in SW Syria and N 

jj£- mihivar pi, jj\j£ mahdwir 2 axis 
(math.); axle, axletree; pivot, crucial 
point, that upon which hinges or 
depends; rolling pin | jy>S\ dj* duwal 
al-m. (formerly) the Axis Powers {poL); 
O -uUdl jj>S\ <J>tAc (muta'dmid) crank- 
ease (techn.) 

i£jj£- mihwart axial (math., techn.) 

jUt mahar (coll.; n. un. 2) oysters; 
shellfish, mussels; mother-of-pearl, nacre 

Sjl£ mahdra (n. un.) oyster; oyster 
shell, mussel; trowel 

j j£ tahwlr alteration, change, trans- 
formation, reorganization, reshuffle, re- 
modeling, modification 

j\y- hiwar talk, conversation, dialogue; 
argument, dispute; text (of a play); 
script, scenario (of a motion picture); 
libretto (of an opera) 

3jjl£ muhdwara talk, conversation, 
dialogue; argument, dispute 

jjU£ tahdwur discussion 

jjlrf. mukawir pi. -un interlocutor, par- 
ticipant in a dialogue or conversation 

(J j*- an d J*"-) J^- ^ za u (hauz, *jL>- hiydza) 
to possess, own, have (a; to gain, 
win, get, receive, obtain, achieve, attain 
(Jp or *, e.g., success, victory, etc.); 
to gain possession, gain control (a of, seize (a; — hdza i (>» 
haiz) to drive on, urge on (a camels) 
V tahawwaza and tahayyaza to writhe, 
twist, coil; — tahayyaza to stay away, 
keep away, seclude o.s., isolate o.s. 
(je. from); to be disposed, incline, tend, 
lean (Jl toward); to join (J! s.o. or; 
to side (J, J! with), take sides (J, Jl in 

favor of) VII to isolate o.s., seclude o.s., 
separate, segregate, disengage o.s., dis- 
sociate o.s., stay away, keep away, retire, 
withdraw (^ or ^ from); to join (Jl 
s.o. or; to unite (Jl with); to side 
( Jl or J with), take sides (Jl or J in favor 
of) VIII to possess, own, have (a; 
to take possession (a of; to keep, 
prevent, hinder (^ » s.o, from) 

J j*- hauz possession, holding, tenure; 
obtainment, attainment, acquisition; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy; 
(jur.) tenancy; — (pi. j\y~\ ahwaz) 
enclosed area, enclosure; precinct (s), 
boundary, city limits 

iSJy- hauzl possessory, tenurial 

•Jjj- hauza possession, holding, tenure; 
property; area, territory | £jj*- j or 
a-b l}y>- j jl h. yadihi in his possession; 
_r** "6 j*~ & P^' tne def ense of Egyptian 

>>- hayyiz, haiz pi. jL»-t ahydz scope, 
range, reach, extent, compass, confines, 
field, domain, realm; sphere | >- J J*-^ ^ 
Jja*1\ (yadkulu) it is not within the 
bounds of reason; J^aII y>- Jl }j (to 
advance to the realm of fact, i.e.) to 
become a reality; jBC/iH j\>- j ji h. il- 
imkdn within the realm of possibility, 



Jj^i to enter the 

stage of implementation; jLa^JI >»- j *J>j 
to put into force (a 

SjLj- hiydza possession, holding, tenure; 
taking possession, occupation, occupancy; 
acquisition of title, acquisition of the 
right of possession; obtainment, at- 
tainment, acquisition 

yjt tahayyuz partiality; prejudice, 

jL^I inhiydz isolation, seclusion, re- 
tirement; partiality; prejudice, bias | ^ 
JL^VI T adam al-i. non-alignment (pol.); 

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jL*i*yi f-i*- Jjj duiccti 'adam al-i. the non- 
aligned states 

Jr*U- hcfiz pi. -un possessor, holder (Jp 
of, e.g., of a certificate) 

mutahayyiz partial, prejudiced, 


jL*x» munhaz secluded, retired, with- 
drawn, removed (y from) ; an outsider, 
a stranger (^p to) | yf (oi aJLJi) JjJl 
SjUlJJ (duwal, bulddn) the non-aligned 
states (countries) 

tfj*- VIII (eg.) to be in a quandary, waver, 

HeAj*-) ,jiU- Msa w (/ta^/i) to round up, drive 
into a trap (a game); to stop, check, 
prevent, hinder (a, stand in the 
way (a of); to hold back, stem, stave 
off (a II to gather, collect, amass, 
accumulate, pile up, hoard (a; to 
save, put by (a money); to find (a 

J^y- haus pi. J^\^~^ ahwas, jU^~ 
hisdn enclosure, enclosed area; court- 

Jt>j>- hawas mob, rabble, riffraff 

J^j*- husi wild; unusual, odd, queer, 

,ȣU-1 fjr^ us &u al-htis Passion Week 

2 UU, 

iU- see 


1 J*0*~ b au ? a ^ craw (of a bird); pelican (zool.) 

U^p- haiisala craw (of a bird) ; bladder 
(anat.) J hj\ji^a}\ iL^i-l (safrdwli/a) and 
<lj\J.\ aJLms^J-^ (mardriya) gall bladder 

J^aj^p- huwaisil blister, bleb, vesicle; 
water blister 

4Loj^»- huwaisila pi. -at blister, bleb, 

2 "ii^j*- huusala (Tun.) summary, resume 

,j>j»- liaud pi. ^Ij^l ahwad, ^L*- hiydd, 
uLL^- hlddn basin; water basin; trough, 
tank, cistern, reservoir, container; basin 
of a river or sea; pool; (in the Egyptian 
irrigation system) a patch of land sur- 
rounded by dikes, flooded by high water 
of the Nile; pond; pelvis (anat.); (garden) 
bed; dock; pi. j^Ij- hiydd (sacred) 
ground, area, domain (to be protected), 
sanctum | JsU- ^j*- ijdff) dry dock; 

Jji iU- hasa lilldh 

j^j>- hawas squinting of the eyes (caused 
by constant exposure to glaring light) 

,j*y\ ahwas, 2 f. *l*?j>- lyxusa 2 , pi. 
^j!- hits having narrow, squinting 

h. hammdm bathtub; /»1^p o'J*' 

Cawivdm) floating dock; <w^L>- ^ *V& to 
assume the defense of s.o., make o.s. the 
champion of s.o.; to defend o.s.; ^i 
ly jJI sj *\-*- &> (dabba) to defend the faith; 
JboA-lj fJd\ j^lj»-l coal and iron deposits ; 

J ill o^y^ £• ^'§ a ^ washbasin; ^y 

JjJl the Nile basin, Egypt 

O ^ 

huwaida renal pelvis (anat) 

^Ls- hiydsa girth 

(-k^-) -^^- ha>i a u (haul, *W~ hifa, <I*L>- 
hiydta) to guard, protect (a, * s.o.,, 
watch (a, « over s.o., over, have the 
custody (a, » of); to attend (a to), take 
care (a of), look after (a); to sur- 
round, encircle, enclose, encompass (<~> 
s.o., II to build a wall (a around, wall in (a; to encircle, sur- 
round (a, close in from all sides (a 
on Ill to try to outwit, dupe, or 
outsmart (e s.o.); to mislead, lead 

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astray, seduce (o s.o.) IV to surround 
(^ s.o.,,, also a, « s.o.,, ^ with); 
to encompass, enclose, embrace, comprise, 
contain (^, also a); to ring, encircle 
(«_> s.o.,, also a, o s.o.,, ^ with, close in from all sides (t^> on); to 
know thoroughly, comprehend, grasp 
completely, understand fully (<_-», 
be familiar, be thoroughly acquainted 
(l-» with) | 1JU <o JUU-I Cilman) to know thoroughly, have comprehensive 
knowledge of; to take cognizance, 
take note of; *_-> \;U 4»U-1 he in- 
formed him of..., he let him know 
about . . . ; he brought ... to his notice 
V to guard, protect (a, a s.o.,; to 
take precautions (a with regard to), 
attend (a to); to be careful, be cautious, 
be on one's guard VIII to be careful, be 
cautious, watch out, be on one's guard; 
to take precautions, make provision (J 
for, so as to ensure...); to surround 
(<^> s.o.,; to guard, protect, preserve 
(J* <^> from), take care {._-> of), 
attend (^ to), look after (<_j), see to it 
(it that) 

<b~~ hita, haita, "^y- hauta cautious- 
ness, caution, provident care, prudence, 
circumspection j aiU-*- -U-l (hitatahu) to 
be on one's guard, take precautions; ^h 
"4*~>- thoughtlessly, unthinkingly, inad- 

iL»L>- hiydta guarding, custody, pro- 
tection, care 

Sa.ij^- talymt encirclement 

iLU-l ihdta encirclement, encompass - 
ment ; comprehension, grasp, understand- 
ing, knowledge, cognizance (.-> of, 
acquaintance, familiarity (i_j with); in- 
formation, communication | iUU-l t^lk 
talab L interpellation (pari.) j 

J»j^ tahawwut provision, care, at- ; 
tention, precaution, prudence; pi. -at \ 
precautionary measures, precautions 

i#Lj-l ihtiyat caution, cautiousness, 
prudence, circumspection, carefulness; 
provision, care, attention, precaution, 
prevention; reserve (also mil.); pi, -<B 
precautionary measures, precautions | 
.ULxs-^l J-£- Jp as a precaution, out of 
precaution, to be on the safe side 

^L^-1 ihtiyati precautionary ; prophy- 
lactic; preventive; replacement; spare- 
fin compounds) ; reserve- (in compounds); 
stand-by; reserves, supplies; reserve 
funds, capital reserves (fin.); reserve 
(mil.) | J»U^-' jtl»i (itar) spare tire; Lr x». 
J^Lj^I (habs) preventive custody, pre- 
ventive detention (jur.); ^LUL^-VI **jX-\ 
(Mdma) service in the reserves (mil.) \ju\& 
y*L>-l precautionary measures, pre- 
cautions; ^V^' ^ly (quwwat) reserves 
(mil.)', (jk^r 3 -! JU capital reserve, reserve 
fund; j»U-'l C-jjJI irLb-l (crude-)oil re- 
serves; t-*A-i]l ^J»^r^^ i. ad-dahah gold re- 
serve (econ.) 

iuU- ha" it pi. OUa-»- hltan, J*L>- hiyat, 
ja?ip- hawaif wall | jLil JajU- h. al- 
mdbkd Wailing Wall (in Jerusalem); 
ii*U-S ^jc dj (<~>jJ> or) JJi alqa (daraba) 
bihl "urda l-hait not to give a hoot for; to disdain, despise, reject; to 
throw overboard, jettison 

JJU- haiti: 4J4JU- ^U- (majalla) and 
iJaj'U- Ja£? (suhuf) wall newspaper (in 
socialist countries) 

-ajjp- hawlt (eg.) clever, smart, shrewd 

Ja-£ muhit surrounding (<_>}; 
comprehensive; familiar, acquainted (<_> 
with); — (pi. -at) circumference, periph- 
ery ; extent , range , scope , compass , 
reach, domain, area; milieu, environ- 
ment, surroundings; ocean; pi. olk^ 
surroundings, environment | ^jkJLk^l -U^' 
(atlanti) the Atlantic Ocean; JpLU Ja^l 
(hddi') the Pacific Ocean 

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i?U- muhdt surrounded' (^ by) 

_U^u mutahawwit cautious, prudent, 
provident, circumspect, careful, watchful 

J»j>- hauf edge; brink; border, hem, fringe 

iJjU- kaf see 2 j>- 

«U- hdfa pi. -a£, *_jj>>- hawafin edge; 
border; fringe, hem; brink, verge; see also 
hdffa (under Ja*-) | wl^> ^j within it, 
in it, therein; v!/^ ^^ J* 1 (£• »Z-£« r «&) 
on the brink of ruin; ajjLjJI 5»U- J* on 
the verge of an abyss, on the rim of a 

{3j>~) *3U- hdqa u (hauq) to surround, 
enclose, infold, embrace (<_-» s.o., 
II = I ( Jp s.o., 

1 J5j»- hauqala (*i5>*- hauqala) to pronounce 
the formula: ajjLj ^i ^jS Vj J>s-V (see Jj»- 

2 U5^>. hauqala pi. J5|_p- hawdqil 2 phial (cAem.), 
Florence flask 

(iJ^-) iil>- Aafca « (Aaufc, £JL>- hiydk, iTL»- 
Mydha) to weave (a; to interweave 
(a; to knit (a; to braid, plait 
(a; to sew (a a dress; eg.); to con- 
trive, devise, hatch, concoct (a; e.g., 
ruses, intrigues, pretexts), think up, 
fabricate, create (a in one's imagi- 

S5"*L>. kiydka weaving; knitting; braid- 
ing, plaiting; (eg.) sewing, needlework 

tiiSU- haih pi. iTU- haka weaver; — 
(mor.) an outer garment made of a long 
piece of white woolen material, covering 
body and head 

(J>>- and J-»-) JU- hala u to change, undergo 
a change, be transformed; to shift, turn, 
pass, grow (Jl into, also a), become 

(Ji; to deviate, depart (je- from, 
e.g., a commitment), dodge, evade, fail 
to meet ( j* ; to elapse, pass, go by 
(time) ; — (*J.A*- hailula) to prevent (dj*; to intervene, interfere, interpose, 
come (j>j between) 1 440 j* JU- {'ahd) to 
withdraw from a contract; o"$i J\j JU. 
^Vl t>jj to make inaccessible to 
s.o., impossible for s.o. ; to bar or obstruct 
s.o.'s way to; to prevent s.o. from, deny s.o.; (joj a*»aJ ^j JU- 
JU-iV! (isfdq) to resist compassion, deny 
o.s. any sympathy II hawwala to change 
(Jl a or a a to else), transform, 
transmute, convert, turn, make (Jl a or 
a a into else); to transplant 
(a; to transfer (a; to convert 
(a, mathematically); to switch, 
commutate (a current; el.); to convert, 
transform (a current; el.); to shunt (a a 
railroad car); to switch (a a railroad 
track); to remit, send, transmit (a, 
e.g., money by mail, Jl to s.o.); to pass 
on, hand on ( Jl a to s.o.); to forward 
(Jl a to s.o. or to an address); to 
endorse (a a bill of exchange, a promis- 
sory note); to direct, turn (a, also 
Ij^tj nazratan a glance, J I to or toward) ; 
to divert, distract, keep (je- a or s.o. 
or from); to turn away, avert [oj^i 
^ basarahu one's eyes from); to turn 
off, switch off, disconnect (a current; el.) \ 
asjS\ J_j*~ {daffa) to turn the helm, change 
the course III Mivala to try, attempt, 
endeavor (a, o\ to do, make 
an attempt, make an effort (o\ to do; to seek to gain (a by artful 
means; to deceive by pretenses, make 
excuses, hedge, dodge IV to change (a a 
or Jl a to), transform, transmute, 
turn, make (a a or Jl a into); to 
convert, translate (a a or J! a into); 
to transfer (a; to remit, send (a 
Jf or Jp to s.o.); to assign (a, « s.o.,, Jl or Jp to s.o.); to turn over, hand 

/wSs-o jj^ j I CJLo JboJuLo jj OU^o^a £j£JLo5 P5^a i Oi.J A a^ Oti^MS d^^ $&&*> 


over, pass on (J* a or * s.o. or to); 
to forward (Jp a to); to refer (Jl * 
s.o. to); to cede, transfer (* a debt, Jp 
to s.o.; jur.) | ^SUil (J() Jp J^-l (ukikt, 
ma* as) and J*UkJI Jl J^l (taqa'ud) he 
was pensioned off; Jl SJL-^Cjl «rJL»-l 
_$^JjjOI the bill was protested (fin.) V to* 
hawwala to change, undergo a change; 
to be changed ( Jl to), be transformed, be 
transmuted, be converted (Jl into), 
become (Jl, turn, grow (Jl into), 
transform ( Jl — ^ or ^p from — into), 
change, develop, evolve ( J I — <> from — 
to); to withdraw, go away, leave; to 
move (Jl to a residence); to turn away 
(j* from), turn one's back (jp on); to 
deviate (jp from); to depart, digress, 
stray (Jj^UI jp from the way); to re- 
nounce, forgo, relinquish, disclaim (jp; to be transferred, brought over (Jl 
to another place) ; to be transplanted, be 
moved (Jl to); to be transmitted, be re- 
mitted (money); to proceed slyly or cun- 
ningly j liJL*- JS~ J^ to use every con- 
ceivable trick; — takayyala to employ 
artful means; to ponder ways and means 
(J to an end, in order to attain 
VI tdhawala to try, endeavor, take pains 
(Jp to do, strive (J* for); — 
tahdyala and VIII to employ artful 
means, resort to tricks, use stratagems 
(Jp against s.o.); to deceive, beguile, 
dupe, cheat, outwit, outsmart (J* s.o.); 
to be out (Jp for or achieve (Jp by artful means, by tricks VIII to 
work or strive (on one's own re- 
sources), make efforts (on one's own) 
IX J^l ihwalla to be cross-eyed, to 
squint X to change (Jl to, into), turn, 
be transformed, be converted (Jl into); 
to be transubstantiated (bread and 
wine, Jl into the body and blood of 
Christ; Chr.); to proceed, pass on, shift, 
switch ( Jl to new or different) ; 
to be impossible (Jp for s.o.); to be 
inconceivable, absurd, preposterous 

JU hat m. and f., pi. <J]^>-I ahml 
condition, state; situation; position, 
status; attitude, bearing, posture (of a 
person); circumstance; case; present, 
actuality (as opposed to future); circum- 
stantial expression or phrase (gram.); pi,; 
conditions, circumstances; matters, af- 
fairs, concerns; cases; Mia (prep.) dur- 
ing; immediately upon, right after; just 
at : in case of . . ., in the event of ... ; VU 
hdlan presently, immediately, at once, 
right away, without delay; now, actual- 
ly, at present | JUL! j and JL^ on the 
spot, at once, immediately; JU- JjS' 
(kulli halin) and JU- <^l Jp (ayyi A.) in j 
any case, at any rate, anyhow; Jp Jj | 
*JU (yabqa) it remains unchanged, just 
as it is; Jl_p-VI J» ^^" <i i n some case or j 
other, anyway, if occasion should arise, 
possibly; (with neg.) by no means, under 
no circumstances, not at all, in no way; 
JU Jp, Jl£, JU- ^ti bi-ayyi h. with neg.: 
by no means, not at all, in no way; 
j JUI vili^S" the same goes for ..., it is 
the same with . . ., it is also the case 
with...; j JU- 1 jt> \f as is the case 
with; dJSU (JiX how are you? aJUs *^ 
a thing in itself, a separate, independent 
thing; Ajji-1 J[^»-Vl (jawwlya) atmos- 
pheric conditions; <u>-bl1 J[^»-Vl (mand* 
klya) the climatic conditions; f*l^ 
V^*^' JL**-V1 (Saksiya) courts dealing 
with vital statistics; Jlj»-VI (fUaJ or) oy\i 
2L**i«iJI personal statute; JU-I *^-*-U» 
noun referent of a circumstantial phrase 
(gram.); JU ^j^ f ard A. application, 
memorial, petition; <tLy* JU- Jf ^^ 
(hdli sabilihl) he went his own way, he 
went off on his own; JU-I uUJ , <IU- jU 
see uU 

II U- hdlamd (conj.) as soon as 

iJU- Mia pi. -at condition, state; sit- 
uation; (possible, actual) case; (gram.) 
case; status, position of affairs; hdlata 

/w5s-0 JJ^ J I CcOO JbOJuLo jJ OU3-O3-O £j£Ju05 £.5^6 <J^j-0 <— -*> J-oljJ^ Jj^S 6&&iA 

(prep.) during | ol ilU- halata an (conj.) 
whereas; eJU «JU-[j under these circum- 
stances, such being the ease, things 
being as they are; *JU- j (hdlati) in (the) 
case of . . ., in the event of . . ., e.g., «J U- j 
«uLi (giydbihi) in case of his absence, 
SlijJl <JU- j (wafdh) in case of death; j 
iiU-l «Ju* in this (that) case; <jl *JU- It- 
hdlati an in case that . . ., in the event 
that..,; IM L^Uj if; J iULU ^ 1^ as 
is the case with...; v^l^-f *Jl*~ (ijti* 
md'iya) marital status ; h jL I O^li-I {jaw* 
wiya) atmospheric conditions; Ja^\ <JU- 
h. al-katar stand-by, alert, state of 
alarm; <j>\J\ aJU-I the status quo; 4JU- 
^jl^l h, at-tawdri* state of emergency; 
iijUcL-.! <UU- state of alert (miZ.); *JU- j 
^^-Jb^l (talabbus) flagrante delicto (?"w.); 
5JJlii iJU-l (madanlya) civil status, legal 
status; SJtU »j** su' al-h. predicament, 
plight; O^U-1 J^i! j in the best case, 
at best; l-*^- SJU- j (A. Aar£>) in a state 
of war; <JU-I i-[p dirdsat al-h. case 
study (psych.); *yl 2JU- A. ar-raf and 
JpUJI iiU- nominative, ^-^J! SJU A. an- 
na?6 accusative, 4j J_j*iil SJU- do., ob- 
jective case, 4*L*iVl *JU- A. al-iddfa and 
4JI JsUoll 2JU- (muddf) genitive, O aH»~ 
4) L5 k*ll (mu r td) dative (gram.) 

JU- Aa& present, current, actual, 
existing; momentary, instantaneous; LJU- 
hdliyan at present, actually | aJU- Sjj-** 
(fum) snapshot {phot); JU-I <y £>IJi j 
on the fourth of the current month 

«JU- hdliya actuality, topicality, time- 

tSy haul pi. Jlja-I ahwdl year; might, 
power j aIjIj VI »j5 Vj Jj» V £a AuuZa 
wa-ld quwata ilia bi-lldh there is no power 
and no strength save in God; <I J_p- V 
^L>- Vj (wa-ld hllata) he is completely 
powerless, he can do nothing, he is at 
the end of his resources 

Jjs- hiwal change of place, change | 
*iy- <ca bjiCM V (yabtaguna) they don't 
want it otherwise, they ask for it 

Jj*. haula (prep.) around, about; 
circa, about, some, approximately, rough- 
ly (with following number); about (esp. 
in news headings, approx. — re, concern- 
ing) I *J^ ,y> (haulihi) (= «dy) around 
him (or it), about him (or it); \^y^- Cf 
(haulaihimd) around the two of them, 
about them; from their vicinity, from 
their surroundings (dual) 

Jj»- haidi periodic, temporary, interim ; 
one year old (animal), yearling; young 
animal; lamb, wether 

V_j>- haullya pi. -at yearbook (scien- 
tific publication); pi. vl>U_p- annals (of a 
society, university, etc.) 

J_3- hail strength, force, power, vigor J 
4JU- J* (standing) upright, erect; Sy V 
J-»- Vj *J (quwata) completely helpless and 

IL>- hlla pi. J^ hiyal, J-jU-1 ahdyil 2 
artifice, ruse, stratagem, maneuver, sub- 
terfuge, wile, trick; device, shift; a 
means to accomplish an end; expedient, 
makeshift, dodge, way-out; legal strat- 
agem (for the purpose of in fraudem 
legis agere) | 4JLJ-I U what's to be done? 
j J 4JL>- V (hllata) I have no possibility 
to ..., I am in no position to ...; ^JU U 
<JL>- (bi-yadi) I can do nothing, I can get 
nowhere; ^t ^L>- J^ i lam yajid hllatan 
ilia he couldn't do anything except..., 
he had no other choice than . . . ; 4JLJ- 1 <ls.\ 
(a'yathu) he was at a I03S, he was at the 
end of his wits ; 5J Li*** J^*- (sinamd'iya) 
film tricks, trick shots 

J-»- hiyali cunning, crafty, wily, sly, 
tricky, foxy 

J-*- 1 ahyaP craftier, wilier 

<Sy>- hawal squinting, strabismus 

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Jj*-I ahwal 2 , f. >Vp- haula 2 , pi. J_j>- 
hut squinting, squint-eyed, cross-eyed, 

J J J*- Aw'wJ change, transformation, 
transmutation; prevention (jji of} 

Jl^»- hiwdl obstacle; partition, screen 

JL>- Mydla (prep.) in view of..., with 
regard to ..., in the face of, opposite, in 
front of, before 

di\j?- hawdla pi. -at assignment, cession 
(jur.); bill of exchange, (promissory) 
note, check, draft | ju^I Sflj*-, ajAj^ SJi^ 
money order; ^^a- <J[_p~ A. sa/ar traveler's 

d\j*~ ftawald, also pronounced ^awa- 
/ay, always thus before a suffix (prep.) 
around, about; circa, approximately, 
roughly, about, some (with following 

y^- hailula separation, interruption, 
disruption; prevention (oji of 

ij-j£- mihwalgl pi. -lya (eg.) switch- 
man (railroad) 

Jl* ^ Id mahala — aJU^ V (see 

ilbi mahala roller, wheel (of a draw 

<c^ SJU^ V /a mahdktta minhu it is 
inevitable; there is no doubt about it; 
(also iJU- V alone) most certainly, pos- 
itively, absolutely, by all means 

Jj^: tahwil transformation, trans- 
mutation, conversion (Jl into; 
change, alteration, modification; trans- 
plantation; transposition, translocation, 
dislocation, displacement; transportation, 
transfer(ence) ; piping, routing (of 
to another place); conversion (e.g., of 
currency) ; conversion, transformation (of 
electric current); manufacture, proces- 
sing (of raw material into finished goods, 

etc.); transfer {fin.; also ^Jdl Jjj^ t. ad- 
dam); remittance (of money), trans- 
mittal, sending, forwarding; bill of ex- 
change, promissory note, draft (com,); 
check; endorsement (fin.) | Jjj^ i*> 
katt t. transfer line (oil); Jj>»=JI JjU con- 
vertible; transferable; Jj^^*^ ^JLJl 4JLU 
(qdbillyat al- e umla) convertibility of cur- 

Jj^ tahwlli: <uij^ oUL^ (sina'at) 
manufacturing or processing industries 

<L^ tahwila pi. -at, JjjUv tahawil 2 
branch, offshoot; siding, sidetrack (rail- 
road); side canal (irrigation; Eg.); switch 

aJjL^ muhdwala pi. -at attempt, try; 
effort, endeavor; recourse to expedients, 
shifts, or dodges, dodging, hedging | 
4jL*~ Jp KjL£ (hayatihi) attempt on s.o.'s 
life, murderous assault 

<JU-I ihala transformation, conversion 
(Jl into; transfer, conveyance, as- 
signment; remittance; forwarding, re- 
ferring ( Jl or Jp to a competent authori- 
ty) ; transmission, transmittal; O transfer 
(fin.); cession, assignment (Isl. Law); 
absurdity | Jp <JU-% with reference to; 
aJU-"^ ,^il» magistrate sitting at de- 
fendant's arraignment, trial judge; iiU-l 
^Ui! (J*) Jl (ma'ds) and jipUUI Jf «JU 
(taqd r ud) pensioning off 

J^ tahavmml change, transformation, 
transmutation; abrupt change, sudden 
turn, reversal ; shift, transition; departure, 
deviation, digression (^ from); re- 
nunciation (jc of) I Jj#*sJI ^kli nuqtat 
at-t. turning point 

J^ tahayyul use of tricks, trickery 

JjUi tahayul and JL^-i ihtiyal use of 
tricks, trickery; cunning, craft, subtlety, 
artfulness; malice, treachery, perfidy; 
deception, fraud 

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JjU^ talmyull and JLs»-l ihtiyall 
fraudulent, e.g., JL^-1 ^"^l (^flds) frau- 
dulent bankruptcy 

l!U^u-! istihdla change, transformation, 
transmutation, turn, shift, transition; 
transubstantiation (Chr.); impossibility, 
inconceivability, absurdity, preposterous- 

JJU- ha it pi. Jj^ haw&'il 2 obstacle, 
obstruction, impediment (dp on the 
way to, j — ,>j see JU- &aZa I); 
barrier; partition, screen, folding screen; 
— (pi. 6y- huwwal) changeable, variable, 
frequently changing; feeble, languid, 
wan, pallid 

JjU- hail 2 and JjU- hdyil Hail (town 
and oasis in N Nejd) 

J^ muhawwil pi. -at converter, trans- 
former (el.); switch lever (el.); reversing 
key (el.); buzzer, signal button (iel.); shift 
lever, shift key (typewriter); — (pi. -un) 
endorser (fin.); switchman (railroad) 

4}j£ muhatvwila pi. -at switch (railroad) 

<^ic J^ muhawival 'alaihi c.o.d., cash 
on delivery; «o J^£ collected on delivery 

J^ muhil transferor, assignor (1st. 

Jl£ rnuhdl inconceivable, unthink- 
able, impossible, absurd, preposterous, 

J^iX. mutahawwil changeable, variable, 
changing; form-changing, metamorphic 
(e.g., geoL) \ ~djj>*d\ -iLe^l (a'yad) the 
movable feasts (Chr.) 

Jix£ muhtdl artful, cunning, deceit- 
ful, treacherous, perfidious, fraudulent; 
swindler, cheat, impostor, fraud; crook, 
scoundrel; assignee (1st. Lmv) | <ulc Jb£ 
debtor of a ceded claim, transferee (I si. 

J~-*x~« mustahll impossible, absurd, 
preposterous; o:>L>«£— . • impossible things, 
impossibilities, absurdities 

(l»j»-) >>*U- hama u (haum, oly hawaman) to 
circle, hover, glide (in the air; of a 
bird, also of an aircraft) ; to hover, swarm, 
buzz (<Sj»- and Jp around) J o-U* k^JJl c~.U- 
(subha, diddahu) suspicion concentrated 
on him, he was suspected II to circle in 
the air; to hover in circles, to circle; to 
go around, revolve (thoughts and images, 
in one's head or mind); to browse (j in 
a book) 

X*y- hautna pi. -at turmoil of battle, 
thick of the fray; main part, bulk, 
main body; (tun.) quarter, section (of 
a city) 

Ap- hawwam gliding on an air cushion 
(vehicle) | Aj*> *~S^> (markab) pi. v^"!/* 
*a\j>* hovercraft 

Ia\j*- haivwama pi. -at hovercraft 

dU- and 3iU- see <>:>- 

o^jU- look up alphabetically 

ljj>- huwayyin see j>- 

^y- hawd i to gather, collect, unite (a; 
to encompass, embrace, contain, hold, 
enclose, comprise, include (a; to 
possess, own, have (a; to clasp 
(a, the hand) V to curl (up), coil (up) 
VIII to encompass, embrace, contain, 
hold, enclose, comprise, include (a or 
Jp; to possess, own, have (a or Jp; to take possession (a of; to 
master by oneself (a a problem) 

\y- hawriya convolution, coil, curl, 
roll; pi. y_>» hawdyd intestines, bowels, 

/wSs-o jj^ j I CJLo JboJuLo jj OU^o^a £j£JLo5 P5^a i Oi.J A a^ Oti^MS d^^ $&&*> 



h\j*- hawaya pi. -at (eg.) wase, round 
pad to support a burden on the head or 
on the back 

jU- hawin pi. e\y>- huivdk snake charmer; 
juggler, conjurer, magician 

i$jz£ muhtawan pi. muhtawaydt con- 
tent^) (of a book, of a receptacle) | ob j&- 
^jixJI the innermost thoughts, the se- 
crets of the heart 

(jr, j~>~) if*- haytya* ^r hayya ^ y^y® 

(SLs- haydh) to live; ^j~ hayya to live to 
see, experience, witness (a, live 
(a through a time) [ **iill ,^-J li-yahya 
l-maliJc long live the king ! — ^- hayiya 
Lj£ yahyd (*L?~ hayd') to be ashamed (j* 
of, because of) II L>- hayya to keep 
(o s.o.) alive, grant (o s.o.) a long life; to 
say to s.o. (e) : *ul iiU- may God preserve 
your life!; to greet, salute (a s.o.) IV L*-l 
ahya to lend life (a, « to s.o., to, 
enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with 
life, call into being (a, give birth 
(a to); to revive, reanimate, revivify 
(a, give new life (a to); to put on, 
produce, stage, arrange (a e.g., a theat- 
rical performance, a celebration, and 
the like); to celebrate (a, also a 
festival) | (j^-UI L*-l (dikrd) to commem- 
orate {a deceased person), observe the 
anniversary {of s.o.'s death); JJI L-1 
(lail) to burn the midnight oil, JJI t~-l 
Z"^> (salatan) to spend the night in 
prayer; S^^JI L»i (sahrata) to perform 
in the evening (of an artist); l~»-l 
*JUp- (haflatan) to give a performance; 
to perform at a celebration (artist); 
J LI Cj^j i^xjl £^p-\ o5 qad ahyat il- 
firqatu talata layalin the theatrical troupe 
gave three evening performances X L^^l 
istahya to spare s.o.'s (o) life, let live, 
keep alive (a s.o.); L=**^J istahya, I j*£*<\ 
istaha to be ashamed (e to face s.o.; j- 
of, because of; to become or 
feel embarrassed (^ in front of s.o.), be 

embarrassed (j* by); to be bashful, shy, 

^ hayy pi. »La-l ahya" living, live, 
alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, 
energetic, unbroken, undaunted, un- 
dismayed; living being, organism; tribe, 
tribal community; block of apartment 
houses; section, quarter (of a city); ward, 
district (of a city) | »U»-Vl ]*■ r ilm ah 
ahya' biology; <jj\f- <j- (tijdrl) business 
district; ^U- <_$*- university quarter; 


h. al- r dlam houseleek tree (Sem- 


pervivum arboreum L.; bot.); <u>- *j*-i 
(eg.) live ammunition 

^- hayya : oL^JI J*^ hayya 'aid s-salah 
come to prayer! 

<->- hayya pi. -at snake, serpent, viper 

O ti^l ahyd'l biologic(al); (pi. -un) 
biologist | yU*-l »L»aT (klmiyd") bio- 


hayly bashful, shy, diffident, modest 

»L» hay a' shame, diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity; shyness | »U-1 JJ<> 
shameless, impudent; *U-i aH qillat al-h. 
shamelessness, impudence 

«L>- haydh pi. £>\j~*- hayawdt life; life- 
blood; liveliness, animation | *_aj,^1 3L>- 
h. ar-rif country life, rural life; *ULJi SLU 
(dmma) public life; aJJUI 5LLI family 
life; SU-I tSji— mustawd l-h. living 
standard; O 3LJ- 1 J* 'Urn al-h. biology 

iSjs*- Afljratra lively, full of life, vital, 
vigorous; vital, essential to life; biotic 
(biol., vied.); biological | *ij&- w^'^Ui* 
(mwdddddt) antibiotics (med.) 

hj-*- hayawlya vitality, vigor, vim 

oIj j->- kayawlydt: oL jJ-l cjIjUl. mi*- 
dddddt al-h. and oUj-^JJ Si Li. jl^. («ra= 
wddd mudddda) antibiotics [med.) 

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JL»- hay&ti life (in compounds); bio- 
logical | vW" f}«*j\ living conditions; 
iJU- JTll* problems of life 

jl^s>- hayawdn pi. -a£ animal, beast; 
living being, living creature | C>\j\j^~ 
^4? (tadylya) mammals; IJ^- oUl^>- 
(mujtarra) ruminants; J~ii» Oj^-*- (tufaill) 
parasite ; oJ^J- 1 J* 't7m aZ-A. zoology 

Jlj*»- huyawdnl animal (adj.); zoolog- 

SJ Jj-j- hayawdniya bestiality ; animality , 
animal nature 

lfj>- huwayyin pi. -of minute animal, 

( g-\ ahya livelier; 
more vital 

more vigorous, 

1J. tahiya pi. -at, bW tahdyd greeting, 
salutation; salute; cheer (= wish that 
God may give s.o. long life) | oI^TaJ a^ 
tahiy atari li-dikrahu in order to keep his 
memory alive, in remembrance of him; 
4j j$L**l\ ^wJi CasJcariya) military salute 

»U-I ihyd* animation, enlivening; 
revival, revitalization, revivification; ar- 
ranging, staging, conducting, putting on, 
holding (of a celebration) | tfJfjR »L»-1 i- 
ad-dikrd commemoration (of a deceased 
person); ^^TjU »L*-I (ihyaan) (with foil. 
gen.) in commemoration of..., in me- 
moriam...; ol^il »L>-1 i. al-mawat culti- 
vation of virgin land 

#L*^-I istihyd' shame; diffidence, bash- 
fulness, timidity; shyness 

U^ muhayyan face, countenance 

JLn-n.ll c*Jl as-sitt al-mustahiya sen- 
sitive plant (Mimosa pudica; boL) 

l~*~ haitu (conj.) where (place and di- 
rection); wherever; since, as, due to the 
fact that; whereas; inasmuch as | 
ul <t~>- (inna or anna) since, as, due to 

the fact that.,.; in that...; olT i-*- 
wherever it be; in any case, at any rate; 
.i^- ■ Jl ild haitu where (direction) ; to 
where ..,, to the place where .♦.; d~»- j* 
min haitu from where, whence, where - 
from; where (place); whereas; (with 
foil, nominative) as to, as for, 
concerning, regarding, with respect 
to, in view of, because of; ,j-a 
iiUiJI d«s- min h. t-taqdfatu with regard 
to education, as far as education is 
concerned; (Jj^j Vj iSJ-^i ^-s* - J* (yad™ 
wa-ld yadrt) whether he knows it or not, 
knowingly or without his knowledge; 
^ d^>- j-. (with foil, imperf.) without 
(being, doing, etc.) ; y> d~>- j- as such, in 
itself, y> £-»■ j- |IUJI fdlam) the world 
in itself, the world as such; o\ <Z~*~ i> 
(anna) inasmuch as; in view of the 
fact that; since, as, due to the fact 
that; \xl\ w-» ,ja (mabda*u) in principle, 
basically; £~* bi-haitu inasmuch as; in 
such a manner that ..., so as to ...; so 
that...; such as...; (he found himself) 
at a point or degree where, e.g., ^> C-J&~ 
tSJ ^ £~? ••L^N {bard'a, tard) = she 
was so naive that she couldn't see . . . ; 
V <t~^- insofar as ... not, provided 
that... not; o\ <L~£- (anna) in such a 
manner that*.., so as to,.., so that... 

\^. haitumd wherever, wheresoever 
(place) ; wherever, no matter where . . . 
(direction), in whichever direction [ ]^- 
Jijl (ittafaqa) anywhere, wherever it 
be, haphazardly, at random 

*JL>- haitiya pi. -at standpoint; view- 
point, point of view, approach; aspect, 
respect, regard, consideration ; high social 
standing, social distinction, dignity; pi. 
( = <XI £jUL>- h. al'hukm) opinion of 
the court, reasons on which the judgment 
is based; declaratory part of a judgment 
(far.) | (SjjUi) £>UlJ-t _,ji (dawu) or 
jjU*H, ii>LiJ-l ^U^l people of 

s^u&js jjV j) CJlq Jj&Jma jj OU-3-O3-0 $yiXa$ P.5^° i Oi,J A cr* O^JiS d^^ ^Svpwo 


(high) social standing, prominent people, 
people of distinction; ^j^-l Vs^' o" 
{hayawdniya) from a zoological view- 

£»- hltl Hittitic; (pi. -un) Hittite 

*»-) iU- hada i {haid, *j~>- huyud, o'JU^- 
hayadan, JU£ mahld) to deviate, swerve, 
depart, desist (^ from); to leave, quit, 
give up, abandon, relinquish (^c; 
to turn fat ofF the road), swerve oif; 
^ At 2U- to dissuade or get s.o. away 
from...; to incline, tend (Jl, yi to, 
toward), shade, blend ( Jl, jd into) II to 
keep aside, put aside (a; to neutral- 
ize (a a country) III to stay away, keep 
apart (a, » from s.o., from; to avoid, 
shun (a, « s.o., VII to depart, de- 
viate, digress, swerve (jp from) 

Aja- haid, OlXjs- hayadan deviation, 
digression, departure, swerving, turning 
aside, turning away 

2.L>- haida deviation, digression, swerv- 
ing, departure (from a course) ; neutrality; 
impartiality | S-U*- J* aside, apart, to 
one side 

Jj*p- huyud deviation, deflection ; ( = j^~>. 
*_yjl\$au) diffraction of light (phys.) 

Xj£ mahld avoidance (jp of | 
<Cp Ju£ V {mahida) it is unavoidable 

x^ tahyld neutralization (of a country) 

jL>- hiydd neutrality (pol.) | jLJ-I J*, 
neutral; Ja^i ^ jU- (katt) derailment 

^L;> hiyadi neutral {pol.) 

4jjU>- hiyddlya neutralism {pol.) 

S-oU muhdyada neutrality {pol.) 

oil*- haid neutral {pol,) 

OjL< muhdyid neutral (also pol.) ; neuter 
{gram.); the neutrals {pol.) 

-uUjl. mutahdyid neutral {pol.) 

jLjIjJUs- haidardbdd 2 Hydarabad 

(j^) jU Mm (1st pers. perf. Atrto) a (Sj\>. 
haira, uljv»- hayardn) to become confused; 
to become or be helpless, be at a loss, 
know nothing (j of, about); to waver, 
hesitate, be unable to ch* ose {^»j — ^j 
between — and) | *j*\ J jU~ {amrihl) to 
be confused, baffled, bewildered, dis- 
mayed; to be at a loss, be at one's wit's 
end II to confuse, baffle, bewilder, non- 
plus, embarrass (o s.o.); to puzzle, make 
uncertain (o s.o.) V to become confused; 
to be or become dismayed, startled, 
baffled, perplexed (j by), be at a loss ( j 
as to); to waver (uncertainly) (^j 
between); to gather without being able 
to flow away (water, tears in the eyes) | 
V*' J J?- {^mrihl) to be confused, 
baffled, bewildered, disconcerted, be at a 
loss, be at one's wit's end; 4JL j CjjJ- 
?ja^\ his eyes were brimming with tears 
VIII = ham 

j^- hair fenced-in garden, enclosure | 
^W~' Jf~ h" al-hayawdn zoological 
garden, zoo 

ojy- haira confusion, perplexity, be- 
wilderment, embarrassment, helplessness; 
uncertainty, lack of self-confidence; 
wavering (between two things) | Sj*. j 
embarrassed, at a loss, helpless 

o\jy hairdn 2 , f. ,jj\>- haira, pi. ^jU- 
haydrd, huydrd confused, perplexed, 
startled, dismayed, disconcerted, baffled, 
nonplused, bewildered, appalled, taken 
aback, stunned; embarrassed, at a loss, 
at one's wit's end; uncertain, helpless, 
sheepish (smile, etc.), confused, in- 
coherent (words, and the like) 

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ajlrf. mahara maze, puzzle box (for 
animal experiments; psych.) 

j& tahayyur confusion, perplexity, 
bewilderment, dismay; embarrassment, 

j\»~ hcTir disconcerted, perplexed, 
startled, dismayed; embarrassed, help- 
less, at a loss, at one's wit's end; baffled, 
bewildered, confused, uncertain (J 
about); straying, astray | Oja\ J JV 
(amrihi) confused, baffled, bewildered, 
embarrassed, at a loss, helpless 

j\£- muhayyar embarrassed, at a loss, 
j^c^ mutahayyir and j\^ muhtdr 

j&- seej^>- 
oy'jv- see 

^L- hdsa i {hais+ X^- haisa, u ^- 
mahis) to flee, escape (^ or from, run away (^ from), turn one's 
back (jz on) VII do. 

hai$, "t-A-*- haisa flight, escape 

(j-a-j i yi~>- <J f&j waqa r a jl haisa batsa 
to get into a bad fix, meet with 

S-^L*- see 


ja^ makis flight, escape; place of 
refuge, retreat, sanctuary | ^j^- <Cx L. it 
is unavoidable; jl ,> j^-^> j£j }■ they 
couldn't but..., they had no other 
alternative but to . . . 

^~) c-iiU- hddat i {haid, ^ mahid. 
^{4* mahdd) and V to menstruate, 
have a monthly period 

^s- haid (n. un. "*Jk-?-) and ^L*- 
hiydd menstruation, monthly period 

jj^jU- haid (f.) and a^sjU- menstru- 

Sk#-, <kl~»-, oll*o-, b^?- see l?j»- 

2 (iJl*-) JsU- Aa/a £ (Am/) to deal unjustly 
(J*, with s.o.), wrong, injure, harm (J* 
s.o.); to restrict, limit, curtail, impair 
(Jp, encroach (J* upon) Y to 
impair, injure, prejudice, violate (a or 
j*, encroach, infringe (a or j* 

»Jiu>- /kw/ wrong, injustice; harm, 
damage, prejudice | <uip <Ju>- what a 
pity! too bad I <u *Ji^» V (haifa) it 
is not out of place, it is quite appro- 

2 U = s- haifa Haifa (seaport in NW Israel) 

(J~*~) *^^~ hdqa * to surround, beset from all 
sides (<_-» s.o.); to fall, descend, come 
{«-> upon s.o., punishment), befall, over- 
take, grip, seize, overcome (<-j s.o.), 
happen, occur («_> to); to penetrate, 
pierce (j the body; of a sword); to 
affect, influence (j s.o., IV to 
surround, beset from all sides (c-» s.o.); 
to bring down (.» cj upon s.o., cause (a) to descend (<_j upon s.o.) 

( j^ haiq consequence, effect (of a 
misdeed redounding upon the evildoer) 

.i-L*. II to weave 

<TU- see 4^>- 

iiJL»- kaik — dijU- ; see iK>- 

J.*. V, iU. J^l, JL~, ^A-» J* 1 -* ». 
etc., see J^*-; J^l see^U- 

(iln*-) *Jl*- #«^ a * *° draw near, approach, 
come, arrive (time) ; to happen accidental- 
ly | cJJ\ oU- the (right) time has come; 
now is the time; ui <d oU- the time has 
come for him to ...; ]?•+& ol J» OU UI 
(a-wa, aw yafhamu) haven't they under- 
stood yet...?; ajUxJI J» c-jU- (minni 
Itifdta) I happened to turn around ( Jl to), 

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it just happened that my eyes fell on 
(Jl) II to set a time (« for s.o.) IV to 
destroy, wipe out (a s.o.) V to watch, 
wait (a for a time or an opportunity) | 
S^ill ,>^ (fur$ata) to wait for an op- 
portunity, bide one's time X <>>«i*-l 
istahyana to wait for the right time 

OU hdn bar, wineshop, wine tavern; 
pub; cabaret 

iiU- Aarai pi. -at bar, wineshop, wine 
tavern; pub, tavern 

o_^U- and (jjjU- look up alphabetically 

(>*- hain death, destruction 

,>9- Am pi. <JL*-1 ahyan, joU-i ahdyin 2 
time; propitious time, good time, op- 
portunity; Tuna (prep.) at the time of . . .» 
at, upon; (conj.) at the time when, when; 
as soon as; Ld»- hlnan for some time; 
once, one day; UU-1 ahydnan occasional- 
ly, from time to time, sometimes | 
Lj>- — Lj»- sometimes — sometimes, at 
times — at times; ^jU-^1 j at times, 
sometimes, once in a while; j-i*j J 
(^jU-^I) uU-^1 fi bcfdi l-a. and ^^u 
uL*-N I fca'cfo Z-a. sometimes, occasionally, 

now and then, once in a while, from time 
to time, at times; OL^VI t-ipi J /* aglabi 
l~a. mostly, most of the time, in most 
cases; (>». Jf for some time; meanwhile, 
for the time being; -c->- J then, at the 
time, in his (its) time; in due time, at 
the appointed time; jJ-! li da l-hina 
just now, right now; j>J-l *£l!i t> from 
that time on, from then on; j/d-\ JJii J! 
until that time, till then; ^*- J (with 
foil, verb) whereas ; jl ty*. j and b\ {/f- Jp 
(hini) at the same time when ..., while; 
whereas, also without oi, e.g., |>»- J* 
bjfj J> "aid kini hum yazumuna 
whereas they, on the other hand, claim; 

iff- $ i>*~ i>» <J?~J Cff u^.» C/^~ • u ! ^r»"» 
j>-*i i^»- <y* ili-dkara) and ^-1^ ui*~ jh 
(wa-dkara) from time to time, now and 
then, once in a while 

JtL?- hina'idin at that time, then, 
that day 

i]IJc-^ hlnaddka at that time, then, 
that day 

\^- hinamd (conj.) while; when, as 

Ui, L^, UJ, U^-l, »U~, .l*J,»L*=J, L^, 
«L>- , (jL*- , t£>2*-» *dj^"» ijij-»- etc, see 
under t y- 

*U- fca' name of the letter ^ 

OjjU- kdtun pi. »>j^>- kawdtm 2 lady, socially 
prominent woman | OjjU^I Sy>j zahrat 
al-k. little blue flower of the steppe {syr.) 

aU-U- kdkdm (= fU-U-) rabbi 

,jw»jU- karasin and ^-^jU- hdraslnl (eg.) 

•JjjU- teug pi. Jj jip- kawdziq 2 post, stake, 
pole; dirty trick | JjjU io* that's tough 

<jUU- kdqdn pi. ,>5i^- kawaqin 2 overlord, 
ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor 

£\*~ kdki earth -colored, khaki 

Jjj^, ujj*- , 

! J»». 

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Aj- kam (invar.) raw, unworked, unproces- 
sed; untanned; linen; calico; (pi, -at) raw 
material; inexperienced, green, untrain- 
ed, unskilled, artless, uncouth, boorish; 
pi. oUU- raw materials | f*U- ^i*r raw 
leather; pU- J*^ raw fibers; Aj~ c*j j {zait) 
crude oil; pU- J>1*> (sukkar) raw sugar; 
pU »jU (mddda) pi. pl>- jIj* (mawddd) raw 

uU- fcdw pi. -at hostel, caravansary; inn | 
J-Uil o^X\ (kallli) district of Cairo (center 
of art trade and market activity); uU- 
^j-jji Khan Yunis (town in Gaza sector) 

Z\>- tana pi. -at column {e.g., of a news- 
paper); square (e.g., on a chessboard); 
compartment, partition, section (of a 
wardrobe, a refrigerator, etc.); place (of 
units, tens, etc.; arith.}; place or rank (on 
a list or table; esp. sports) | aJL* *=Jl aJU- 
deepfreeze compartment (of a refrigerator) 

t_-^ kabba u {kabb, ^^- kabab, ^^ kabib) 
to amble (animal); to trot (horse); to 
jog, saunter (person); to sink (j in 
sand); — u (kabb) to surge, heave, be 
rough (sea) V and VIII to amble (animal) ; 
to trot (horse) 

^^ kabab amble; trot 

<_-^ kabb, kibb heaving, surging (of the 
sea), rough sea 

^J- kabb impostor, swindler 

L^ kaba*a a and II to hide, conceal (a 
V to hide, conceal o.s.; to be hidden, bo 
concealed VIII to hide, conceal o.s.; to 
disappear; to be hidden, be concealed 

»^S- kab\ kib* that which is hidden, 
a hidden thing 

4i^- kabi'a pi. UL^ kabtiya that which 
is hidden; a hidden, secret thing; a 
cache | ^j^l bl^- k. l-ard that which 
is hidden in the earth; natural resources 

lit makba' pi. UUt makabi* 2 hiding 
place; hide-out, refuge, haunt, retreat; 
cellar, shelter, air-raid shelter 

»L^ kiba pi. ~£~^\ akbi'a, Z~^\ akbiya 
tent; husk, hull (of grain) 

SSjU kabi'a, ^U kdbiya pi. f jj^ 
kaivdbi 2 , <-Ajt- kawahin large vessel, 
cask, jar 

CjXJc- mukabba*at hidden, secret things ; 

*^jf- muktabi* hidden, concealed 

^ IV to be humble ( Jl before God) 

«±- kabutu u (kubt,4j\~>- kabata) to be bad; 
to be wicked, evil, malicious, vicious, 
malignant VI to behave viciously, dis- 
play malice; to feel awkward, feel em- 

£~J~ kubt badness, wickedness; ma- 
lignancy (e.g., of a disease); malice, 
malevolence, viciousness 

ii~± kabat refuse, scum, dross, slag 

d^x**- kabit pi. £~*- kubut, *li^ kubata* 2 , 
iL>-l akbdt, <L^ kabata bad, evil, wicked; 
malicious, vicious, spiteful; noxious, 
injurious, harmful; malignant (disease); 
offensive, repulsive, nauseating, disgust- 
ing (odor) 

£~+\ akbat 2 worse; more wicked 

4jL^- kabata badness, wickedness; mal- 
ice, malevolence, viciousness, malignancy 

+■ kabara u (kubr, Zjf- kibra) to try, test 
(a; to experience (a; to have 
tried, have experienced, know by ex- 
perience ( *; to get to know thor- 
oughly, know well (a, « s.o.); — 
kabura u to know thoroughly (v or a, be fully acquainted (u or a with II to notify, advise, apprise, in- 
form, tell (» s.o., <-j of or about) III to 

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write (• to s,o.), address (o s.o.), turn, 
appeal (o to s.o.), contact (» s.o.) in 
writing; to communicate by telephone 
(« with s.o,); to negotiate, treat, parley (» 
with s.o.) IV to notify, inform, apprise, 
advise (<~> « s.o. of), let know, tell (^ « 
s.o. about); to communicate, report, 
relate (»_> » to s.o., tell (<_* « s.o. V to inquire (o of s.o.), ask (« s.o.) 
VI to inform one another, notify one 
another, keep one another informed; to 
correspond, write each other; to nego- 
tiate, treat, parley (** with s.o., J about) 
VIII to explore (a, search (a into), 
seek information (a about); to test, 
examine (* s.o., a; to try, put to 
the test (» s.o., a; to have tried, 
have experienced, know by experience 
(a; to know well (a X to 
inquire (^ » of s.o. about), ask (jt » s.o. 

j*~ kubr knowledge; experience 

j\>~ kabar pi. jLtl akbdr news; in- 
formation, intelligence; report, com- 
munication, message ; notification ; rumor ; 
story; matter, affair; (gram.) predicate 
of a nominal clause; pi. annals | jp -OL- 
yL*.( to inquire of s.o. about s.o. else; 
<jtf jy^ J uK*" or OS* j\>- J J^j (kabari 
kdna) to belong to the past, be passe, be 
no longer existent; see also u a : j\ and >^*-l 

•j°- kibra pi. kibardt experience (which 
s.o. has had); knowledge, skill resulting 
from experience | £>\j^\ JjUj tabddul 
al-k. exchange of experience 

j^~ kabir experienced, expert (<~> 
in) ; familiar, conversant, well-acquainted 
(lj with), cognizant (<_j of); >J^I the 
Knowing (one of the attributes of God) ; 
(pi. *\jji- kubard' 2 ) expert, specialist | 
t^jl^l j^i- tax expert, tax adviser 

jjjU- kdbur pi. ju\j£. kawablr 2 peg; 
pin; wedge 

j£* makbar intrinsic significance; real 
message, sense, content (e.g., of a work 
of art; in contrast to its form); inner 
nature or being, spirit and soul (of a 
person; in contrast to j^k* mazkar ex- 
ternal appearance); (pi. jk£ majcabir*) 

j Lit mikbdr pi. jjX-Z. makabir 2 test tube 

lj\J£- mukabara pi. -at correspondence, 
(esp. written) information (in classified 
ads: t_-> vUU please write to..., please 
contact ,..), notice, notification, com- 
munication; (= v>^j V^) telephone 
call, telephone conversation; pi. £j\j\k 
intelligence service, secret service {jx)l.) \ 
VrJ^ V,^ (kdrijiya) long-distance call; 
\j^ ljK$- (sirriya) secret communique ; 
CjI_/UJJ S/b and Cji^UJ.1 li qalam al- 
m. intelligence bureau; ol^UIl <)IS^ 
*jjSjil wakdktt (d-m. al-mmkazlya Central 
Intelligence Agency, CIA; 4.WI olj-UJi 
{'ammo) General Intelligence {Jord.); 
Ljj^j^ I j \±AS (hudurlyan) apply in person 
(in classified ads) 

jL^-l ikbdr notification, information, 
communication, note, message; report; 
indirect discourse, oratio obliqua (gram.) 

t^jL^l ikbdrl news-, information- (in 

SjjLs^I ikbdriya denouncing, informing 
(against s.o.) 

j\£ takdbur negotiation; correspond- 
ence; communication; intelligence con- 
tact ( ** with a foreign power) 

jLu^l iktibdr pi. -at exploration, exami- 
nation (of, by one's own experience, 
experimentally); test; test item (of an 
examination); trial, probation, testing; 
experience, empirical knowledge; prac- 
tical experience | \j j£ oljL^-1 (tahri- 
riya) written tests; jii jLx>-l (ddti) self- 

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probing, self-knowledge (through testing 
or experience); jLx>-Vl J^ Jp experi- 
mentally; jL^-*yi lUI on probation, on 
trial; jL^-^I 6j*>- experimental fields; 
jj-l «ju jLs*tl i. 6fi^a f cl-hibr Rorschach 
test (psych.); olil^J-l Jp oljLs^l animal 

i^jL^-l iktibdrl experimental; experi- 
ential; empirical j jjLr^-l t-j~* (masrah) 
experimental theater 

4jjU^-I iktibdnya empiricism 

»»x^1 istikbdr pi. -at inquiry; pi. 
oljLi^-l secret service, intelligence serv- 
ice | oijL^-^1 lj\z information bureau 

^jLi^u-l istikbdrl: 5j jLi-^-l JL^I under- 
cover activities, intelligence operations 

j*£ mukbir pi. -wn reporter; detective; 
informer, stool pigeon; denouncer 

jck muktabar pi. -a2 laboratory [ j^ 
UJ wi. Z«£a language laboratory; _/^£ 
•Lai m. /ada' space laboratory 

iSjc^ muktabarl: "^j^ <t>\^\ labora- 
tory research; 4jj<&£ <-r>j\*r laboratory 

jJ- kabaza i (kabz) to bake {* bread) VIII do. 

>£. &«&2 pL JL^I akbaz bread | >>• 
^LJI A;, al-'abbas (ir.) baked dough 
filled with ground meat, saffron and 

ojJ- kubza loaf of bread 

jLaJ- kabbaz pi. -w», SjL^ baker 

jUat- kubbdz, j^J~ kubbaiz, tSjL^ kub* 
baza mallow (6of.) 

SjL>- kibdza baker's trade, art of 

>£ makbaz, cjjfi- makbaza pi. _>lifc 
makdbiz 2, bakery 

olj^k makbuzat bakery goods 

Jcabasa i (kabs) to mix, mingle, intermix 
(<_> * with) II to mix, mingle, inter- 
mix (a; to muddle, jumble, confuse 
(a, make a mess (a of) 

fjA^S- kabis, 'U*—^ kabisa medley, 
mess, mishmash, hodgepodge; i-a~^- a 
jelly like sweet 

^L*- kabbds one who causes confusion, 
who messes things up; an irresponsible, 
light-minded person 

Jsu^ kabata i (kabt) to beat, strike (a, 
against; to knock, rap (* on, ^LJI 
on the door) ; to stamp (^jV I the ground; 
of animals); to go stamping, trampling 
along (person; J on a path) | Ja^ .kJ^ 
*\jJU- {kabta'aswaa) he acts haphazardly, 
he proceeds rashly or at random; -^i Ja*>- 
*\jtc Ja-^ he struck out blindly at them 
(with a cane) V to beat, strike, hit 
(» s.o.); to bring down, fell, knock out, 
throw to the ground (o s.o.); to bump, 
hit (a against), collide (a with), stumble 
(* over); to be lost, wander about, stray; 
to wander about blindly, erratically (j 
»jw /* sairihi in going); to wander aim- 
lessly; to grope about, fumble about; to 
struggle, resist; to clatter over the ground, 
gallop (horse) VIII to bump (against) ; to 
struggle, resist; to grope about, fumble 
about; to be lost, wander around, stray; 
to stir, bustle 

aL-^- kabta blow, stroke; rap, knock; 
noise, din, uproar 

J*U^ kubdt insanity, madness, mental 

JaJi mikbat pi. Jsuli makabif drum- 

J^ kabala u (kabl) to confound, confuse, 
mess up, complicate (a; to hinder, 
impede, handicap, stop, hold back (o 
s.o.); to befuddle (o s.o.), confuse s.o.'s 
(e) mind, rob (» s.o.) of his senses, make 

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(« s.o.) crazy; — kabila a (kabal, JL^- 
kabal) to get confused; to be or become 
mentally disturbed, crazy, insane II to 
confound, confuse (a, « s.o.); to 
complicate, entangle, mess up, muddle, 
throw into disorder (a; to rob of 
his senses, drive insane (* s.o.) VIII to 
become muddled, disordered (mind) 

J-ji. kabl, kabal confusion; mental 
disorder, insanity 

J*>- kabil mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

JoU akbal 2 mad, crazy, insane; feeble- 
minded, dim-witted 

JLx^-I iktibal mental disorder 

JjJt makbul mad, crazy, idiotic, 
imbecilic, mentally deranged, insane; 
muddlehead, dolt, fool 

Jjt mukabbal confused, baffled, per- 
plexed, dismayed; muddled, confused, 
mixed up 

(j^) L>- kabd u (kabw, kubuw) to go out, die 

LL»- and »L^ pi. Z^\ see L>- 

a-jU- pi. vl>*" see ^f~ 
^jl—*- kibydrl caviar 

Jji- katara i (kair) to betray {♦ s.o.), act 
perfidiously, disloyally (* toward s.o.); 
to deceive, cheat, dupe (* s.o.) 

J± kair disloyalty, breach of confi- 
dence, perfidy, treachery, betrayal, de- 

jb>- kattdr traitor, disloyal person, 
cheat, swindler 

jTU- kdtir treacherous, perfidious, dis- 

Jx^ katala i u {katl, b^c^- katalan) to dupe, 
gull, cheat, double-cross, deceive (* s.o.) 

Ill to deceive, cheat, dupe (* s.o.); to 
behave hypocritically VIII — I 

Ji>- katl and SJLjUi mukdtala deception, 
trickery, double* dealing, duplicity, dup- 
ing, gulling 

JjI<£ mukdtil deceitful, crafty, wily, 

1>- Jcatama i (katm, pb>- kitam) to seal, 
provide with a seal or signet (a; to 
stamp, impress with a stamp (a; 
to seal off, close, make impervious or 
inaccessible (a; also Jp the hearts, ! 
said of God); to put one's seal (a on), i 
conclude, terminate (a; to wind 
up, finish, complete (a; to close, 
heal, cicatrize (wound) V to put on or 
wear a ring (<^) | v_-a-aJI> l£ (dahab) to 
wear a golden ring VIII to conclude, 
finish, terminate, wind up (a 

I*- katm sealing; — (pi, #b>-l aktdm, 
*jz>- kutum) seal, signet, seal imprint; 
stamp, stamp imprint; also = 3U^ (see 
below) | JbjJl I*- postmark, (postal) 
cancellation stamp; IAM *x" sam f al-k. 
sealing wax 

<^J^ katma pi. katamdt recital of the 
entire Koran, esp. on festive occasions 

/U- kdtam, katim pi. f]yt- kawatim 2 
seal ring, signet ring; ring, finger ring; 
seal, signet; stamp ] t-\jJ\ fU- k. az- 
zawdj wedding ring; J^^\ rU k. an- 
nabiyin the Seal (i.e., the last) of the 
Prophets = Mohammed; Hjjdl fU- k, 
ad-daula official seal (of a government 

/•IjU- kdtdm pi. *j\j»- kawatim? seal 
ring, signet ring; ring 

*\£>- kitam sealing wax; end, close, 
conclusion, termination | fbl-'l J at the 
end, at last, finally, eventually 

t/Ls»- kitami final, concluding | «*Jf 
V^ (kalima) concluding speech 

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aItisU iktitdm end, close, conclusion, 

Zx U- Jcatima pi. rj^t. kawdtiitfi, J^]y- 
kawdtim 2 end, close, conclusion, termina- 
tion; epilogue (of a book); ^1^- final 

jjt mukattam ringed, adorned with 
a ring or rings (hand) 

Jjaft muktatam end, close, conclusion, 

1 JU- katana i (katn) to circumcise (o a boy) 
VIII pass. 

<jC>- &a(» circumcision 

j^- katan pi. ib*-1 dktdn son-in-law; 

uli*- kitdn, 2jU>- kitdna circumcision 
2 JjjU- look up alphabetically 

t. katara u and katira a to become solid, 
become thick, solidify, thicken; to be or 
become viscous, sirupy; to clot, coagulate 
(liquid); to curdle (milk) II and IV to 
thicken, inspissate, condense, coagulate 
(a liquid); to curdle (a milk) V = I 

O »jr*- hatra thrombosis (med.) 

j lit kutdr dregs (of a liquid); scum 
of the earth, riffraff, mob 

SjU>- kutdra dregs (of a liquid); sed- 
iment, lees 

jj£ takaitur coagulation | O M^ j J^ 
[mukk) cerebral thrombosis 

j\± kdtir thickened, inspissated, con- 
densed; viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, 
coagulated, clotted; yoghurt, curd 

cAj<e- mukattirdt coagulants (esp. med.) 

j^- mukattar thickened, inspissated, 
condensed; viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, 
coagulated, clotted 

J£ kajilaa {kajal) to become embarrassed; 
to be ashamed (,y of or to face s.o.), 
be abashed (j* by, feel embarrassed 
(,> about or in front of s.o.) II and 

IV to shame (« s.o.); to embarrass, abash, 
put to shame (» s.o.) 

j£" kajal shame (<>. at); bashfulness, 
diffidence, timidity, shyness; abashment; 
disgrace, shame, ignominy | J**>^ Ij 
(la-l-k.) O disgrace ! the shame of it ! 

J*" kajil abashed, embarrassed; bash- 
ful, diffident, shy, timid; overgrown 
with luxuriant, profuse vegetation; long 
and flowing (garment) 

dj^ kajul abashed, ashamed, shame- 
faced; shy, bashful, diffident, timid 

o^ kajldn 2 abashed, ashamed, 
shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, tim- 
id; bewildered with shame, embarrassed 

<Jj>«^ makjul ashamed, shamefaced 

J>*k mukjil arousing shame, shame- 
ful; shocking, disgraceful, ignominious | 
*1>J£I »LifrVi {a'dd') the pudenda 

■A>- kadda u to furrow, plow (a the ground) 

V to be furrowed; to become wrinkled 

A>- kadd pi. 2jA>- kudud cheek; lateral 
portion, side | «ji»- JJW » sa"ara kaddahu 
to put on a contemptuous mien 

A>- kadd and H*- kudda pi. j-Lt kudad 
furrow, ridge, groove, rut 

3j^>-l ukdud pi. Jb.iU-1 akddld 2 furrow, 
ridge, groove, rut; trench, excavation; 
pi. -UiU-1 furrows, wrinkles, engraved 
lines (in a face) 

H£- mikadda pi. jlk ma kadd 2 cushion, 
pillow; seat cushion 

£a± kadij premature child 

r-l-bi- kiddj abortion, miscarriage 

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j-U- kadira a (kadar) to be numb, prickle, 
tingle (leg, arm); to be or become limp, 
benumbed, paralyzed; — kadara u to 
confine to women's quarters, keep in 
seclusion (U a girl) II to numb, benumb, 
stupefy (a s.o., a; to anesthetize, 
narcotize, put to sleep (» s.o., a; 
med.); to confine to women's quarters, 
keep in seclusion (U a girl) IV to make 
torpid, stupefy, benumb, deprive of 
sensation, narcotize (a s.o., a,) V to 
be numbed, be stunned, be stupefied, 
be deprived of sensation; to come to 
rest, calm down 

j-U- kidr pi. jjO>- kudur, jlo^l akdar, 
jroU-! akddir 2 curtain, drape; women's 
quarters of a tent; boudoir, private 
room (of a lady) 

j-U- kadar and Zj&>- kudra numbness, 
insensibility (esp. of a limb gone to 
sleep) ; daze, torpor, stupor 

j-U- kadir numb (limb); benumbed, 
torpid, dazed 

o\jJ*- kadrdn numb (limb); dazed 

jjj£ takdir anesthetization, narcotiza- 
tion; anesthesia (med.) j ^J'y j->£ 
(maudi'i) local anesthesia (med.) 

Oj'-^I ikddr analgesia (med.) 

jiU- kadir limp, languid; benumbed, 
torpid, dazed; hidden in his den, lurk- 
ing (Hon) 

3pl>- kadira chrysalis (of a caterpillar; 

jX£- mukaddir anesthetic, painkilling, 
tranquilizing ; (pi. -at) an anesthetic; a 
narcotic, drug, dope 

j\£~ rnukaddar numb, torpid, in- 
sensible; (eg.) tipsy, fuddled, drunk 

Sj-bt mukaddara girl kept in seclusion 
from the outside world 

^u- kadaSa % (kads) to scratch (with one's 
nails, a; to make scratch marks (» 
on ; to violate (a s.o.'s honor), o 
(a the ear, the sense of shame, rules of 
decency); to disturb (a the peace or 
silence) ; to harm, damage (*£*♦*- sum'ahlt 
s.o.'s reputation) II to scratch severely 
(a; to hurt, injure (a s.o.'s h 
etc.); to offend (* the ears) V pass, of 11 

,^-b^ kads pi. (jij-Jb^ kudus, ^1-U-l ak4M 
scratch, scratch mark; graze, abrasion 

f--b^ kada'a a to cheat (a s.o., ^ out of; 
to deceive, mislead, dupe, gull (» s.o.); 
pass. kudi*a to be mistaken, be wrong 
(je about); to fail to see clearly (^ with 
regard to) , get the wrong impression 
(jp of | <*J6 jc 4£-i>- to mislead, 
dupe s.o. Ill to cheat, dupe, deceive, 1 
take in (* s.o.); to try to deceive or 
double-cross (o s.o.) VII to let o.s. be 
deceived, be deceived, deluded, misled 
(«--> by); to be mistaken, be wrong 

fjj- kad' cheating; deceit, deception 

4P-b^ kud'a pi. 9^~ kuda\ -at de- j 
ception, cheating, swindle j 

it-u- kuda'a impostor, swindler, cheat, 

4P.U-I (jj^ sawwd akda'ahu to crush 
s.o.'s pride, humble s.o. 

axjA>- kadfa pi. *jl-U- kadai" 2 de- 
ception, deceit, betrayal, treachery, per- 
fidy, trickery, imposture 

£^4^- kaddd' impostor, swindler, sharper, 
cheat, crook; deceptive, delusive 

9XS- kaida' fata morgana, mirage 

*jjU.| akddX 2 swindles, underhand 
dealings, crooked practices; phantoms, 
phantasms, delusions 

£aji mikda', mukda', makda r pi, fsCfi- 
makddi' 2 small room, chamber, cabinet; 

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f J 

f-ljl^ kidef deception, deceit, swindle, 
imposture, betrayal, treachery, perfidy, 
trickery, duplicity 


kida'i deceitful, fraudulent ; 

deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

foU- kadi' deceiving, deceitful; decep- 

9\sL£ mukddi' swindler, impostor, cheat, 
sharper, crook 

Jju. kadila a to stiffen, become rigid; to 
become numb, torpid, limp 

po>- kadama i u (i-U- kidma) to serve, be at 
service, do service ; to have a job ; to work 
to wait (<> on s.o.) ; to serve (a s.o., j» 
to render a service (« to s.o., a to 
stand up (• for s.o.) | ^jVi ?A*- to till or 
cultivate the soil; Sj^iT CjL-U- <uJbi (ki* 
damatin katiratan) he rendered him many 
services; o^i v-^Bj fJUJ- {rikdba) to 
be at s.o.'s beck and call; i-L^* /»A>- 
<!)■& (masaliha) to serve s.o.'s interests; 
^IjUI *JJ- {qudddsa) to celebrate Mass 
(OAr.); dLij ifJLiJ aJU-I iL^ (ikdim w aj* 
saka bi-n.) self-service II to employ, hire 
(• s.o.), engage the services (* of s.o.); to 
give work (» to s.o.), provide work {o for) 
X to employ, hire, take on (« s.o., J for, engage the services (<_S « of s.o. for; to put in operation, operate (a 
e.g., a public utility); to employ, use 
(*, J for), make use, avail o.s. (a 
of, J for a purpose) 

f Ji>- kadam servants, attendants 

i»Ji>- kidma pi. p-U. kidam, -at a service 
(rendered); attendance, service; opera- 
tion; office, employment, occupation, 
job; work | *^ X»s*~ J in the service of; < fz*<\>- J at your service; <jua£ i-U- 
(kidmatan) in the interest of truth, for 
the sake of truth; ZjSL^S\ IL..UM ( r a$kariya) 
military service; ijjLsj-VI X*jX\ (ijbdriya) 

conscription, compulsory service; i»JL£-'i 
4j_,J! (sirriya) secret service (pol.); 
^jJjLSJI i.A>. &. al-quddds celebration of 
Mass (Chr t ); J>j^\ **^ k. al-ar4 cultiva- 
tion of the soil; XX>\~*~\ <aA*- reserve 
duty (mil.); 1*11 i.-U- k. al'alam (Syr.) 
military service; i.Ul £>UUM public 
services; Sjw CjLjl>- ($ihhiya) health 
services; ljl*» i»o>- pi. S/U f-l>- (e^.) 
non-tenured workers, workers paid by 
the day; seasonal laborers; labor force 
not on regular appointment 

* io>- kaddam pi. S manservant, servant, 
attendant; woman servant, female do- 
mestic servant, maid 

i*ijl>- kadama attendance, service; 
employment, occupation, office, job 

i*IJL>- kadddma pi. -at woman servant, 
female domestic servant, maid 

£AaC takdim work, occupation or duty 
of an employment agent (pak mukaddim 
see below) | f -U*dl ^Si» maktab at-t. labor 
office, employment bureau 

aIjUw-I istikddm (putting into) oper- 
ation; use, utilization; employment, hir- 
ing (of an employee); (pi. -at) service, 
occupation, position, job; pi. oL!Aiw-1 
modes of utilization or application 

(oU- kddim pi. >»1a>. kuddam, i»JL»- 
kadama domestic servant, help; man- 
servant; woman servant; employee; 
attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.) 

<oU. kddima woman servant; female 
domestic servant, maid; woman at- 

4~»±\»- kddimiya status of a servant 

ajX£- makdum pi. -un, rsUfi- iwxkd* 
dim 2 master, employer 

4..jJb£ makduma mistress, lady (of 
the house), woman employer 

Vj-bC- makdumiya status of the 
master or employer 

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0J& mukaddim pi. --Sn employment 

l»-U*i«v» mustakdim pi. -«» employer ; — 
mustakdam (colloq. mustakdim) pi. -wrt 
employee, official 

u-U- Ill to befriend (* s.o.), make friends (* 
with s.o.); to associate socially (» with) 

j-U- kidn pi. OIju-1 akddn (intimate) 
friend, companion, confidant 

(jf-U- kadin (intimate) friend, com- 
panion, confidant 

jijU- kidiw, (Sji-^>~ kudaiwi khedive 
iSyJ*- kidiwl khedivial 

TjU- X to submit, subject o.s. 

^JLkx— ^ mustakdi submissive, servile, 
subservient, obedient 

<J»jj.i>- kudruf pi. Caj j\X+ kadarif 2 (spinning) 

iSjjX^- kudrufi turbinate, toplike 

JsX^- kadaja i (kadf) to hurl away (a, *-> 

iiJik mikdafa sling, slingshot, catapult 

(JJU kadala u (kadi, uV^ kidlan) to leave, 
abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the 
lurch (« or ^ s.o.); to stay behind; to 
disappoint; pass, kudila to fail, suffer a 
setback, meet with disappointment III to 
leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave 
in the lurch (• s.o.) VI to let up, flag, 
grow slack, languish, wane, decrease, 
fade, grow feeble VII to be left in the 
lurch; to be helpless; to be defeated; to 
meet with disappointment 

OV-w- kidlan disappointment; defeat, 
setback, failure 

Jilii takddul fatigue, languor, weak- 
ness, feebleness; relaxation, lessening of 
tension; disagreement, dissent, disunion 

JiJiicI inkiddl forsakenness, deserted- 
ness, abandonment; defeat 

JjUjl. mutakddil languid, weak, ex- 
hausted, spent, effete 

(jo>-) X to submit, subject o.s.; to be or feel 

t\X>c^\ istikdd* subservience, submis- 
siveness, servility 

•U*^** mustakdin submissive, servile, 
subservient, obedient 

j±- karra iu(j j±- karlr) to murmur, bubble, 
gurgle, purl (of running water); to 
ripple, trickle; to snore; — (karr, jjj*- 
kurur) to fall, fall down, drop; to sink to 
the ground, prostrate o.s. | u Jj'^\ J* _p- 
to fall to the ground; aj-u ,>j j»- (baina 
yadaihi) he prostrated himself before 
him; ^Os Cj£ ji- (tahta qadamaihi) he 
fell at his feet 

jj£- karir purl, murmur, ripple (of 

l$j^ kana a (^- fear") to evacuate the 
bowels, defecate 

*^~ kur* and *\j+- karat excrement, 

OLI^ kurasdn 2 Khurasan (province in 
NE Iran) 

1 c r ^- karaba i (karb) to destroy, wreck, 
demolish, shatter, devastate, lay waste 
(a,); — kariba a {^[^ kardb) to 
be or become destroyed, ruined, waste, 
go to ruin, fall apart, disintegrate; to be 
out of order, be in need of repair II to 
devastate, lay waste, destroy, wreck, 
demolish, ruin, lay in ruins (* 
IV = II; V to be or become destroyed, 
ruined, waste, go to ruin, fall apart, dis- 

^jj~ karb destruction, devastation 

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^>j>- kurb hole; eye of a needle; anus 

<_j^. karib destroyed, demolished, 
wrecked, devastated, waste; dilapidated, 
tumble-down, ramshackle; broken, ruin- 
ed ; kaput, out of order, in need of repair 

\j»~ kirba pi. <->j*- kirab (site of) 
ruins; ruin, disintegrating structure 

hjfi- karba, kurba irreligion, lawless- 

ZjjJ- kurba pi. 
of a needle; anus 

kurab hole; eye 

\j*- kariba (site of) ruins 

^>[/~ karab ruin, ruination; state of 
destruction or dilapidation; desolation; 
(pi. <sj+\ akriba) (site of) ruins 

*j\j>- karaba pi. -at, ^J[^- kara'ib* dis- 
integrating structure, ruin, ruins 

b\jjJ- karban, kirbdn destroyed, wrecked, 
demolished, devastated, waste; ruined, 
broken, out of order 

<~?ij£ takrib pi. -at devastation, de- 
struction, wrecking, demolition; sabotage 

fjijz J^ 'amal takribl act of sabotage 

<_jjU- karib annihilator, destroyer 

i~>jk mukarrib pi. -un annihilator, 
destroyer; saboteur 

^jk mukrib annihilator, destroyer 

2 <^jj»- karrub (coll.; n. un. I) carob, locust; 
carob bean, locust pod, St. -John's -bread 

HJj*~ karrvha pi. -at kharouba, a dry 
measure (Eg.; = Vw £■*» — .1291) 

Jjj*- karbasa to scratch (intr. and » s.o.); 
to scrawl, scribble 

Jy>j>- karbus pi. ^)j*- kardbls 2 {syr.) 

O cAtsJ£ mukarbaMt graffiti 

Jaj^*. karbata to throw into disorder, dis- 
arrange, confuse (a 

SlaJj^- karbata disorder, confusion 

Jij>- karbaqa to perforate, riddle (a; 
to spoil, mar (a 

Jij>- karbaq hellebore (bot.) 

dj*- karata u (kart) to pierce, bore, perforate 
(a, make a hole (a in) 

Cjj>- kurt, kart pi. ol^>-l akrdt, CtjjZ- 
kurut hole; bore, drill hole; ring, eye, 

£~lj£- kirrit experienced, practiced, 
skilled; guide 

C-jJ^- kartU rhinoceros 

^■j^karaja u (rjj*- kuruj) to go out, walk 
out; to come out (^ of), emerge (j* 
from); to drive or ride out, go out (in a 
vehicle); to flow out, exude, effuse; to go 
away, depart, leave, retire; to protrude, 
project, stick out; to leave {<>; 
to drop out (j* from a competition; 
sport); to dismount, alight, disembark 
(j- from), get out, step out (j* of); to 
emanate, issue, arise, originate, result 
(,y from); to draw away, segregate, 
separate, secede, dissent (jt from), dis- 
agree (je- with); to deviate, depart (tf- 
from an arrangement, from a prin- 
ciple); to be an exception (^ to); to be 
outside a given subject ( je-), go beyond a 
topic (^J, exceed (^ a topic); to be 
alien ({/> to), be extraneous (^ from), 
not to belong (^ to), be not included 
(jt in), have nothing to do with (^); 
j* rj£ V it is limited to . . ., it is nothing 
but . . . ; to go forth (into battle) ; to 
attack (J* s.o. f, rise, fight (J* 
against); to rebel, revolt (J* against); to 
violate, break, infringe (Jp a rule, a 
regulation); «-> *JU -^- to come up 
to s.o. with ..., confront s.o. with ...; to 

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get out, bring out, take out (^ s.o.); to 
turn out, oust, dislodge (^ s.o.); to lead 
away, dissuade (jc ^ s.o. from); to 
find out, discover (cj j Jai-M ^ rj*- 
(katp) to be derailed, run off the track 
(train); i-iU j o ^y- {'afiya) to re- 
cover nicely from,; Lc'Lp l^ilt <cl. *y>- 
(zdfiran ganiman) to overcome suc- 
cessfully, surmount triumphantly 
II to move out, take out, dislodge (» 
s.o., *; to turn out, oust, expel, 
evict, drive out (* s.o., a ; to remove, 
eliminate (* s.o., *; to exclude, 
except (a; to train (o s.o., J in a 
skill, and the like) ; to educate, bring up 
(« s.o.); to distill (a; to pull out, 
extract (a; to gather, deduce, infer 
(a IV to move out, take out, get 
out, bring out, dislodge (e s.o., a; 
to pull out (,y a of); to unpack 
(a things) ; to unload (a, disembark, 
detrain, etc. (& s.o., e.g., troops); to 
turn out, oust (« s.o.); to emit, send out 
(a, e.g., electric waves); to stick 
out (a e.g., the tongue); to fish out (a from the pocket); to bring out into 
the open, make public (a; to 
bring out, publish (a a new work); to 
remove, extract (a; to eliminate 
(a; to evict (* s.o.), remove (« s.o., 
j* from a dwelling); to expel, exile, ex- 
patriate (« s.o., ^ from a country) ; to dis- 
miss, fire, remove (• s.o., j-. from an of- 
fice); <Cjj ij* 4*^1 {tarwatihi) to rob s.o. 
of his property, dispossess, expropriate 
s.o.; to give off, sound, emit (a, e.g., 
a tone; said of a musical instrument); 
to set forth, state, express, utter, voice 
(a an opinion); to break (Uij rihan 
wind); to educate, bring up (» s.o.); to 
train (» s.o.); to stage, produce (a a play; 
theat.)\ to bring out, make, shoot {<>Jjj 
riwdyatan a film, said of a director); to 
except, exclude (a, jp from); to 
pull out, extract (a; to select (a V to be educated; to be trained (j 
in a school, college, also y t J in a field); 
to graduate ( j from a school, from a 
college, also j*) VI to part company, 
separate; to disengage, disassociate, 
withdraw from one another; to cede, 
assign, transfer, make over (J ^ to 
s.o.) X to get out, move out, remove (*, j* from); to take out, draw (a, ^ from); to pull out, extract 
(a, j- from); to mine, extract, 
recover (a mineral resources); to win, 
gain, make (a a product, ^ from); to 
copy, excerpt (a, ^y from a book or 
document); to derive, draw, deduce, 
figure out, compute {y a from); to 
elicit (a, e.g., astonishment, j* from 
s.o.); to evoke (a e.g., laughter, ^ from 
s.o); to find out, discover (a 

rj>- karj expenditure, outlay, ex- 
pense^), costs; land tax;, appropriate 
or suitable, that which is s.o.'s due, 
which s.o. deserves, which s.o. needs; 
(eg.) ration (food); (pi, oU-j^*- kurujdt) 
trimming; edge, edging, piping; pi, lace; 
trimmings | *il>-^ IIa that's what you 
need, what you deserve; ii-iil gj>- jc. 
al-masnaqa, one who deserves to be 

<rj*~ kurj pi. h-yi- kiraja saddlebag, 

^Tj*- karja pi. karajat exit, departure; 
protrusion, protuberance, projection, sa- 
lient part; (eg.) funeral 

^}j*- kardj tax; kharaj, land tax (Isl. 

(^r!/*- kardji of or pertaining to land 
tax; of or pertaining to the taxed and 
cultivable area 

^1^ kuraj pi. -at abscess (med.) 

VJJ*' kuruj exit; egression, emergence; 
departure; exodus; emigration; raid, 

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foray, sortie (Jp against), attack, as- 
sault (Jp on); offense (Jp against), viola- 
tion (Jp of) | Jai-'l ^ £j>- (t a ti) de- 
railment (of a train) ; zjj^- ' j^ **/ r «^« 
the Book of Exodus; S-uUiJI Jp ttj^ 
violation of a rule; ^LaJI <jp p:-*^ (^!'^ s ) 
abnormality, irregularity 

£„j>- kirrlj pi. -u« graduate (of a 
school, college, or university) | ^uf^J-'l j*j* 
*-yJl mutamar al-k. al-'arab Congress of 
Arab Graduates (a supra-national or- 
ganization of university graduates ad- 
vocating a unified Arab world) 

zjt- tnukraj pi. ^jlit makarif (place 
of) exit; way out (of a difficult situation), 
outlet, escape, loophole, shift, dodge, 
excuse; articulation (of a sound); O cath- 
ode (el.); denominator (arith.) | rjz 
ii/vJL. (mu&arak) common denominator 
{arith.)', <SsjJ~\ rj^ 1^ phonetics; ^ 
^ -rj£- (wa#sra/a) hopeless (situation) 

£j£ takrij education, training (in 
schools, colleges); raising, upbringing, 
rearing (of children); extraction; deriva- 
tion, deduction 

grj/^-l ikraj taking out, moving out, 
removal; unloading, disembarkment, de- 
trainment; emission; moving, carting 
away, hauling off; evacuation; publica- 
tion, publicizing, bringing before the 
public; extraction, removal; elimination; 
dismissal, removal (from an office) ; oust- 
ing, expulsion, eviction, expatriation, 
banishment (from a country); excretion 
(biol.); finding out, discovery, figuring 
out; training, formation, education; 
direction, production, staging (motion 
pictures, theater) | 77 (/^ I dy (tawalld) 
to have the direction (motion pictures, 
theater); ... 7r \ J ^~\ ^ directed by... 
(motion picture) 

-rJ£ takarruj graduation (from a 
school or college) 

£-jli£ takaruj separation, disassocia- 
tion, disengagement, (mutual) with- 

r-lfiuL-l istikraj taking out, moving out, 
pulling out, removal; withdrawing; ex- 
traction, derivation, gaining (of in- 
dustrial products, etc.), raining, re- 
covery (of mineral resources); prepara- 
tion of an extract; excerpting, copying; 
deduction, inference; solution (of a 

ryU- kdrij outer, outside, outward, 
exterior; external, foreign; outside, ex- 
terior (n.); foreign country or countries; 
quotient (arith.) ; kdrija (prep.) outside, 
out of; U^U- kdrijan outside | jp U^U- 
outside of, apart from; t-jL^I <j abroad, 
in foreign countries; outside; ^jU^' Jl 
abroad, to foreign countries ; to the out- 
side, outward, out 

4*-jU-'l El Kharga (town in central 
Egypt, in Kharga oasis) 

^>-jU kdrijl outer, out- (in compounds), 
outside, outward, exterior, external; 
foreign; nonresident; objective, based on 
external aspects (opposite of subjective) | 
Vt-jU- oLp ("iydda) policlinic; <_^-jl>- ^Jj 
(tilmid) a student not living at a boarding 
school, a day student; ^tjU* C^\J\ (it* 
bat) objective proof 

t:j\>>- kawdrif the Khawarij, Kha- 
rijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam) ; 
dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels 

A^jU-i al-karipya the sect of the 
Kharijites, see rjl^l foreign affairs | 
*L>-jLCl Sjljj ministry of foreign (external) 
affairs, foreign ministry 

r-yt mukrij pi. -un (screen or stage) 

-rj*- mukraj excerpt, extract (from 
a book); oU^k excretions (biol.) 

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£ji»i. mutakarrij pi. -wn graduate 
( J or <> of a school or college) 

rj*z~* mustakraj pi. -a£ extract; 
excerpt (^ from), partial copy (,y of) 

karkara to snore 

1 j / >- karida a to be a virgin, be untouched, 
innocent, chaste 

*-*0>- karida pi. aJl^>- karaid 2 , ^>- 
kurud virgin; unbored pearl 

2 3^>- kurda scrap metal, scrap iron; pi. 
£j\j*j£- kurdaioat notions, smallwares; 
small goods, smalls, miscellaneous small 
articles; (eg. also) novelties, fancy goods 
for ladies 

jt^- kurda ji dealer in miscellaneous 

3ij>- kurdaq, kurduq small shot, buckshot 

Jjyi- kardal (coll.; n. un. S) mustard seeds; 

jj>~ karaza i u to pierce, bore (a 

jj»~ karaz (coll.; n.un. S) pi. -at beads, 
specif., strung beads 

j\j>~ karraz pi. -un cobbler 

jjk- mikraz pi. JjUi makdriz 2 awl; 

j\Jf- mikraz pi. jj\k makariz 2 awl; 

4i\jj*~ karzdna (eg.) switch, rod 

1 ( j>^ karisa a (karas) to be dumb, mute; to 
become silent, keep silent, hold one's 
tongue IV to silence, reduce to silence, 
gag („ s.o.) 

^J~ karas dumbness, muteness 

^j^\ akras 2 , f. >U^- karsd' 2 , pi. ^j. 
kurs, 6Lyt kursdn dumb, mute 

uL^»- karsdn 2 dumb, mute 

2 jL^- karasdn, SiU, 
(beton) | O 

karasdna concrete 




armored (or reinforced) concrete 

J*}£j>- kursuf (coll.; n.un. 3) pi. cJuil^- 
kardslf 2 artichoke 

( j-y i - karasa u (kars) to guess, estimate (a; to conjecture, surmise (a, 
form conjectures (a about); to tell an 
untruth, a falsehood, to lie V to fabricate 
lies (Jp against s.o.); to raise false 
accusations (Jp against s.o.) 

*jp- kirs, kurs pi. oUyt Airman, 
kursdn earring 

^_f~ karrds pi. -im liar, slanderer, 

_U^- karata u i (kart) to pull off, strip (a 
leaves from a tree) ; to turn, lathe, shape 
with a lathe (a wood, metal); to exag- 
gerate, boast, brag, lie; — u {eg.) to cut 
into small pieces; to mince, chop, dice 
(a meat, carrots, etc.) II (eg.) to cut into 
small pieces, mince, chop (a VII to 
be turned, be lathed, be shaped with a 
lathe; to join, enter (j, <iiL j fl silk 
an organization, a community), af- 
filiate (j, diU J with an organization, 
a community); to penetrate (J or 
into); to plunge headlong (j into), 
embark rashly (j upon); to labor, slave, 
toil | »lSvJi j i^k*l (bukd') to break into 

\>j*~ kart pulling-off (of leaves); Oj* 
ibJi}\ S>jii- dili see jji; turning, turnery 

J»l^- karrdt pi. -wto turner, lather; 
braggart, bluffer, storyteller 

2J»I^- kirdta turner's trade, turnery, 
art of turning 

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4b>\j>- kurdia turnings, filings, millings, 

'A*\ji- karrdta skirt (syr.) 

&lj>- karlta pi, JaJl^ kard'it 2 , X>y~ 
kurut map, chart 

JaS\j^- kara'i§i cartographic(al) 

'4*Jt- mikrata, makrata pi. Jylic ma* 
karif lathe 

-U|>atf I inkirdp joining (j of), entry (j 

*iyU- kdrita pi. -a* map, chart 

iojjk makrup cone (maiA.); conic 

Jpjjf- rmkruti conic 

cAA^ kartuS bullets, cartridges; — U^L^ 
(n. un.) pi. ^/iUl^- karatU* cartridge; lead 
(of a pencil); cartouche (arch.); daybook | 
J\*»0 \£-J&ji- (eg.) a carton of cigarettes 

<JU^>- kartal oats 

fA^ W^ P^- ^L*- karatim 2 proboscis, 
trunk (of the elephant); hose 

(^*J"\ cU-kurtiim, (also pronounced 
al-kartum) Khartoum (capital of tho 
Sudanese Republic) 

j)j»]/^ kardtin 2 a kind of earthworm 

jj-ki^ kardtini wormlike, vermiform 

JaJ*^- kartU rhinoceros 

Jj*- fcarw'a w (&«r% !Uj^ karaa) and karia 
a (kara?) to droop, be or become slack, 
limp, flabby; to be or become languid, 
soft, spineless, yielding VII do. YIII to 
invent, devise, contrive (a; to 
create, originate (a 

£j*- ^ ar ^ anc * rtj*- kari r soft, languid, 
yielding, spineless, devoid of energy, 

XjJ*~ fo rwa ' castor-oil plant, palma 
Christi (Ricinus communis; hot.) 

9 \j?J-\ iktira" pi. -at invention 

9 jk. muktari' pi. -un inventor 

9 jot muktara* pi. -at invention 

«Js^- karif a a (karaf) and II to dote, be senile 
and feeble-minded; to drivel, talk fool- 

<*j>j>- karaf feeble-mindedness, dotage, 
senility; childishness (of an old man) 

t_jf>- karif and oti^*- karfdn feeble- 
minded, doting; childish; dotard 

^mj^~ karif autumn, fall 

Jj^ karifi autumnal 

^jj^ karuf pi. t_jl^ kirdf, asj>~\ 
akrifa, b\i^~ kirfan young sheep, lamb, 
yearling; wether 

4»\j>- kurdfa pi. -at superstition; fable, 
fairy tale 

dl^- kurafi fabulous, fictitious, leg- 

4sjz makrafa prattle, drivel, twaddle, 

Cjuje- takrlf folly, delusion; foolish 
talk, drivel, twaddle, bosh, buncombe 

J»/£ rnukarrif senile and feeble-minded; 
foolish; (pi. -un) prattler, chatterbox, 
windbag; charlatan 

jli^ karfasa to shuffle, mix (a 

'"^yj*- karfusa pi. ^/i*!^ karaf is 2 card 
of low value, discard (in card playing) 

3j»~ karaqa i u (karq) to tear, rend, tear 
apart (a; to make a hole (a in); to 
perforate, pierce, bore (a; to 
penetrate (a, break, pass (a through; to traverse, cross, transit (a, 
a country); to violate, impair, infringe 

/wSs-o jj^ j I CJLo JboJuLo jj OU^o^a £j£JLo5 ^3^0 <lHJ-° cr*" 6t^'j*!i cP^ *&&* 


(a, encroach (a upon); to break | 
(a a vow, and the like), commit a breach ; 
of (a); to exceed the ordinary, be un- 
usual, extraordinary, unprecedented, un- ; 
heard-of | obJl Jj^*. to go beyond what j 
is ordinary or customary IV to lurk, lie l 
in wait V and VII to be torn, be rent, be 
pierced, be broken VIII to pierce (a; to cut, break, pass (a through, j 
penetrate (a; to traverse, cross, i 
transit (a, travel through (a); ; 
to pass through (a a street, an alley); ! 
to exceed (a e.g., a limit), go beyond (a) I <u*L- 3j^-\ (masdmi'ahu) to 
shrill in s.o.'s ears : 

3j*- karq tearing, rending, laceration; j 

piercing , b oring, perforation ; penetration ; \ 

disruption; breakthrough; tra version, j 

crossing, transit; violation, breach; (pi. j 
<$jj>- kuruq) hole, aperture, opening | 
f Ul £»*)}\ 3j£- k. al-amn al-'amm violation 

of public security; otaUJl oj>- offense ! 

against common usage, violation of ! 

mores; *£\J\ Jp JS>^i *-Jl {ittasa'a) the | 

rent is beyond repair ; 

t3j»- kurq and <5^>- kurqa awkwardness, 
clumsiness; stupidity | J\J\ .J 3j^~ (ra*y) 
stupidity; folly, madness; j J^i-'l ^ 
... d\ J\J\ it would be very unwise 
to ... 

43j>~ kirqa pi. 3j>- kiraq tatter, shred; 
rag; scrap (of paper); polishing cloth; 
eraser (cloth) 

J^l akraq*, f. »Up- karqa 2 , pi. 3j+- ; 
kurq clumsy, awkward; stupid; crazy, | 
foolish; irregular; illegal, illicit, unlawful 

Asji- makraqa trickery, sleight of hand, 
legerdemain, hocus-pocus, swindle 

JjUi makariq 2 a kind of pastry (tun.) 

Jljotl iktirdq penetration; piercing, 
disruption; traversion, crossing, transit; 

io-UJI J\j^\ jL«* see JL-w 

ijU kdriq and (SjU or) ol*JI JjjU 
exceeding the customary, unusual, extra- 
ordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of; 
pi. 3j]y~ kawdriq 2 preternatural phe- 
nomena, miracles ; that which transcends 
the conceivable or the rational | JjU- 
4*-J«II supernatural; olijLall 3Jj£- h, 
al-musddajdt miraculous coincidences 

a*jU- kdriqa pi. 3j]y- kawdriq 2 miracle 

3J^f- muktaraq passage, passageway 

a ji- karama i (karm) and II to pierce (*, make a hole or holes (a in); to 
perforate (a VII to be pierced, be 
riddled, be torn; to be deranged, un- 
settled, disorganized; to come to an 
end, run out, peter out, get lost VIII to 
destroy, annihilate (» s.o.); to carry 
off, carry away (» s.o., of death); to 
break (Js^UI the ranks), pass through (a) 

fj*- karm pi. fjj>- kurum gap, blank 
(e.g., in a manuscript, or the like) 

*j>> kurm hole | lj^\ p>- k. al-ibra 
eye of the needle 

4*\j*- karrdma drill, bit, auger, gimlet; 
punch, perforator 

aj>-\ akram 2 having a perforated nasal 

fjd takrim piercing, boring, drilling; 
perforation; punching; lacemaking, lace- 

Xtje- takrima lace, lace work, open- 
work, filigree 

AJfi-\ inkirdm state of unsettlement, 
disturbance, disorganization, derange- 
ment | jjlyJi j f!/ 6 ' {tawdzun) disturb- 
ance of equilibrium 

rjj£- makrum defective, incomplete 
(e.g., a manuscript) 

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pk mukarram perforated; done in 
openwork, in filigree 

HX^~ kurmasa pi. -at (ir.) harrow 

j^j>- (Turk.) karmangi pi. ~iya (eg.) tobacco 
tester, tobacco blender 

^jb*- kurnub carob, locust; carob bean, 
locust pod, St.- John's-bread 

fjjj^- kirniq pi. £\j>- karaniq 2 young hare, 

?Jj*~ hw wa ? castor-oil plant, palma Christi 
(Ricinus communis; hot.) 

^- kazza u to pierce, transfix (« s.o.); to 
stab (» s.o., »_> with) VIII to pierce, 
transfix (* s.o., «_* with) 

% y- kazz pi. jjji- kuzuz silk, silk fabric 

]jj+ kazara u to look askance (*> at s.o.), give 
s.o. («) a sidelong glance 

2 jji-*l j*~ bahr al-kazar the Caspian Sea 

li\jj^~ kaizurdn pi. jjL>- kaydzir 2 cane, reed; 
rattan; bamboo 

4J L>>** kaizurdna cane, stick 
£jrf. fcaza'a a (te r ) to cut, sever (a 

J-cj>. kuza r bal idle talk, bosh 

1L^>- kuza'bala pi. -af idle talk, bosh; 
joke, jest, hoax; fib, yarn; cock and bull 

<J»J>- kazaf potter's earth, clay; pottery, 
earthenware; ceramics | J-** J*}*- (sinl) 

jj>- kazaf I earthen, made of clay; 
made of porcelain; porcelaneous, porce- 
lain, china (adj.); ceramic; pi. oL»J>- ce- 
ramics | j,^ (>k (tin) argillaceous earth; 
porcelain clay, kaolin 

J»lj^ kazzdf pottery and ceramics 
merchant; dealer in chinaware; potter 

U\j>- kizafa potter's trade, pottery 

x 3j>- kazaqa % to pierce, stab, transfix (a, o 
s.o.,; to drive, ram (,_^bVl <j * into the ground); to tear, rend, rip 
apart (a II to tear, rend, rip apart 
(a V and VII pass of I and II 

3y- kazq rip, rent, tear, hole (in a 

JjjU- kdzuq pi. Jj jl^ji. kawdziq 2 post, 
stake, pole; dirty trick | <5jjt>- 1-i* that's 
tough luck! 

2 3jj+ look up alphabetically 

J^- kazala i (kazl) to cut off, sever (a; 
to hinder, prevent, hold back, restrain, 
keep (• s.o., jc from) VIII to cut off, cut 
short, end abruptly (a; to shorten, 
abridge, abbreviate (a; to stand 
alone (^ with an opinion) 

J Ij^U iktizal abridgment, abbreviation; 
shorthand, stenography 

J^i muktazil stenographer 

*yi~ kazama i (kazm) to string, thread (a 
pearls) | <uiJ! #jjt (anfahu) to pierce the 
nasal septum (of a camel) and insert the 
nose ring for the bridle; to make s.o. 
subservient to one's will 

Ajt- kizam, Ia\j^- kizdma pi. r\j>~ ka* 
z&Hm 2 nose ring 

df\jf- kuzamd lavender (bot.) 

by- kazana u (kazn) to store, stock, lay up, 
hoard, amass, accumulate; to contain, 
conceal (a, e.g., oil, minerals; of 
discovery sites) ; to keep secret, keep (a a 
secret) II to store, stock, lay up, ware- 
house (a; to hoard, accumulate 
(a provisions); to keep, put in safekeeping 
(a, esp. valuables); to dam, dam up 

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(* water in a basin or reservoir) ; to store 
up (a energy, etc.; phys., techn.) VIII to 
store, stock, hoard, accumulate (a; 
to keep, put in safekeeping (a 

dj>- kazn storing; accumulation, 
hoarding, amassing; storage, warehousing 

*?/** kazna treasure house; safe, 
coffer, vault; wardrobe, locker; cup- 

Z\yi- kizdna pi. -at, Ji^- kazain 2 
treasure house; money-box; vault, safe; 
treasury, treasury department (of an 
official agency), any office for the 
deposit and disbursement of funds; 
locker, wardrobe, closet; cupboard; li- 
brary | <JjaII Z\j>- k. ad-daula and Z\)+ 
i.U ('dmma) public treasury, exchequer; 
^liJi %\ji- fc. at-talj icebox, refrigerator; 
u-^SJl 4J^*- k. al-kutvh bookcase; library; 
4~<0j~a>- i»jj»* (Jcusiisiya) private library; 
^^11 4jl^- wardrobe, closet, locker 

ijj>- kazina pi. £\y- kazain 2 treasure 
house; public treasury, exchequer; treas- 
ury, treasury department (of an official 
agency), any office for the deposit and 
disbursement of funds; cashier's office; 
vault, coffer, safe; cashbox, till (of a 
merchant) |^U-'I ojiM (kdssa) (formerly) 
the Royal Privy Purse (Ir.); SJjjJI oj^ 
k. ad-daula public treasury, exchequer; 
5-U^l; oj>-, 3-U»j; jjii '^j*- cash register 

d\y~ kazzan pi. -at, j>j\)J- kazdzln 2 
dam; reservoir; basin, sump, pool; 
storage tank (also for oil); — (pi. -tin) 
storehouseman, warehouseman | -s>*>Jl o\j^~ 
k. al-ivaqud gasoline tank (of an auto) 

dje- makzan pi. ajik makdzin 2 
storeroom, storehouse; depository; stock- 
room, storage room; depot, magazine, 
warehouse; store, shop, department 
store; Ojiil al-makzan the Makhzan, 
the Moroccan government (formerly: 
governmental finance department; Mor.) \ 

4jj^I ojf- m. adwiya drugstore; ujk 
jl-U>VI m. al-i§dar shipping room (com.) 

dj*- makzanl being under government 
control or administration, belonging to 
the government, administrative (Mor.) \ 
iJj^ ibLl (amlak) government land 


ijjlit makdzini pi. -lya native gendarme f 
(Mor.) j 


(jjlit makdzin 2 : J^kJI qjlk m. at-farlq ! 
the nearest, shortest way, a short cut I 

^j^ makzanjl storehouseman, ware- 

j\&y>- kazanddr, kaznaddr treasurer 

lyj£ takzin storage (also phys., techn.); 
accumulation; damming; safekeeping | 

iiliJl j^jat energy storage (phys., techn.) 

oj\>- kdzin pi. llj>- kazana, o\y- 
kuzzdn treasurer 

Ojj< makzun stored, stored up, 
deposited, warehoused; in stock, in in- 
ventory (goods, materials) ; (pi. -at) stock, 
store, supplies; reserves, deposits (of oil, 
in the ground, at a discovery site) 

^y- kaziya a (kizy, kazan) to be or become 
base, vile, despicable, contemptible; 
(4jI^c kazdya) to be ashamed (,y of); — 
kazd % to disgrace, dishonor, discredit, 
put to shame (* s.o.); to shame, abash, 
embarrass (» s.o.) IV to humiliate, de- 
grade, dishonor (« s.o.); to shame, put to 
shame (a s.o.) X to be ashamed 

iSyi- kizy, kazan shame, disgrace, 
ignominy | \<s}£ b yd la-l-kazd what a 
shame ! 

01jJ»- kazydn 2 , f. Lj^- kazyd, pi. Ll^ 
kazdyd ashamed, shamefaced, abashed; 
shameful, disgraceful, scandalous, in- 
famous, base, mean, vile 

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Skit makzdh pi. Jls^ makdzin a shame- 
ful thing, a disgrace; reason for shame; 
pi. shameful things, disgraceful acts, 

i£y£- makziy ashamed, shamefaced, 
abashed; embarrassed, confused; jijiil 
the Devil 

y£- mukzin disgraceful, shameful, 
scandalous, infamous 

4jjit mukziya pi. -at disgraceful act, 

l jS- kassa {1st pers. perf. kasistu) a (L^- 
kissa, *L-L^ kasdsa) to be mean, base, 
vile; to become less, decrease, diminish, 
depreciate, fall in value; — kassa u to 
lessen, reduce, diminish (a II to 
lessen, reduce, diminish {a 

tJ ^- kass lettuce (Lactuca sativa; 

a~J- kassa (n. un.) head of lettuce 

"L^~ kissa and XX~± kasdsa meanness, 
baseness, vileness 

itXm*- kasis pi. »L-»-! akissd' 2 mean, 
base, low, vile, despicable, contemptible, 

i-x-jt kasisa pi. jJL-*- kasd'is 2 mean 
trick, infamy 

Las. toa'a a (to') to chase away (* s.o.); — 
*^*- kasia a to be driven away, make 
off | cJ^J- kasi'ta beat it ! scram ! tiJLJl U^-l 
ifc,sa' ilaika do. 

UsJ-l aksa >2 baser, meaner, more des- 
picable; weaker 

'^U- fcasi' spurned, rejected, outcast; 
low, base, vulgar, despicable, contempt- 
ible; disgraceful, shameful, scandalous, 
infamous; futile, vain (attempt); weak, 
feeble, languid 

~*&L*J- kastaka indisposition 

iiJb^Jt mukastak indisposed, unwell, 

j*j- kasira a (kusr, jL*^- kasdr, 3jU>- kasdra, 
o\j~J- kusrdn) to incur a loss, suffer 
damage; to lose, forfeit (a; to lose 
a match, lose (fU to a team); to go 
astray, lose one's way, get lost; to 
perish II to cause loss or damage <« to 
s.o.); to do harm (s, to s.o.); to destroy, 
ruin (* s.o.); to corrupt, deprave (t s.o.) 
IV to cause a loss (» to s.o.); to shorten, 
cut, reduce (a X to grudge (J* 
or J s.o. a, envy s.o. ( Jp or j) the 
possession of (a) 

j^j- kusr loss, damage 

jly-*- kusrdn loss, damage, forfeiture; 
decline, deterioration; depravity, pro- 

SjL^- kasdra pi. J\~J~ kasd'ir* loss, 
damage; pi. losses, casualties (j in; 
mil.) | SjL^- U what a pity! too bad! 

b\^~ kasrdn (eg.) loser; affected by 
damage or loss 

jj[>- kdsir losing, loser (also in sports); 
lost, hopeless; involving substantial los- 
ses; depraved, corrupted; profligate, dis- 
reputable person, scoundrel 

j^- mukassir causing damage, harm- 
ful, noxious, injurious, detrimental 

*Ju-^ kasafa i (kasf, C*j*~>- kusuf) to sink, 
sink down, give way, cave in, disappear, 
go down; to be eclipsed (moon) ; — i (kasf) 
to cause to sink, cause to give way | 
j>j y J\ <o *a1 .Jl-^ k. lldhu bihll-arda God 
made him sink into the ground, God 
made the ground swallow him up 
VII to sink, sink down, go down 

Jjl~>- kasf baseness, ignominy, disgrace, 
shame; inferiority | li~^- *L» sdma 
kasf an to humiliate, abase, degrade (»s.o.) 

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Jj>j~j- kusuf occultation (astron.); 
lunar eclipse 

JJ- kassa i u (kass) to enter ( j 
^U#- kiSds vermin, insects 

^JU- II to lignify, become woody or wood- 
like; to line, face or case with wood, to 
panel, wainscot (a V to lignify, 
become woody or woodlike; to become 
hard, stiff, firm, rigid; to stiffen, freeze 
(e.g., with panic) 

i^* ^ - kaSah pi. «_jL£jaI aksdb wood, 
lumber, timber | »Uu^l ^J^- k. al-anbiya' 
guaiacum wood, lignum vitae 

<JU. kasaba pi. -a£, ^lJU-1 akSdb piece 
of wood; a timber; pale, post; plank, 
board j cJLI <JL^ k. al-mayyit coffin; 
ry— 11 LJLa k. al-masrah stage (of a 
theater), r r l\ <~Z+ Jp on the "boards" 

^i>- kasabi wooden, woody, ligneous, 
made of wood; timber-, lumber- (in 

uU^ kassdb pi. S lumber merchant 

«--^L£ taksib paneling, wainscoting 

2-ju1£ taksiba pi. -at, i_^Uc takasib* 
barrack, wooden shed 

(_JL< takasSub stiffness, rigor, rigidity; 

<_JL>»l» mutakassib frozen, rigid; stiff, 
hard, firm 

*• kust pi. 

kusut javelin 

■^i»-l>- kaskds (coll.; n. un. *) pi. JL^lL*- 
kasdkts 2 poppy 

r&JU- kaskasa to rattle, crackle ; to clatter ; 
to clink, chink; to rustle 

La. kaska§a pi. -a£ rattle; clatter; 
crackling noise; clink, chink; rustle 

«-^A>- kuskesa pi. ^^li^- kasdktP 
(eg.) baby's rattle 

SjLLa- ku&dra leftover (of a meal); offal, 
refuse; a discard, a worthless thing 

*JU- kasa'a a {fjt^ kusu") to be submissive, 
be humble; to humble o.s.; to fade 
(voice) | jyw *AaA (bamrihi) to lower 
one's eyes II to humble, reduce to sub- 
mission (» s.o.) V to display humility; 
to be humble; to be moved, be touched 

pjJU- kusu" submissiveness, submis- 
sion, humility 

«JiU- k&H' pi. **£*- kascfa submissive, 

«J>l!LA kusaf various fruits, stewed and soaked 
in sirup or rose water, compote 

jl£i^- kuskdr coarsely ground grain, grits 

Hj^^^a- kaSkarUa scab, slough, scurf 

pi*- II to intoxicate, make drunk (o s.o.) 

^i>- kaSm nose; mouth; vent, outlet 

pAj^A kaiSum pi. *^La kaydSim 2 nos- 
tril; gill; also pi. <~$La nose 

j-tA- kasuna u (aj^a kusuna) to be rough, 
coarse, crude; to be raw, uncut, un- 
polished II to roughen, coarsen, make 
crude (a Ill to be rude, uncivil, 
boorish (a to s.o.) V to display rough, 
rude, or coarse, manners; to be rough, 
uneven; to lead a rough life XII j^JLaI 
ikSaumna to be rough, coarse, crude; to 
lead a rough life; to harden or toughen 

i ytS- kasin pi. oLJLa kisdn rough, crude; 
coarse (as opposed to j>li na'im); rude, 
unpolished, uncouth; tough, harsh (life); 
hoarse, raucous (voice) | Lr J^\ ( yt>- k. 
al-lams coarse to the touch, rough, un- 
even, wrinkled; j)X\ jJt^ k. al-kulq 
uncouth, boorish; 3 / ±aJI ( yt+ k. al-qisra 
thick-shelled; ( ytX\ {J JlA (jins) the 
strong sex 

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*SlL>~ kasdna roughness; crudity; rude- 

ji^l akSan 2 , f. >liJU- kasnd' 2 , pi. jJL*- 
fcw£» rough, tough, harsh, rude, un- 

»Li£ I al-ka$nd* the vulgar, uneducated 

aj^1>- kusuna roughness, coarseness; 
crudeness; rudeness; tough way of life, 
life of hardship 

^Srf. fca%a a (&<%, 5-JU fe%a) to fear, 
dread (* s.o., *, J* for s.o. or, 
be afraid (a of) II to frighten, scare, 
terrify, alarm (• s.o.) V = I; VIII to be 
embarrassed; to be ashamed 

t?t+ kaSya fear, anxiety, apprehension | 
,y> aJL>- kaSyatan min for fear of; jl iJU- 
(kaSyata) out of fear that . . . 

^t>-l aksd more timorous, more fearful; 
more to be feared, more frightening 

Slik maktidh fear, anxiety, apprehen- 

ds Li>- kagydn 2 , f. Li>- kaSyd, pi. Lli>- 
kaidyd timorous, timid, anxious, ap- 

,j5U. &a£tn timorous, timid, anxious, 

-a^ &a££a w to distinguish, favor (especially, 
before others), single out (• s.o.), bestow 
special honors {» upon s.o., in preference 
to others); to endow (^ o s.o. with), 
confer, bestow (u* » upon s.o.; to 
apportion, allot, assign, accord, give, 
dedicate, devote (<-» » to s.o., in 
preference to others); with <~JjJ : to take 
possession (a of), demand (a; also 
*~iJ *j *>- nafsahu); to be specifically 
associated (e with s.o.), be characteristic 
(» of s.o.), be peculiar (o to); to apply 
in particular (a to), be especially valid | 

(a for); to concern, regard ( 6 s.o., a, 
have special relevance (a to), bear (a 
on) | oUju 4^- {bi- r inayatih%) to devote 
one'B attention to s.o., favor s.o. with 
one's attention; ^JUU A^ui- (bi-d-dikr) to 
make special mention of s.o. or; 
^l* tj^-lj {akussu) I mention, among 
them, especially (with foil, ace); V IJU 
J-a^ this does not concern me, this is 
none of my business II to specify, 
particularize, itemize (a; to spe- 
cialize (a, narrow, restrict (J a to); to designate, destine, set aside, 
earmark, single out (J a or & s.o. or 
for a purpose); to devote in particular, 
dedicate, assign (J a to) ; to allocate, 
allot, apportion (<j a to); to ap- 
propriate (J a funds for); to reserve, 
hold, withhold (J a for); to tie 
down (^ a s.o. to a special field) V to 
specialize (J in, also ^ or j, in a scientific 
field); to devote all one's attention 
(J to; to apply o.s. (J to), go in 
for (J); to be peculiar (<_j to); to 
be chosen, destined, earmarked (J for) 
VIII to distinguish, favor ( v & s.o. with), 
confer distinction (^ » upon s.o. by); to 
devote, give, accord, afford (o> * to s.o., in preference to others); to dedicate 
(<_j * to s.o., e.g., one's services); 
(with <u*£J) to take exclusive possession 
(a of), claim, demand (a, lay 
special claim (a to; also *~Ju <u ,-a^l 
nafsahu); to be distinguished, be marked 
(v ^y); to possess alone, in distinction 
from all others, have above others (<^>, have the advantage over others 
(lj that); to be peculiar (<-* to); to 
concern, regard (<_j, bear (^ on) ; to 
be pertinent, have relevance (<-> to), 
have to do (^ with); to be duly qualified, 
be competent, have jurisdiction (<^> in; 
e.g., an authority); to have as a special 
function or task (lj 

,j^»- ka?s lettuce {hot.) 

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^j^- kuSS pi. ^Lasi- &t£Op, ^Ua*-! 

afcsas, ^^^ kusus hut, shack, shanty, 

2*^- fcassa jet of water 

^La^- fcosas interstice, interval, 
crevice, crack, gap 

ii^»U*2>- kasdsa crevice, crack, interval, 

X**~*a>- kaslsa pi. ^^uLa^ kasa'is 2 
special characteristic or quality, specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity 

La^s-a^- kissi&an particularly, especially, 

^yy^u^ kusus specialness ; - L*^i>- ku* 
susan especially, in particular, specifical- 
ly | o^J^s o^^- J and u*r** t> 
(with foil, genit.) as to, concerning, 
regarding, with respect to, as regards; 
(J ^j^a^\ \X r and u *y+£\ Ioa ,y* in this 
connection, in this matter, in this 
respect, about this, concerning this; Jp 
*y*£-\ and i y>j^\ **-j Jp (wajhi l-k.) 
especially, particularly, in particular, 
specifically; o\j U»^a^ kususan wa-anna 
especially for the reason that 

^y^- kususl special; private, per- 
sonal; pi. oLtf^ private affairs 

4^9 UaA kasdsa poverty, penury, priva- 
tion, destitution, want 

^^•1 akass 2 more special, more specific] 
(j^-Vl J* especially; ^r^Vi j do.; 
4^U.'1 ,j-a>-l a. al-kdssa the most select 
elite, the creme de la creme 

»Ua^-l akissd" 2 intimate friends, con- 

JLa^l akiss&i {widespread wrong pro- 
nun. instead of iksd'i, see 2 <^a>-) pi. -#rt 
specialist; expert (of a specialized field); 
!L?Ua*-l pi. -o£ do. (fem.) 

(j^a-^aii taksis specialization; specifica- 
tion, particularization, itemization; des- 

ignation, destination (for a purpose); 
allotment, apportionment, allocation; 
reservation; — (pi. -at) appropriation, 
ration; financial allocation; credit j ^ 

jjAy^Jg and (j-aj-s-aijJl <u^ j Jp specifically 

^^u-ak" takassus specialization (esp., in 
a scientific field) 

if****- takctssusi special, specialized, 
specialist (in compounds) | iS a~a£- (-*£>£ 
special training 

^La^-1 iktisas pi. -at jurisdiction, 
competence; special province or domain, 
bailiwick (fig.); pi. oL*LaX*-l special 
traits, characteristics, particularities or 
features; prerogatives, privileges, monop- 
olies; concessions {Intern. Law) | (oli)ji 
^Uax^VI duly qualified, authorized, re- 
sponsible, competent; ^LaS^V' *J\* 
scope of competence, sphere of authority, 
jurisdiction, province, domain, field 


\ iktisdsi pi. -un specialist 

^U- kdss special, particular; specific, 
peculiar; relative, relevant, pertinent 
{(-j to), concerning {<->; earmarked, 
designated, destined, set aside (*-j for); 
especially valid or true (^ for), especially 
applicable (c-» to), characteristic (i_j of); 
distinguished; private; exclusive, not 
public | i_-> X^>\J- e>^j*r professional 
journal for...; m\jSij ^U-'l [ r dmm) the 
special and the general; high and low, 
all people; j-»U- <JU j*lj private capital; 
(j-«»U-*l ^ri^' physician in ordinary; 
i^U- ^U">Ip (*aldqdt) private connections; 
^U- *JUj special instruction (for handi- 
capped children); i^»U- «Uj.ju (madrasa) 
special school (for the handicapped); 
private school 

<m»U- kdssa pi. (j^J^- kaivdss 2 exclusive 
property; private possession; specialty, 
particularity, peculiarity, characteristic, 
property, attribute; essence, intrinsic 

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nature; leading personalities, people of 
distinction, i^UM the upper class, the 
educated, the elite; kdssatan and L^lkj 
bi-kdssatin especially, in particular 1 1L»U- 
jTj kdssatan wa-anna especially for the 
reason that; i*?U-*l i^U- the most select 



I 4^>U- j /i fc. anjusihim at 

the bottom of their hearts, deep inside 

*U- kdsslya pi. -ai, 

(/J L 

kasais 2 

specialty, particularity, characteristic, 
peculiarity, property, special attribute, 
feature, trait, qualification; prerogative, 
privilege; jurisdiction, competence 

X*a±y~ kuwaissa (dimin. of 1»*»U- kdssa) 
one's own business, private affair | J^-k 
^.1 i^ajj*- j he meddles in my private 

^j^ajf- maksiis special | {J *j**l*l\ p~2i\ 
(qism) secret political police (Eg.) 

^j^a^Jt mukassas chosen, set aside, ear- 
marked, designated, destined (J for); 
allotted, apportioned,, allocated; — pi. 
cA^su^ (financial) allocations; appropria- 
tions, credits; (daily) allowances; (food) 
rations | \j\~e\ oLa-^ (idafiya) extra 
allowances; viiiil *l>\. *?..*£■ m. al-malik civil 

LK axk muktass pertaining, pertinent, 
relevant, relative (<-* to); duly qualified, 
authorized, responsible, competent; spe- 
cial; pi. CjU^i^- muktassat competences | 
Suixjil oUUil the competent authorities; 
ioaxiM J\jd\ competent (or authoritative) 

kasaba i and kasiba a (kisb) to be 
fertile (soil) II to make fertile (a; 
to fructify, fertilize (a I V = I 

l*^. kisb fertility; abundance, plenty; 
superabundance, profusion 

x^~&- kasib and ^jwi>- kasib fertile, 
productive, fat 

<jj^^- kusuba fertility 

<_jlv*it miksdb very fertile, productive 

takslb fructification, fertilization 

t»~\ iksdb fertility; fertilization 

mukassib pi. -at fertilizer (chem.) 

L^k muksib fertile, productive, fat 

±>- kastra a (kasar) to become cold; to 
suffer from the cold III to clasp (» s.o.) 
around the waist, put one's arm around 
s.o/s (*) waist VI to put the arms around 
each other's hips; to dance together (a the 
dabka, see *£o) VIII to shorten, condense, 
abridge, epitomize (a; to sum- 
marize (a 

kasr pi. 

kusur hip, haunch, 


lj*aJ* miksara pi. ^ \j£ makdsir 2 stick, 
baton, wand; mace, scepter 

jua^>-i iktisar shortening, condensation, 
abridgment, summarization, epitomiz- 
ing (of a statement) ; (pi. -at) abbreviation; 
abridgment, shortened version or adapta- 
tion (of a book); brevity | jI^-VIj and 
jLax>-lj briefly, in short, in a few words 

y^jf- muktasar shortened, condensed, 
abridged; brief, short; concise, terse, 
succinct; — (pi. -at) short excerpt, brief 
exposition, synopsis, outline, summary, 
abstract, epitome, compendium; abbre- 
viation; abridgment, shortened version 
(of a book) 

S^U- kdsira pi. j~*\y- katvdsir 2 hip, 
haunch, waist [ ^J/^U- J *0^ (sauka) a 
thorn in his side 

Ja^j- kasafa i (kasf) to mend, repair, sew 
(» a shoe) 

4jUfl*- kasf a pi. o U^>- kisaf basket 
(made of palm leaves) 

iUa>- kusla pi. J^a^ kusal, -at tuft; bunch, 
cluster ; lock, wisp (of hair) 

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iLa^- kasla pi. JUa^- H?<zZ quality, 
property, characteristic, peculiarity, trait ; 
(natural) disposition 

~*±- kasama i to defeat ( e an opponent) in 
argument; to deduct, subtract (a, 
^,'from); to discount (a a bill, a note) 
III to argue, quarrel, dispute (* with s.o.); 
to bring legal action (t> against s.o.), sue 
(e s.o.), litigate (» with); VI to quarrel, 
argue, have a fight; to go to law, carry 
on a lawsuit, litigate («_• with s.o.) 
VII to be deducted, be subtracted VIII to 
quarrel, argue, have a fight; to be in con- 
flict with one another {e.g., traits in a 

<?&- kasm pi. rj~a>~ kusum, fLa>-! 
aksdm adversary, antagonist, opponent; 
opposing party (in a lawsuit) 


kasm deduction ; subtraction ; 

rebate; discount; pt. 
liabilities (fin.) | ^J-M 



- si'r al'k, 
discount rate, bank rate; C^LiJl 
k. al-kambiydldt bill discount 


kaslm pi. *]^a>- kusama" 2 , cl^a^ 
kusmdn adversary, antagonist, opponent 

\*y^2±- kusuma quarrel, argument, dis- 
pute, controversy, feud; lawsuit 

j»La^ kisdm quarrel argument, dispute, 
controversy, feud; lawsuit 

i-^lk mukdsama quarrel, argument, 
dispute, controversy, feud; lawsuit 

pUa^-l iktisam contradiction, conflict 

*^>\£- mukasim adversary, opponent, 
opposing party (in a lawsuit); antagonist; 

1 lS &- kasd i (.U, 
late (* s.o.) 

- kisd') to castrate, emascu- 

i^aJ- kasly pi. oL*s>- kisydn, \~&- kisya 
a castrate, eunuch; — castrated | <*JLo 
iS *+ (dik) capon 

a^- kusya pi. iS &i~ kusan testicle 
»La>- kisa castration 
iS A^- maksiy castrated, emasculated | 

,£*.£• QMji 

(faras) gelding 

2 jUa^I iksa'i pi. -un specialist; expert (of 
a specialized field); yLwU pi, .fit do, 

^^ kadda (kadd) to jolt, jog (a; to 
shake (a; to frighten, scare (■ 3.0.) 

^J^ Cf.1 laban kadd buttermilk 

IJlJ- kadda concussion, shock, jolt; 
fright, scare; psychic shock 

^Jl>- kadaba i (kadb) to dye, color, tinge (»; — kadaba i and kadiha a (uJ> 
kudub) to be or become green (plant) II to 
color, tinge (a; to dye (a 
XII x_^jyj&-\ ikdaudaba to be or become 
green (plant) 

O ^^ '*+■ kadb chlorophyll (biol.) 

^Ui^ kiddb dye, dyestuff | Q ^Li>. 
j»aII jc. ad-dam hemoglobin (biol.) 

^>jJl>- kudub green, greenness, green 

kadib dyed 

mukaddab: »UaJIj 
smeared with blood 

*£- (dimok) 

^i^ kadkada (ZJiS*Jl+ kadkada) to set in 
motion, upset, rock, shake (a II to 
be jolted, be rocked, be shaken 

ZJl^Jl*- kadkada concussion, shock, jolt 

k>- kadada i (kadd) to cut off, break off (x 
thorns) | 4X$^i xjvi- (Saukatahu) to tame 
s.o., hold s.o. in check, curb s.o.'s power 

h^~ kadira a (kadar) to be green II to make 
green, dye or color green (a | jm±- 
jijVI (ard) to sow the land, till the earth 

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IX to be or become green XII _ r ^yJi^-\ 
ikdaudara = IX 

jj>j~ kadir green, verdant; verdure, 
greenery; young green crop (of grain) 

jj£-\ al-kadir, al-kidr a well-known 
legendary figure 

IjJz*- kudra green, greenness, green 
color; — (pi. jju>- kudar) vegetation, 
verdure, greenery, greens ; meadow ; _ / -i>- 

J^- kudarl greengrocer 

jUa>- kadar green, greenness, green 
color; greens, herbs, potherbs 

j*Ji>- kadir green 

*jL-au^ kuddra greens, herbs, potherbs 

jUi^- ka4ddr greengrocer 

jj^.\ akdar 2 , f. AjJ^- kadra 2 , pi. jJi± 
kwdr green | ,j~>U\j j*i>-Vl Jp Ji {aid) to 
destroy everything, wreak havoc 

*\jm£\ at- kadra' "the Verdant" (epi- 
thet of Tunis) ; the sky 

C->\j\jJ&- kadrawdt vegetables; greens, 
herbs, potherbs 

*ljwai^l al-kudaird? Paradise 

O jj~*£ yakdur chlorophyll (biol.) 

Ijjuf- makdara meadow, lawn, turf, 
sod, greens, verdant land 

Cj\j**i£ mukaddardt vegetables 

?j&- kidrim pi. fjLa^ kaddrim 2 abundant, 
copious; well- watered, abounding in 
water; openhanded, generous, libera], 

?j**t- mukadram designation of such 
contemporaries of Mohammed, esp. of 
poets, whose life span bridges the time 
of paganism and that of Islam; an old 
man who has lived through several 
generations or historical epochs 

*Jvi- kada'a a (pj-*>- kudu") to bow, defer, 
submit, yield, surrender (J to s.o., to, humble o.s. (J before), obey, 
follow (J s.o. or; to be subject (J 
e.g., to a law, to a power, to a test, a 
modification or improvement, etc.); to be 
under s.o.'s (J or JI) control II and IV to 
humble, subjugate, subdue, make tract- 
able (a s.o.); to submit, subject, expose 
(J * or * or s.o. to VIII — kada'a 

fyJ**- kudu* submission, obedience, 
humility, subjection 

9jJ&- kadu r pi. *^- kudu* submissive, 

f\jt>-\ ikdd c subjugation, subdual; 

jwJU- kadi pi. ^.a^- kudda", utwi>- 
kvd'dn, kid" an submissive, humble; obe- 
dient, pliant, tractable; subject, liable, 
prone (J to 

J^- kadila a to be or become moist II and 
IV to moisten, wet (a IX = I 

J-^k>- kadil moist, wet; juicy, suc- 
culent; refreshing, gay, lighthearted 

~Jl±- kadama i (kadm) to munch (a, 
with a full mouth), bite (a into 

kidamm vast (said of the sea); 

sea, ocean 

J*^ katta u {katt) to draw or trace a line ( Jp 
on); to draw, trace, sketch, design (a; to write, pen (a; to carve, 
engrave, inscribe (a; to outline, 
mark, trace out, prescribe (a <J for s.o. | 0jL*>) LL^ Jsui (kattan, satran) to 
draw a line; »--a-^1 aL>- (saibu) his hair 
turned gray II to draw lines; to rule (a; to furrow, ridge (a; to mark 
with lines or stripes, stripe, streak (a; to pencil (a the eyebrows); to 
mark, designate, earmark, indicate (a; to demarcate, delimit, delineate, 

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stake out, survey (a land, real estate) ; to 
lay out, map out (a roads); to make or 
work out plans (J for a project) VIII to 
trace out, mark, outline, prescribe (a a 
way); to mark, demarcate, delimit, stake 
out, delineate (a; to map out, plan, 
project (a e.g., the construction of a 
city) ; to make, design, devise (a a plan) ; 
to plan (a, make plans (a for) 

Ja>- katt pi. Jyla*- kutut line; stroke; 
stripe, streak; (railroad) line, line of 
communication; telephone line; frontline 
(mil.); furrow, ridge; handwriting; writ- 
ing, script; calligraphy, penmanship j 
O <s*>\ Ja>- (ardi) ground wire (radio); 
Jsi-^l JaJ^I (isjlnl) cuneiform writing; 
1L.I.VI iyJoi-'l (amamiya) the foremost 
lines, battle lines (mil.); jjb Ja>- (bdriz) 
relievo script; J^xij S*>- and jlU Ja^ 
(hatifi) telephone line; j^-U (JjaJu) J*»- 
hot-line, direct telephonic connection; 
m^J. Ja*- assembly line; *jj>- Soja*- 
(jawmya) airlines; t$-u-JU- Ja»- (hadidl) 
and -b JlL I iSC- Ja*. k. sikkat cU-hadid rail- 
road line, railroad track; Jj^ Ja>- trans- 
fer line (oil); JljjJl i*>- k. az-zawal me- 
ridian (astron.; = jl^Jl (_a*<u J**- A;. ni$f 
an-nahar); t ^ j >\ r JLI JaJ-*l (mjsman) cunei- 
form writing; Aj^^\ J*>- k. cd-istiwd* 
equator; J>U1 Ji>- k. at~tul or JjU Ja>- 
(tull) circle of longitude, meridian (geogr.); 
^^^aJI J*>- &. al- r ard or ^^^ Ja*- fflwdt) 
parallel (of latitude) (geogr.); J^LJ-I 
ivijjjJ! broad outlines; J i**jyJl Js^kU *-*Jj 
(iyod« f a) to outline (a,) in the broad- 
est terms; »ULl *-J*j Jaa^ k. taqsim al- 
miyah divide, watershed; aJLj^^SCjI lyS\ ^~ 
k. al-quwwa al-kahrabd'iya power line; 
vl*^il Ja^ k. al-maut death strip, no 
man's land; rj£ -U>- (mumawwaf) wavy 
line; yw^VI J*^k>- pipelines; jUI J*^U>- 
lines of fire (war); S^l^Jl .W- meridian 
(greogrr.); SjJL^Jl J«>- k. al-hudna armistice 
line; J*£l j»i fannal-k. calligraphy; ^y*- 
J*i-*l tf> to derail, run off the rails (train); 

Ja*- J^ (mtwtagim) straightaway, 
in a straight line; outright, out and out; 
Jii-I J^k Jp (fuZ aZ-&.) all along the line; 
oJl iaic (fc. al-yad) handwritten 

Ja>- fctt# pi. J?Ua>-l afc£a< section, district, 
quarter (of a city) 

( J a + kapti handwritten; linear; spear 

4Js*»- &t$& pi. JaLi. &t$o£ a piece of land 
acquired for the purpose of building a 
house; a piece of real estate, lot; district; 
map or plan of a piece of real estate, 
layout ; — kutta pi. kutat, also pronounced 
kitta, plan, project; line of action, course, 
guiding principle; office, function, post, 
position | J*aJ! &*- k. al- r amal operation 
plan, work plan; ^biVl *k*- k. cd-intaj 
production plan; r^-U aL^ k. al-masrah 
repertoire, program (theat.); iiJ- LU> 
V>"ir* (P& ( l a ' n ) according to schedule, as 
scheduled or planned 

J»Ua»- kattat pi. -un penman, callig- 
rapher; — tracing lines, leaving a 
straight trace | J*lk>- ^ilii (faeak) or 
iLLlasi. Sjbi* tracer bullet, tracer (mil.) 

JaJaJc taktit pi. -at ruling, drawing of, 
or marking with, lines; lineation; designa- 
tion, marking, earmarking; surveying, 
survey (of land); planning; projecting, 
mapping out, laying out (of cities, of 
roads); plan, design | ^f"~<* -W^ ($i>h>hi) 
health planning; OJdl JaJaii t. al-mvdun 
city planning 

JaJLii taktitl planning (in compounds); 
concerning the ground plan | JaJ*^ *— j 
(rasm) ground plan, construction draw- 
ing, design 

i^iJi maktut handwritten; manuscript 

~<&>Jkt£- maktuta pi. -at manuscript 

JaUt mukattat striped, streaked, ruled; 
furrowed; designated, marked, earmark- 
ed; planned, guided, controlled; (pi. -at) 
sketch, design, plan, layout; map (of a city) 

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\i>- ka\%a a (Ua>- kapa) to be mistaken; to 
commit an error, make a mistake; to 
sin II to charge with an offense, in- 
criminate, declare guilty (» s.o.); to 
accuse (o s.o.) of an error or mistake; to 
fine (* s.o.; tun,) IV to be mistaken, to 
err, commit an error, be at fault ( j in) ; 
to be wrong (j about, in); to make a 
mistake (j in, with); to miss (» s.o., 
e.g., a shot; * the target); to escape (o 
s.o. or s.o.'s notice; a fact) | aJU U*^! 
(fa'luhu) (his omen was wrong, i.e.) his 
expectations do not come true, are not 
fulfilled; that's where he is wrong, 
that's where he made a mistake! slk^i 
♦^1 (sai'u) (lit.: the thing escaped 
him, missed him, i.e.) he lacked it; alL^ 
jjjijZJl he failed, was unsuccessful; lk»-1 
<uU.hJb-1 j he drew the wrong conelu 
sions; ^S^l t>J ^"^ fte confused the 
two things, he mistook one thing for the 

#Ja^- kit' slip, lapse, fault, offense, sin 

LL>- kata 3 and*Ua^> kata error; mistake, 
incorrectness; offense, fault; kata' an 
erroneously, by mistake | ... J I Lki^l j* 
it is (would be) wrong to .,.; UaAM f^>\ 
isldh al-k. corrigenda, errata, list of 
corrections; IkAM Ja qatl al-k. ac- 
cidental homicide (jur.); ( y^ U*^ (mat- 
ba r i) misprint 

- kat% a pi. -at, blW- kataya mistake, 
blunder; slip, lapse; fault, offense; crime, 
sin; fine (tun.) 

y>U- kdti 3 wrong, incorrect, er 
roneous; mistaken, at fault; (pi. Slk^- 
kutdh, actually, pi. of colloq. kdti), f. 
4li»U- kdti' a pi. [J*\fZ- kawdti 2 sinner 

* ( Jak- mukti 3 mistaken, at fault, wrong; 
incorrect, wrong, erroneous 

<Ja>- kataba u (2Lla>- kutba, 4jlk>- katdba) to 
deliver a public address, make a speech; 

to preach, deliver a sermon (^Lifl J and 
^Ul an-nasa to the people); — (katb, 
Uas^ kitba) to propose (U to a girl; said 
of the man), ask for a girl's hand (U) in 
marriage (J on behalf of s.o. ; said of the 
matchmaker); to give in marriage, 
betroth, affiance, engage (Jp or J -cL 
one's daughter to s.o.) | boj cJ*>* (wud* 
dahd) and LfO^ *_Ja>- (mawaddatahd) he 
courted her love III to address (o s.o.), 
speak, talk, direct one's words (o to s.o.), 
turn (e to s.o., orally or in writing) | <ukU- 
dyLkHj to telephone s.o., call s.o. up; 
JsISvJLj <ukU- (bi-l-kdf) to address s.o. on 
an intimate first-name basis VI to talk 
to one another; to converse, confer, have 
a talk, carry on a conversation; to write 
each other, correspond, carry on a cor- 
respondence VIII to seek a girl's (U) 
hand in marriage, ask for a girl's hand 

<_Ja^ katb pi. vj^" W^ matter, af- 
fair, concern, business; situation, con- 
ditions, circumstances; misadventure, 
mishap; calamity | jJLU^ U what's hap- 
pened to you? what's the trouble? what's 
the matter with you? <j *^~ U what 
concern of his is . . .? what has he to do 
with . . .? tfilS «_-!*>- U what's it all 

"aS&- kitba courtship; betrothal, en- 

;Ui>- kutba pi. <J±*±- kutab public 
address; speech; lecture, discourse; ora- 
tion; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday 
sermon, khutbah | ^ba*yi SJ*£- opening 

<_jU*^- kitdb pi. -at, lUasM aktiba public 
address, speech; oration; letter, note, 
message | <-— ^-J" v ^^ welcoming address; 
a %j^\ u->Ua^ k. al- f ars speech from the 
throne; J>-^— * <_->lk>- (musta r jil) express 
letter, special-delivery letter; <»Jul> <_jLL>- 
k. taqdima letter of introduction ; O ^-> L> U*^ 
»jjll\ luJaJI Cj\h (ddt al-qima al-muqarrara) 

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( — lettres avec valeur declare) reg- 
istered, insured letters (eg.); «-*UJ-'l J^ai 
fast al-k. (in letters:) conclusion of the 
formal greetings by the words -U; Ul 
ammd ba'dtt; conclusion, termination, 
end; decision; unmistakable judgment; 
fc-jllalM J^ai ^^tJ <jsi we're through with 
one another once and for all 

jLU*. kitdbi oratorical, rhetorical; 
speech-, lecturing (in compounds) 

^J*^ katib pi. »Ua>- kutabd' 2 (public) 
speaker; orator; lecturer; preacher, 
khatib; suitor (for the hand of a girl); 

*~k>- katlba fiancee 

4jIL^- katdba preaching, sermonizing, 

IAL>- kitdba rhetoric, oratory; art of 
eloquence; speech, lecture, discourse 

I»jki kutuba courtship; betrothal, 

iJslii mukdtaba pi. -at address; public 
address, speech; proclamation; con- 
versation, talk; conference, parley | 4-klk 
^JjiJj telephone conversation, telephone 

«_J»Ut takdtub conversation; talk, dis- 
cussion; (inter) communication (also, e.g., 
telephonic, by radio, etc.) | ._i>U^I UJ 
lugat at-t. colloquial language 

i^U- katib pi. *LL>- kutaba 2 , ^>\^i- 
kttitdb suitor; matchmaker; engaged, be- 
trothed; fiance" 

4*LU- kdtiba pi. ^IL^ kuttdb woman 

Aijk£* maktuba fiancee 

(_J»Ut mukdtib interlocutor, conversa- 
tion partner 

^Lii mukatab addressed, spoken to; 
(gram.) second person 

JyJa>-l look up alphabetically 

JU>- katar a i (a\ja±- katar an) to swing, wave, 
brandish (»_j; to- shake, tremble, 
vibrate; to walk with a (proud) swing- 
ing gait; to stride with a graceful gait; — 
% u (jj&>- kutur) to occur (<J to s.o.), come 
to s.o.'s (6) mind | ^JL Ju j^Vl _^- (bdlihl) 
the matter came to his mind, occurred to 
him, he recalled the matter (also *JL» j 
and aJLj or 4^ Jp); ^tU- «d ^ksi- he had 
an idea; JL JLJfi i j*l (/am yaktir bi-bdlin) 
an unexpected matter, one wouldn't 
dream of; — katura u (h^*>- kutura) to 
be weighty; to be important, significant; 
to be grave, serious, momentous, danger- 
ous, perilous, risky, hazardous III to 
risk, hazard, stake (l->, *~Jxi one's 
life); to incur the danger, run the risk 
(u-> of), risk (v; to bet, wager (* 
s.o., J* a stake) IV to notify, inform (» 
s.o.), let (* s.o.) know (<-> about; to 
warn, caution (« s.o.) V to walk with a 
lofty, proud gait; to stride, strut (with 
a swinging gait); to pendulate, oscillate, 
vibrate VI to make a bet (J* against a 

JhJ- katar weightiness, momentousness; 
importance, consequence, significance; 
seriousness, gravity; — (pi. -at, jUz>-l 
aktdr) danger, peril, menace (J* to); 
riskiness, dangerousness; risk; hazard; 
(pi. jlia^ kitdr) stake, bet, wager | JJU- 
Ja&-\ of very great importance, momen- 
tous; Ja*- ji important, weighty, to be 
taken seriously; dangerous, perilous; 
JzJJl o*j** (mu'arratf) endangered, jeop- 
ardized; Ja£\ SjUl isdrat al-k. alarm 
signal; warning sign 

J&+- katir dangerous, perilous, risky, 
hazardous; serious, grave, weighty, im- 
portant, significant 

ljia>- katra pi. katar at pompous walk, 
strut; swinging gait; idea, thought, 

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jlk^ kattdr pendulum [phys.) 

J&&- katir pi. Ja± kutr weighty, 
momentous ; important, significant ; grave, 
serious; dangerous | uuJi _/J*>- of great 

Sj^Ll^ kutura weight (iness), importance, 
moment (ousness) ; consequence, signifi- j 
cance; gravity, seriousness; danger; dan- , 

ji^L>- katardn swinging, oscillation, | 
vibration j 

Ja*»\ aktar 2 more dangerous, riskier; 
weightier, of greater consequence; more 
serious, graver | 

Ijaj- look up alphabetically 

J?\jfi- makdtir 2 dangers, perils 

S^LJt mukdtara pi. -at venture, risk, 

jlktl iktdr notification, information; 

^tU- katir pi. J»)y- kawdtir 2 idea, 
thought, notion; mind; desire; pi. ideas, 
aphorisms | ii>U J^V (U-ajli) for your 
sake; ^U JS" j- mm &wWi kdtirin with 
all one's heart, most gladly; J»U- 4~k ^ 
f an tibati kdtirin gladly, with pleasure; 
of one's own free will, voluntarily; Jp 
ii^U- as you like; o^U- o* of one's own 
accord, voluntarily; •)*& -W to afford 
satisfaction to s.o., to comiort, reassure 
s.o.; ^ a^U- J* Jtf-I to feel offended 
by, take offense at; «J»U ^Ij (raa) to 
have regard for s.o.'s feelings, respect 
s.o.'s wishes; •JA*~ £-U» §adda f a kali- 
rahu to trouble, bother s.o.; J^^ Cr^ 
(tammana) to calm the excitement; j* 
b\ *J»\£ (Tnarra) the thought crossed his 
mind that ...; iiJ»U-' UjTl {ikrdman) for 
your sake, to please you; J?\^-\ *p^ «mr f a£ 
a£-&. presence of mind; J»l£1 ^^ quick- 

jtli. mukdtir one who risks, 

who takes a chance; daring, bold, 
venturesome; (pi. -un) adventurer 

Jak muktir dangerous, perilous, risky, 

j^ katrafa {eg.) to be delirious, to rave, 
talk irrationally 

*sjui- katrafa delirium, raving 

^ katija a, fcctta/a i (&«#) to snatch, 
wrench or wrest away, seize, grab (a; to make off (a with; to 
abduct, kidnap (* s.o.); to dazzle (^Ji 
al-ba§ara the eyes) V to grab, seize, 
snatch away (a; to carry away, 
sweep away (* s.o.) VI to snatch or seize 
(a from one another VII to be 
snatched away, be wrested away; to be 
carried away, be swept away VIII to 
grab, seize, take forcibly (a; to 
snatch, wrest, wrench (^ a from 
s.o.); to abduct, kidnap (e s.o.); to hijack 
(a an airplane); to run away, elope (La 
with a woman) ; to make off (a with; 
to dazzle (y*«J1 al-basara the eyes) | 
p*>l&l JjU±\ (kaldma) to talk rapidly 
and breathlessly, half swallowing one's 

<_&+ katf grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping; lil**- katf an 
rapidly, quickly; by force 

Xa^- katfa pi. katafdt (n. vie.) a 
snatching away, a grab; sudden stirring, 
flash | ijOl iiLt J (barq) instantly, in a 
trice, like a streak of lightning; Ula^ 
jyklW oULl^ j- an impulse, a sudden 

Jjlk^ kattdf rapacious; robber 

Jjli^ kuttdf pi. ^J*U^ katmf (iron) 
hook; fishhook; (coll.; n. un. I) swift, a 
variety of swallow 

Jj4*>- kattlf pi. (Ji^UU^ katatlf 2 iron 

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Jslk^-I iktitaf grabbing, forcible seizure, 
rape; abduction, kidnaping; hijacking 
(e.g., of an airplane) 

»Jd>U- kdtif pi. eJjJ»l^ kawdtif 2 raven- 
ous; rapacious; rapid, prompt; quick, 
sudden; lightninglike; fleeting; short, 
brief | <&U- ^US ravenous wolves; ejj^ 
iitU- (sura) snapshot; iiUU- t-jj>- (harb) 
blitzkrieg; iikU- aU- (lahza) a fleeting 

J>j\x£ maktufx O **jb£- "&?- (haraka) 
anaptyctic vowel (phon.) 

iJaL^- muktatif pi. -un abductor, kid- 

JL^ katila a (katal) to talk nonsense IV do. 
V to strut, walk with a pompous gait; 
to walk with a proud, swinging gait 

Jk>- katal idle talk, prattle 

Jla>- katil garrulous, chattering, given 
to silly talk ; stupid, foolish 

Ja*- katm nose, snout, muzzle (of an animal) ; 
front part (nose and mouth) ; foremost or 
first part; important matter | <wJaij Jl*l 
(alalia) approx. : to manifest its force, set 
in (e.g., of a disaster) 

^*Lc- Jcitmi, katml (coll. ; n. un. I) marsh 
mallow (Althaea officinalis; hot.) 

l»Ua>- kitam pi. i*>- kutum noseband, 
halter (of a camel) 

(^Ia>-) IL^- kata u (katw) to step, pace, walk; 
to proceed, advance, progress | O^*^- lk^ 
i»-lj (katawatin) to take large strides, 
also fig. — to make extraordinary 
progress II and V to overstep, transgress 
(a; to cross (a, go or walk 
through (a); to ford (a a river); to 
leave its banks, overflow (river) ; to cross, 
traverse (jUJ! the seas); to omit, dis- 
regard, ignore, pass by (» so.); to go 
beyond (a); to extend (Jl to); to 
exceed, transcend (a; to excel, 

surpass, outstrip, outdo (t, s.o.); to 
proceed, pass (a through, Jl to), 
leave, (a) behind and turn to 
else (Jl); to disregard (a, « s.o,, in 
order to turn one's attention to (Jl) | 
pL*y! Jl *u J&£ (ila l-amami) to promote, 
advance VIII to step, pace, walk; to 
proceed, advance, progress 

J^~ katw gait, manner of walking 

IjkJ- katwa pi. katawdt and kutwa pi. 
kutwat, kutuwdt, Ja^ kutan step, pace, 
stride [ *Ua>- j jU (kutahu) to walk, or 
follow, in s.o.'s footsteps; «^*» }£&- aX& 
taqaddama kutwatan fa-kutwatan to pro- 
ceed or advance step by step; *^L>- J&l 
<f U- (ittakadu) to take a decisive step; 
ly&ij uljjLi- katwatdn iva-qafza hop, skip 
and jump (athht.); SJjVI S^U>- k. al-iwaz* 
za single or Indian file ; Jj-Lj l^- change 
of step (while marching); j£\ g^ s, 
al-kuta walking rapidly, taking long 

y*^ katlya (— 4~ia>-) slip, lapse, trans- 
gression, fault, offense, sin 

SUa>- kutah pi. of *J*l>- kdti sinner 

£■ kaffa i to be light (of weight); to be 
slight, insignificant; to become lighter, 
decrease in weight, lose weight; to abate, 
reduce, become less (,y- in its effect on 
s.o. or, of a pressure or a force); to 
decrease in intensity, grow lighter (color) ; 
to become lower (noise); to be nimble, 
agile, quick; to hasten, hurry, rush (Jl to) 
II to make lighter (a, reduce the 
weight of (a); to ease, lighten, relieve, 
soften (a <je for s.o. difficult or op- 
pressive, also a J*; j*, e.g., s.o.'s 
situation) ; to lessen, decrease, reduce, di- 
minish (a or j*,); to mitigate, alle- 
viate, moderate, temper (a or j-; to 
thin, dilute (a e.g., a liquid); (gram.) to 
pronounce (a a consonant) without tadf* 

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did | dLc <Jti>- leaf f if 'anlca! cheer up! 
take it easy! dba^* j* »Ju*- &a/^/ mw 

sufatika! slow down! 


soothe s.o.'s pains V to dress lightly; to 
disburden, relieve o.s. (of a burden) ; to 
rid o.s., free o.s. (<> of; to hurry 
away (^ from), leave (y^ in a 
hurry X to deem (a light; to value 
lightly, disdain, scorn, despise (<-> s.o. or, look down (lj upon), think noth- 
ing (w of), make light (^ of), set little 
store (<_-» by); not to take seriously (<_j, attach no importance (<_j to); to 
carry away, transport (* or <-» s.o., e.g., 
joy) | ^LJI *jUc-I (tarab) he was beside 
himself with joy; i-UJ-l <u c^w-l (ha- 
masa) he got carried away by enthusiasm 

oirf- fcw// pi. <J»U>- fct/a/, J»li>.l a£/a/ 
a pair of shoes, slippers (of light leather, 
without heels); — (pi. J»U*-1 akfdf) camel 
hoof; foot (of the ostrich); sole {of the 
foot) | (>x^ ^ «-j raja'a bi-kuffai 
hunain to return with empty hands, 
without having achieved one's mission; 
to accomplish nothing, fail, be un- 

U^ kijfa lightless (of weight); slight - 
ness, insignificance, triviality; sprightli- 
ness, buoyancy; agility, nimbleness; 
inconstancy, fickleness, flightiness, levity, 
frivolity; high spirits [ 35£i-1 X*Z- k. aU 
haraka, aS^U <_j aJ^~ nimbleness, agility, 
quickness; /»oJI Za*~ k, ad-dam amiability, 
charm; rjj\ ii>- k. ar-ruh do.; JiaJl aaJ- 
k. az-zill amiability, friendliness; <uU- 
JJLJi k. al-'aql lightheadedness; Jull **+- 
k. al-yad manual skill, dexterity, deftness 

(Jta^l akaff 2 lighter; lesser, slighter; 
weaker | {jjjjj\ «Ja»-l a. ad-dararain the 
lesser of two evils 

(J»U^ kafdf, J*U£-'I j^ ha jar al-k. 
pumice, pumice stone 

uLU- kuffan pumice, pumice stone 

»J(lJ>- kaflf pi. ^\}J~ kifdf, JsUs^l 
akfaf, *U^I akijfd' 2 light (of weight); 
slight, little, trivial, insignificant; thin, 
scanty, sparse; nimble, agile, sprightly, 
lively; — Ja^\ name of a poetic meter | 
SjLi^- £-Uj (riydh) light winds; *Ja~a£> 
"&J-\ k. al-haraka easily movable, very 
mobile; nimble, agile; f-df CaJ^- k. ad- 
dam amiable, charming; r-jj\ »-Jua>- k. 
ar-ruh likable, charming, winning, ami- 
able; vivacious, merry, cheerful; 
JJJi k. az-zill likable, nice (person) ; < 
^Jfj\^\k. al-dridain having a thin beard; 
JJUJl Ca***- k. al- r aql feeble-minded, dim- 
witted; -Ul tJ^- k. al-yad nimble- 
fingered, deft; >J^^~ t^Li weak tea 

<J&J>J£ takfif lightening, easing; les- 
sening, decrease, diminution; reduction; 
allaying, mitigation, alleviation, pal- 
liation, moderation; commutation (jur.); 
relief; thinning, dilution (e.g., of a liquid) | 
<_i-ii^!l djj& extenuating circumstances 
(jur.); j>yi\ Sa>- <JnJu£ t. hiddat at-tawat* 
tur detente, easing of tension (pol.) 

J istikfaf disdain, scorn, con- 
tempt; levity, frivolity 

XaasZ djj* zuruf mukaffifa extenuating 
circumstances (jur.) 

ijuisi. mukaffaf thin, diluted; pronounc- 
ed without doubling (gram.) 

a£- kafata u (£>jaJ- kufut) to become in- 
audible, die down, die away (sound, 
voice); to become silent, become still; to 
become faint, dim, soft (light, color) 
III <£j~*j, <u*^Sv» <rJU* (bi-kalamiht, bi-$au* 
tihi) to lower one's voice IV to silence, 
reduce to silence (o s.o.) VIII = I 

C-^jU- kufut fading (radio) 

cJU- kafit dying away, dying down, 
becoming silent; inaudible; faint, dying, 
fading, trailing off (sound, voice); soft, 
subdued (light, color) 

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muktafit soft, low, subdued 

^ kafara u (kafr, SjU^ kifdra) to watch (*, a 
s.o., or over s.o., over, guard, 
protect (o s.o., a; — kafira a (kafar, 
•>U»- kafara) to be timid, shy, bashful 
II = 'I kafara V — I kafira 

jA+ kafr watching, watch, guard(ing) 

jAi~ kafar guard detachment, guard; 
escort | J^-J^J! y^~ coast guard (Eg.) 

y*~ kafar timidity, shyness, bashful- 
ness, diffidence 

jA>- kafir bashful, diffident, timid, shy, 
embarrassed, coy 

j\4». kafir pi. »^i>- kufard' 2 watchman ; 
protector, guardian; guard, sentry, senti- 

\}Ia>~ kifdra watch(ing), guard(ing), 
protection; guard duty 

jiji- makfar pi. j$\}t makdfir 2 guard- 
house, guardroom; guard, control post j 
-Usyill ja£- m. as-Surta police station 

IjiU- kafira: J»-^Ji S^iU. 
coastguard cruiser {Eg,) 

jjm£ makfur under escort, escorted; 
covered, sheltered, protected 

-uU* kafasa u (kafs) to ridicule, scorn (» 
s.o.), laugh, mock (o at); to destroy, 
demolish, tear down (a a house) 

ii>. kafal day blindness, hemeralopia 

J^a>-\ ah fas 2 , f, »ULjU. kafSa' 2 , pi. <Jji*- 
kufs day blind, hemeralopic; weak- 
sighted, afflicted with defective vision 

Jila*- kuffas pi. J^s\Ji>- kafdfls 2 bat 

kafada i (kafd) to make lower (* ; 
to lower, decrease, reduce, lessen, di- 
minish (a; to lower, drop (a, j^, also, e.g., the voice); (gram.) to 

pronounce the final consonant of a woid 
with i; to put (a a word) in the genitive! 
J ^t^-^Ai^ (jandhahii) to unbend toward 
s.o,, show o.s. open-minded, responsive, 
accessible to; — kafuda u to be carefree, 
easy, comfortable (life) ; to sink, dip, drop, 
settle, subside ; to become low, drop to an 
undertone (voice) II to lower, decrease, 
reduce (a, price); to diminish, lessen 
(a ; to dim (a the light) ; to devaluate 
(a, e.g., jVj-Ol l*J qlmut ad-doldr the 
dollar) | cIUp jiU kaffid f alaika take 
it easy! dUL- dlJU- (J ^Li>- (ja'Saka) cool 
off! calm down! relax! ^p^JI jfo 
(sur'a) to reduce one's speed, slow down; 
4jj*> ,jaa»- (sautahu) he lowered his voice 
V to be lowered, reduced (price) VII to be 
inclined, lowered (to the ground, e.g., 
heads); to sink, dip, drop, settle, sub- 
side; to be lowered, be reduced (price); 
to decrease, grow less; to be diminished 

Ju^- kafd lowering, lessening, decrease, 
diminution, reduction; subduing, lower- 
ing, muffling (of the voice) ; curtailment, 
limitation, restriction; ease (of life); 
(gram.) pronunciation of the final con- 
sonant with i | 4*JUI ^aa^- k. al-qlma 
devaluation (of a currency) ; jiuJI u aIi^ 
k. al-'ais carefree, easy life ; ^Jui*- j jA 
t/**^ j- he lives in ease and comfort; 
Oj*JI ijaa*- k. as-saut lowering of the 
voice; Lr k&\ J»^>- harf al-k. preposition 

ij&tM- kafld low, soft, subdued (voice) 

L) JtJi^- takfid lowering, cutback, re- 
duction (esp. of prices); diminution, 
decrease, lessening, curtailment, restric- 
tion, limitation | <uJSJl ^^^ t. al-qlma 

u^ L 

alik\ inkifdd sinking, dropping, 
subsidence; lowering, reduction; lessen- 
ing, decrease, diminution, decrement; 
dropping of the water level, low water | 
tSyr u J>\j^\ (jawwi) low (meteor.) 

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^aa*- mukaffad lowered, reduced, low, 
moderate (price, rate); lower 

l jAa^j* munkafid low (altitude, fre- 
quency, price, etc.); soft, low, subdued, 
muffled (voice) | iyiAijll ^IjVl the 
Netherlands; — munkafad pi. -at low 
ground; depression {geogr.) \ ^j*- ^aaS*^ 
(jawwl) low, low-pressure area {meteor.) 

JjU- kafaqa i u {kafq, OUi^- kafaqdn, 3y+ 
kufuq) to vibrate; to tremble, shake; 
to beat, throb, palpitate (heart); to 
nutter, wave, stream (flag); to flap the 
wings, flutter (bird) ; to waver, flicker ; — 
{kafq) to flash (lightning); to beat, whip 
(a; eggs, cream, etc.); to make the 
sound of footsteps (shoe) ; — {3y&- kufuq) 
to drop one's head drowsily, nod off, doze 
off (^4i>- £JL>- k. kafqatan); — i (i3ji>- 
kufuq) to set, go down (celestial body) 
II to roughcast, plaster, stucco (a a wall) 
IV to flap the wings, flutter (bird) ; to set, 
go down (celestial body); to be unsuc- 
cessful, go wrong, fail, miscarry, come to 
nothing, be abortive; to fail, be un- 
successful ( j in 

ji>- kafq throb(bing) palpitation ; beat- 
ing, beat; footfall, footstep, tread (of a 
boot, of the foot) 

Xkt^- kafqa pi. kafaqdt (n. vie.) beat, 
throb; tap, rap, knock; ticking noise, 
tick | t_JJaJ1 oUi>- k. cU-qcUb heartbeats 

jUi>- kafaqdn palpitation of the heart, 
heartbeat; throb(bing), beat(ing); flut- 
tering, flutter 

JSlL^ kaffaq palpitant, throbbing (heart) ; 
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag) 

O «ju£ mikfaqa whisk, eggbeater 

JU>-1 ikfdq failure, fizzle, flop, fiasco 

J5U kdfiq palpitant, throbbing (heart) ; 
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag); 
uUsU-'l al-kdfiqdn East and West; jijjA-'l 
al-kawdjiq the cardinal points, the four 

quarters of the world; i^LiiU-1 flags, ban- 

JsU- kdjlql mortar, plaster, rough- 
cast; stucco 

oU>- see <Ja>~ 

J>- kafiya a to be hidden, be concealed; to 
be unknown (a fact; Jp to s.o.); to 
disappear, hide | 61 J^ ^ it is well 
known that , . . ; as everybody knows . . ., 
it is obvious that . . . ; i£JUp J^ ^ you 
know very well . . ., you are well aware 
(of it); — kafd i to hide, conceal (a; 
to keep secret (a,) IV to hide, conceal 
(a; to afford (* s.o.) a place to hide, 
shelter, hide (* s.o.); to keep secret (a; to disguise, conceal (a, J* 
or ^ from s.o.) | C^JI Jrf.1 to lower the 
voice, speak in an undertone V to hide, 
keep o.s. out of view; to disguise o.s. 
VIII to hide, keep o.s. out of view; to dis- 
appear, vanish; to be hidden, be un- 
known; to be lacking, be' missing, be 
absent | jliiiVl ^ Ji^l to be hidden or 
disappear from sight X to hide, keep o.s. 
out of view; to be hidden, be concealed; 
to be hidden from s.o.'s (^) view, become 
invisible (jc to s.o.), disappear from 

J^- kafly hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible; mysterious | 
^Vl J>- k. al-ism anonymous; O j^ 
4^ {anwar) indirect lighting; tJa!- aT)~S 
~-Vl (iirka) joint-stock company (Tun.; 
= Ft. socUte anonyme) 

IJ^~ kufya, kifya secrecy ; — kufyatan, 
kifyatan secretly, clandestinely, covertly | 
<u* U^- without his knowledge; a-jU- j 
secretly, without anyone's noticing 

*~&- kafiya pi. UU^ kafayd a secret, a 
secret affair 

Aa>- kafa secrecy, hiddenness | »LU-*I j 
secretly, clandestinely, covertly; »U^ V 

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ol J (kafd'a) it is quite evident, it is 
quite obvious that . . . 

#U>-I ikfa' hiding, secretion; conceal- 
ment ; lowering of the voice 

kJa-£ takaffin disguise 

*\Jg*-\ iktifd" disappearance 

JsU- kdfin hidden, concealed; secret, 
unknown; unseen, invisible 

5JU- kdfiya pi. C>]y- kawdfin a secret; 
— pi. (J|^I-*I al-kawdfl the coverts, the 
secondaries (of a bird's wing) 

^ makfly hidden, concealed 

^JLi^A mutakaffln disguised, in disguise 

.Jt^t muktafin hidden, concealed, clan- 
destine, covert, secret; disappearing, 

J^ muktafan hiding place, hide-out 

OUU- look up alphabetically 

J^ kalla u {kail) to pierce, transfix (a 
II to turn sour; to make sour, to sour, 
acidify (a; to pickle, marinate (a; to salt, cure with salt or in brine 
(a; to pick (a the teeth); to run the 
fingers (a through, part, comb 
(a the hair, the beard, also with the 
fingers) III to treat (* s.o.) as a friend 
IV to offend (<_j against), infringe, trans- 
gress (v->; to violate, break (^, e.g., a rule, a custom); to fail to 
fulfill, fail to meet («_-> an agreement) ; 
to forsake, desert, abandon (<_; s.o.,; to disturb, upset, harm, prejudice 
(t_j V to pass through (a; 
to be, lie or come between (a; 
also in time), intervene (a between); 
to be located or situated, be interposed, 
be placed (a between) ; to permeate, per- 
vade, interpenetrate (a, mix, 
mingle, blend (a with); to be in (e.g., of 
an opening, a hole, a in a wall) ; to be part 
of (a, happen, take place (of events, 

a in an episode, a period of time) VIII to 
be or become defective; to be in dis- 
order, be faulty, deficient, imperfect; to 
become disordered; to be upset, Ije 
unbalanced; to be disturbed (order, 
system) | ^jj^\ tlJb^-l the conditions 
are not fulfilled; *jjJ>j J=>-l (tawdzunukfy 
to lose one's balance, become unbalanced; 
<JUa JxaM ( r aqluku) to be mentally deranged 

J>- kail vinegar 

liJUU- look up alphabetically 

J^- kill, kull pi. J*>U-I akldl friend, 
bosom friend 


JJU kalal pi. J^U- kildl gap, interval, 
interstice; cleft, crack, rupture, fissure; 
a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance; 
defectiveness, imperfection; fault, flaw, 
defect, shortcoming; disturbance, upset, 
disorder; damage, injury, harm (that suffers or suffered); J">U- kildla 
during ; between ; through | Ji^ j ft kalali 
and <J">U- j fi kildli during; in the 
course of, within, in a given period of; 
iili <JtA>- j meanwhile, in the meantime; 
J")U- ^ min kildli across, through, right 
through the middle of; out of, from 
within; (to judge, reason, draw conclu- 
sions, etc.) by, on the basis of, on the 
strength of, (to recognize) from; by 
means of 

^U- kalla need, want, lack; — (pi. 
Jt>U- kildl) property, attribute, pecu- 
liarity; characteristic; natural disposition 

iU- kulla pi. JJU- kulal friendship 

J^U- kildl pi. <U-I akilla boring or 
drilling implement; peg, pin; spit, 
skewer; (also *J:A>-, pi. -at) toothpick; 
see also JU- kalal 

J~L>- kalil pi. »^U-i akilla' 2 , j"^- kulldn 
friend, bosom friend; lover; JJU-*I Hebron 
(town in Jordanian Palestine) [ Zi\ JJU- 
epithet of Abraham 

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iLU- kalila pi. -at girl friend, woman 
friend; sweetheart, paramour 

ijji^- 1 A umm al-hvlul river mussel (zool.) 

J^U-1 iklal pi. -at breach, infraction, 
violation (of a law, of a treaty, and the 
like); offense (against), transgression, 
infringement (of); disturbance (of an 
order, of a system) ; impairment, injury, 
harm (to); average, damage by sea | 
v-» J^VI p-U- « {'adami l-i.) without 
prejudice to, without detriment to 

Jt>ta>-1 iktildl deficiency, defectiveness, 
imperfection; (a falling into) disrepair, 
deterioration; faultiness; disturbance (of 
a system, of a function, of the equilibrium, 
etc.) ; disorder, confusion | O V^ ' ibk>-l i. 
al-aniya personality disturbance (psych.) 

JJLst mukallal pickled; salted; (pi. -at) 
pickles, pickled vegetables 

Jk mukill disgraceful, shameful | 
^IjsVb Jk immoral, indecent, improper 

Jrf muktalt defective; deficient; im- 
perfect; disturbed 

uJU- kalaba i u (kalb) to seize with the 
claws, clutch (a, pounce (a on); — u 
(<j^U- kildba) to cajole, coax, wheedle 
(* s.o.); to inveigle, beguile, bewitch, 
enchant (a s.o., ^Iap "aqlahu s.o.'s mind); 
to charm, fascinate, captivate (& s.o.) Ill to 
cajole, wheedle, coax, inveigle, beguile, 
bewitch, enchant (o s.o.) VIII to seize 
with the claws, clutch (a, pounce (a 
on); to cajole, inveigle, beguile, bewitch, 
enchant (» s.o,); to captivate (a glance) 

c-i>- kilb pi. <_j*iU-l akldb fingernail, 
claw, talon 

^-i*- 3j barqun kulldbun and barqu 
kullabin lightning without a downpour; 
a disappointing, disillusioning matter; an 
unkept promise; letdown; w-i>- and c-~U- 
6j & do. 

J*~ kullabi: ^i>- dl±i (fasak) blank 
cartridges {Syr.; mil.) 

i-j^>- kalldb gripping, captivating, 
fascinating; attractive, engaging, win- 
ning; tempting, enticing; fraudulent, 
deceitful; deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

4jt>U- kildba engaging manners, at- 
tractiveness, charm 

^Jk miklab pi. ^J\k makdlib 2 claw, 
talon | *_JJ£ ^Iji soil-sampling arm; grip- 
ping device (techn.) 

*_JU- kdlib = *_j^U kalldb 

(jrfaJL^ II takalbasa (eg.) to clown 

u^j^- kalbus pi. ^^^W- kaldbis 2 , i^^U- 
kaldbisa (eg.) clown, buffoon, harlequin 

gU- kalaja i and III to be on s.o.'s (t>) mind, 
trouble, preoccupy, prepossess (« s.o., 
s.o.'s mind; said of worries, doubts, etc.); 
to pervade, fill ( fl s.o.; said of a feeling) | 
^ Q** (qalbahu) to be uppermost in 
s.o.'s heart V to be shaken, be convulsed, 
be rocked VIII to quiver, tremble, quake, 
shake; to twitch (eye, limb, body); 
to animate, move, stir, inspire, fill, 
pervade, possess (a, j the heart; said 
of a feeling) | l> ^Jb^l (gamman) to be 
filled with sorrow, with grief (heart) 

4>Jj^ kalja pi. kalajdt emotion, senti- 
ment; scruple, qualm, misgiving 

^JLi kalij pi. £.U- kuluj, jl>*l>- kuljdn 
bay, gulf; canal; ^XL'I name of Cairo's 
ancient city canal which was abandoned 
and leveled at the end of the 19th 
century; also — J^i ^JLCl | j^i -JLL'i 
the Arabian Gulf, = ^jUJI ^j£l the 
Persian Gulf; SJUI ^JU- k. al-'aqaba the 
Gulf of 'Aqaba; Lr iJ^J\ ^^J- k. assumes 
the Gulf of Suez 

£&>- kildj misgiving, doubt, scruple, 

i>-}fc^-l iktildja (n. vie.) convulsion, jerk, 
twitch; tremor 

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4^-U- kalija pi. jU^ kawalif emotion, 
sentiment; scruple, qualm; idea 

JiJU- kalkala to shake, convulse, rock (a; to rarefy (a, e.g., air; chem.- 
phys.) II takalkala to be shaken, be 
rocked; to come off, become disjointed, 
become detached; to become loose, work 
loose; to be or become rarefied (chem.- 

JiJU- Jcalkal pi. J^-^U Jcaldkil 2 anklet 

JUJU- Jcalkal pi. J^^U- haldkil 2 anklet 

JiJ^ takalkul rarefication 

JiJUt mukalkal and J^JU^u mutakalkil 

oJU- kalada u {*ji^~ kulud) to remain or last 
forever, be everlasting; to be immortal, 
deathless, undying; to abide forever {Jf 
or c_j in, with); to remain, stay (Jl or u-> 
or j at a place) | *^\J\ Jl AiU to rest, 
betake oneself to one's nightly rest; 
>jjl Jt ,U>- (naum) to lie down to sleep 
II to make eternal or everlasting, per- 
petuate, eternalize (a, make im- 
mortal, immortalize (e s.o.); to make in- 
effaceable, unforgettable (a; a 
memory); to remain, stay, abide, linger 
(lj at, in a place); to grow very old, enjoy 
a long life, be long-lived IV to eternize, 
immortalize, make immortal (a s.o., a; to perpetuate (a; to remain, 
stay, abide, linger ( J I or *_-> at, in a place) ; 
to dwell (Jl on an idea, an image); to be 
disposed, incline, lean, tend (Jl to) | jJL^-I 
1*.\J\ Jl = "^\J\ Jl aU V to become 
eternal or immortal, perpetuate o.s.; to 
be or become long, lasting, perpetual 
Jii*- kuld infinite duration, endless time, 

perpetuity, eternity | .aUM jla Paradise, 

the hereafter 
jlJU- kuld mole (zool.) 

-d>- kalad, pi. a^U-l akldd mind, heart, 
spirit, temper 

^JU- kulud infinite duration, endless 
time, perpetuity, eternity; eternal life, 
immortality; abiding, remaining, staying 

jJlj£ taklid perpetuation, eternization, 
immortalization | •l J TJj I-lU: (li-dikrahu) 
for preserving the memory of him, in 
memoriam . . . 

jJU. kalid everlasting, perpetual, eter- 
nal; immortal, deathless, undying; un- 
forgettable, glorious; pi. Jdl^ kawalid* 
mountains j oluJLLM J\£-\ the Canary 

olit muklid disposed, inclined, tend- 
ing ( Jl to) 

^Jj- kalasa i (kals) to steal (a; to 
pilfer, filch, swipe, purloin (a 
Ill J&M <uJU- (nazara) to glance furtively 
at s.o. VIII to steal, pilfer, filch, swipe 
(a; to get under false pretenses or 
by crooked means (a ; to embezzle, 
misappropriate (a; to spend secret- 
ly (a hours) | Jf JaX-\ u ~kj-\ (kutd) to 
sneak up on s.o.; (J) Jl ^kJt ^Jb*-! to 
glance furtively at s.o. 

i-JU- kulsatan and 4-JU- j by stealth, 
stealthily, surreptitiously, furtively; un- 
obtrusively, unnoticeably 

^^U- kildsl mulatto, bastard 

jrf^tf-l iktilds pi. -at embezzlement, 
misappropriation, defalcation 

^Jbit muktalis embezzler, defalcator 

Lr Sz£ muktalas fleeting, furtive (e.g., 

U A^ kalasa u i^^- kulus) to be pure, un- 
mixed, unadulterated; to be clear, un- 
equivocal (goal, a chosen course, an idea) ; 
to belong (J to s.o.); to finally arrive at, 
come to ( Jl, e.g., a result, conclusions, 
etc.); — dj-**^- kalas) to be or become 
free, be freed, be liberated (^ from), be 

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cleared, get rid (j- of); to be saved, bo 
rescued, escape (j* from) ; to be redeemed, 
be delivered, attain salvation (Chr.); — 
{colloq.) to be finished, be done, be 
through, be over; to be all gone II to 
clear, purify, refine, purge, rectify (a; to clarify (a a situation); to 
liberate, free, save, rescue (o s.o., j^ 
from), rid (♦ s.o., ,> of); to redeem, 
deliver (Chr.); to prepay the postage (Jp 
on); to pay duty («jl., < Jp on merchan- 
dise); to clear (Jp goods), make clear for 
dispatch (Jp luggage); to settle {a a bill); 
(colloq.) to finish (a | <u*- Lr dJU (hag* 
qahu) to restore one's right, secure one's 
due III to act with integrity, with 
sincerity (& toward s.o.), treat (a s.o.) fair 
and square; to get even, become quits 
(» with s.o.) IV to dedicate (a J to s.o.; to be loyal (J to s.o.); to be 
devoted, be faithful (J to) | «-J-l «d ,^-1 
{kvbba) to love s.o. dearly; oj Z& ,j*&-\ 
(li-llahi dinahu) to worship God faith- 
fully and sincerely V to rid o.s. (,y of), 
free o.s. (^ from), get rid (,y of); to be 
freed, be delivered, be saved, be rescued, 
escape (^ from) VI to act with reciprocal 
integrity and sincerity; to be quits, be 
even X to extract (a, ^ from); to 
copy, excerpt (a, <> from); to 
abstract, take, gather, work out (a, 
as the quintessence, ^ of); to deduce, 
infer, derive (a, ^> from); to dis- 
cover, make out, find out (a; to 
select, choose (a; to claim totally, 
demand, want wholly or entirely for 
oneself (a, » s.o., also with *-JLJ); 
to demand payment of a sum (a) and get 
it (a» from s.o.) | Ujjj {J *k^\ (duruscm) 
to learn a lesson, draw conclusions (j- 
from; j* S-tfli ( __ r aJUcL-l to derive 
benefit from, profit, benefit from; ^\j-^^\ 
Iapj 4X* (wcfdan) to exact a promise from 

^■^U- kalds liberation, deliverance 

riddance; rescue, salvation (j* from); 
redemption {Chr.}; payment, settlement, 
liquidation (of a bill); receipt; placenta, 

I^tA*- kulasa pi. -at excerpt; extract, 
essence; quintessence, substance, gist 
(of; abstract, resume, summary, 
epitome; synopsis | aJL^ Iw»">U- (nihalya) 
summation (jw.)j lJj»^\ !L^U-'I (al- 
lahutiya) the "gumma theologica" (of 
Thomas Aquinas); ^J^- "<^>^- (itrlya) 
perfume essence; <u»^\£[j in short, briefly, 
in a word (introducing a summary of the 
basic ideas) 

^j^Jj- kails pi. *Uai^- kulasa' 2 pure, 
clear, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, 
faithful, loyal; loyal adherent 

^J*- kulus clearness, purity; sincerity, 
candor, frankness 

^"^U- kallas (magr.) tax collector 

a& maklas safe place; refuge, 
escape, rescue, salvation, deliverance 

^^aJLsi taklls clearing, purification, 
refining, rectification; clarification; lib- 
eration, extrication, deliverance, rescue, 
salvation; payment, settlement, liqui- 
dation; prepayment of postage (Jp on); 
customs clearance, payment of duty 
(*jUiJI Jp on merchandise; also ^y*^- 


^aJlii mukalasa pi. -at receipt 

^•^U-l iklds sincere devotion, loyal 
attachment, sincere affection; sincerity, 
frankness, candor; loyalty, faithfulness, 
fidelity, allegiance (J to); purity and in- 
nocence (of a love, of a kiss) 

u d£ takallus freedom, liberation, re- 
lease, extrication, escape (j* from) 

^^Ua-I istiklas extraction; excerp- 
tion ; short digest, summary, summing-up 
of the main contents; derivation, deduc- 

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u -2 ^- 


tion; selection; collecting (of a sum of 

^^oJU- kalis pi. ^^J- kullas clear; pure, 
unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank, 
candid, true; free, exempt (j* from) | 
e^r*ifl ,jd\*- k. al-ujra post-free; ij\ ^^aJU- 
k. ar-radd prepaid, reply paid for (tele- 
gram) ;i\jft\ £* ^aJI*- (gumrug) dutyfree; 
\ljJ&\ o^^ tax-exempt 

^y^- mukallis liberator; Savior, Re- 
deemer (Chr.) 

(4JU) A^ mukallas ( f alaihi) postage 

^A^- muklis devoted; sincere, frank, 
candid; loyal; faithful (J to s.o., to; purehearted, virtuous, righteous; 
(j^iiii {in letters) approx. : yours truly . . ., 
sincerely yours . . .; O^aJUJJ sincere, up- 
right people 

jj^iiJL** mustaklas pi. -at extract, ex- 

JzJU- kalata i {kalt) to mix, mingle, com- 
mingle, blend (y a with) ; to confuse, 

confound, mix up («>j two things; j ^j with), mistake {j — ^u for) | 
*u*^T j JaJU- (kalamihi) to talk con- 
fusedly; oj&L& tAs. Jai*. (tafkirahu) to 
confuse s.o.'s thinking II to mix, mingle, 
commingle, blend (a; to cause 
confusion III to mix, mingle, blend, 
merge, fuse (a with; to meddle 
(a in), interfere (a with); to mingle (*a 
with or among a crowd, with a group 
of people); to associate Ua with people), 
have to do (^a with others) | <u-x» JaJU- 
(nafsahu) to befall, attack s.o. (pain, 
etc.); <di^ (_$ JaJ^ kulita fl 'aqlihl to be or 
become disordered in mind VIII to be 
mixed, mix, mingle, form a mixture or 
blend; to consist of a heterogeneous 
mixture, be motley, promiscuous; to 
associate, be on intimate terms (^ with); 
to be or become confused, get all mixed up 

JaJU- kalt mixing, blending ; combination; 
mingling, commingling (uj with); con- 
fusing, confounding, mistaking, mix-up, 

JaJU. kilt pi. J»*>U-1 akldt component of 
a mixture; ingredient; pi. mixture, 
blend | uLJ'yi i»">U-! the four humors of 
the human body (blood, phlegm, yellow 
bile, and black bile); ^U! ^ ,W>-I 
common people, populace, rabble, riff- 
raff, mob; JaL JJU- kilt milt, kalt malt 
motley, pell-mell, promiscuously 

aUJU kalta pi. kalatdt mixture, blend, 

&!>- kulta company; mixture 

-Ut>U- kalldt and 4k*>U kalldta pi. -at 
mixer, mixing machine ; mortar box 

JaJU kalit mixed, blended; motley, 
heterogeneous, promiscuous; mixture, 
blend (j* of); medley, hodgepodge; (pi. 
*UaU- kutata 2 ) associate, companion, 

iaJLjc taklit pi. -at insanity; delirium 

ilaJLJi mukalata company, intercourse, 

JotesM iktilat (process of) mixing, 
blending; mingling, commingling; mix- 
ture, confused muddle; confusion; mental 
disorder; (social) intercourse, association, 
dealings (c-* with) 

J^JUi maklut pi. JaJlst makalit 2 mixture, 
blend; alloy 

JJ':£ mukallat confused, disordered 

JaJlJt mukalat stricken, afflicted (c-> e.g., 
by a disease) 

]*&£■ muktalit mixed | SiaJb;^! Tl^t the 
mixed courts, see iiC^; JaUit JLu coed- 

A>- kala r a a (kaV) to take off, put off, slip 
off (a a garment) ; to doff, take off {^y^ 

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one's tarboosh); to extract, pull (a a 
tooth); to tear out, rip out; to pull away 
(a; to wrench, dislocate, luxate (a 
a joint); to depose, remove, dismiss, dis- 
charge (a s.o., j- from an office); to 
renounce, forgo, give up (a, with- 
draw (a from) ; to throw off, east off (yl \c 
'iddrahu one's restraint, one's inhibi- 
tions); to refuse (ipLkll obedience); to 
disown, repudiate (<cj! one's son); to 
divorce (La one's wife) in return for a 
compensation to be paid by her; to get 
through, have done (a with, be 
through, have gone through (a, 
e.g., a hard day); to impart (Jp a 
to); to confer, bestow (Jp a upon 
s.o.), grant, award (Jp a to s.o.) | 
<uLj «JU (tiydbahu) to undress; j* <ul^ 
J^y^ ( r ars) to dethrone s.o.; 4*i»- <JLp *Li 
(kiV atari) to bestow a robe of honor upon 
s.o. ; Jp- <wiJ Jp *JU- (haqqa) to arrogate to 
o.s. the right of...; — kalu'a u (SuoU- 
kaWa) to be dissolute, morally depraved 

II to take away, remove, displace, dis- 
locate (a; to knock out of joint, 
take or break apart (a; pass. 
kullVa to fall to pieces, get out of joint 

III to divorce (La one's wife, in return for 
a compensation to be paid by her) V to 
go to pieces, fall apart, break; to become 
or be luxated, dislocated (joint); to take 
a vacation in the country {tun.) | j «liifi 
^l^Jjl (sarab) to be addicted to drinking, 
drink heavily VII to be torn out, be ripped 
out or pulled away; to become or be 
luxated (joint, limb); to be displaced, be 
dislocated, be removed; to be divested, 
be deprived, be stripped (j* of, 
forfeit, lose {,y | <dU J&l {qalbulm) 
he was completely taken aback, he was 
alarmed, startled 

*JU- kaV slipping off, taking off (of 
clothes); deposition (e.g., of a ruler); 
dislocation, luxation | uL-Vl ^- ex- 
traction of teeth 

«!*- kuV khula, divorce at the instance 
of the wife, who must pay a compensa- 
tion (IsL Law) 

i*JU- kiVa pi. *JU- Jcila' robe of honor 

«JU- kali' pi. *UJU- kula r a 2 deposed, 
dismissed, discharged (from an office); 
repudiated, disowned; wanton, dissolute, 
dissipated, profligate, morally depraved 

£>U- kalld* wild, unruly, wanton, 
shameless, impudent 

4p"}U- kald'a dissoluteness, dissipation, 
profligacy, wantonness, licentiousness, 
moral depravity; {tun.) recreation in the 
country, summer vacation 

J^ kaula* fool, dolt, simpleton 

«JU- kali'; jl-UJI *JU- k. aVidar un- 
restrained, uninhibited, wanton; liber- 
tine, debauchee, roue, rake 

pjiji maklu r unrestrained, uninhibited, 
wanton; wild, unruly; reckless, heedless, 
irresponsible; crazy, mad 

<jA+ kalafa u to be the successor (* of s.o.), 
succeed (o s.o.); to follow {* s.o.), come 
after s.o. (*); to take the place of s.o. 
(*), substitute (o for s.o.); to replace (« 
s.o., a; to lag behind s.o. (jt); to 
stay behind (jp after s.o.'s departure); 
to be detained, be held back, be kept 
away, stay away (jp from) II to appoint 
as successor (o s.o.); to leave behind, 
leave (a, « s.o.,; to have descend- 
ants, have offspring j o»\jj «uJU- to leave behind III to be contradictory, con- 
trary, opposed (a to); to conflict, clash, 
be at variance (a with); to contradict 
(a s.o., a; to be different, differ, di- 
verge (a from), be inconsistent, incom- 
patible, not in keeping, not harmonizing 
(a with); to distinguish between, not con- 
fuse (Cri two things); to offend (a against 
a command, a rule), break, violate, dis- 
obey (a a command, a rule) IV to leave 

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(6 offspring, children); to compensate, 
requite, recompense ( J* s.o. ; said of God) ; 
to break, fail to keep (<>A*j vxi'dahu 
one's promise), go back on one's word; 
to disappoint ('U-Jl ar-raja'a the hopes) 
V io stay behind; to lag or fall behind 
fae); to stay, stay on, remain; to fail 
to appear or show up; to play truant; 
to be absent; to stay away (^ from), 
not go (j* to), not attend (<j* | 
» jJJ ^ «JlLJ£ (map) to fail to come 
or arrive; *^*Jl ^ iJuli 1 ( f auda) not 
to return VI to disagree, diifer, be at 
variance; to differ in opinion, be of a 
different mind VIII to differ, be dif- 
ferent, vary (^ from); to be varied, 
varying, variable, various, diverse, dis- 
similar; to vary (j^i between); to be 
controversial, disputed, debated <(*~t^ 
among people; judgment, value, inter- 
pretation); to differ in opinion, be at 
variance, argue, quarrel, dispute (j 
about), disagree ( j ^» with s.o. or 
in certain matters); to come or go fre- 
quently (Jl to), frequent, patronize (Jl a 
place), visit frequently (Jl s.o.,, 
come and go (Jf at); to pass over s.o. 
(*JU) successively or by turns (of the 
stages of one's life, events, etc.) ; to come, 
descend (Jp upon s.o. ; said of afflictions), 
befall, overtake (J* s.o.) | Js*>Ii>-Lj ^jJ^-t 
(with genit.) to be different, differ ac- 
cording to the kind of ... X to appoint 
as successor or vicar (* s.o.) 

«JiL>- half back, rear, rear part or 
portion; successors; kalfu and iJtU- ,y 
min kalfu (adv.) at the back, in the 
rear; half a (prep.) behind, after, in the 
rear of | 1$aU- ^Sj^r he ran after her; ,j* 
<JiJU- min kalfi behind, in the rear of; ,y 
^JtUM from behind, from the rear; OiU-'l J I 
to the rear, backward, back; ^tJI iJJU- Jl 
in the wake of; <Jai£M j in the rear; 
at the back, in the background; ja «JiJUJJ 
(dur) about face! (command; mil.) 

^U- kalfi rear, hind, hinder, back; per- 
taining to background; cryptic, enig- 
matic, recondite 

XJL^ kalfiya background (of a picture 
and fig.); cryptic or recondite nature or 
character (of 

JAj- Tcilf pi. J»*>U-l aklaf teat, nipple, 

.jJU- kulf dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference, contrast, variance, discrepancy 

»Ji!>. kalaf pi. Jst>Ui aklaf substitute; 
successor; descendant, offspring, scion 

UJU- kilfa dissimilarity, disparity, dif- 
ference ; that which follows and 
replaces it (e.g., second growth of plants, 
day and night, etc.) 

XLU- kalifa pi. fUJU- kulafa' 2 , <Ju^U- 
kald'if 2 vicar, deputy; successor; caliph; 
(formerly) senior official of the native 
administration in Tunis, assigned to a 
Ju\j; (formerly) title of the ruler of 
Spanish Morocco 

ijJLU! AikJ.1 al-mintaqa al-kalifiya 
the Caliphate Zone (formerly, designation 
of Spanish Morocco) 

4i^U- kilafa vicarship, deputyship; 
succession; caliphate, office or rule of 
a caliph; (formerly) administrative de- 
partment of a 4jLU- (Tun.), see above 

Js:>\i£ miklaf pi. ^Jl£ makdlif 2 
province (Yemen) 

Js^U- kildf pi, -at difference, disparity, 
dissimilarity; divergence, deviation; con- 
trast, contrariety, incongruity, contra- 
diction, conflict; disagreement, difference 
of opinion (Jp